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Their  Founders,  Benefactors,  Faculties,  Officers,  Hospitals,  Alumni,  Etc., 

with  a  Record  of  Achievement  of  Its  Representatives 

in  the  "World  of  Medicine 





Dea.n  of  the  Fa.culty  Ne-w  York  Homoeopathic  Medical  College  and  Hospital 



Copyright,   1905 


New  York        ::        Chicago 


and  the 

This   Work  Is  Dedicated 

No  mere  Words  can  Adequately  Express  the  Affection 
and  Loyalty  nvhich  e'very  True  Homoeopathist  must  feel 
for  Hahnemann  and  His  Co-ivorkers.  If  these  Volumes 
of  the  History  of  Homoeopathy  and  its  Institutions  in 
America  in  the  Least  Degree  do  Honor  to  Our  Master, 
then   They  have  not  been  Written  in  Vain 


The  homceopathic  school  of  medicine  was  founded  in  Germany,  but 
its  growth  has  been  most  noteworthy  in  America.  This  has  been  due  not 
to  greater  abihty  on  the  part  of  Hahnemann's  followers  in  this  country, 
nor  to  greater  loyalty  and  enthusiasm  among  the  adherents  of  homoe- 
opathy here,  but  to  liberal  laws  which  have  enabled  the  physicians  of  this 
school  to  establish  colleges  where  the  law  of  similia  s-irnilibus  curantur 
could  be  properly  taught,  and  physicians  graduated  who  had  not  been 
prejudiced  against  it  by  contact  with  the  allopathic  profession,  whose  chief 
aim  was  to  imbue  the  mind  of  the  students  with  a  belief  in  its  supposed 
fallacies.  The  same  spirit  of  liberality  that  encouraged  the  building  of 
colleges  also  opened  the  way  for  the  founding  of  hospitals  and  clinics, 
wherein  the  superiority  of  the  homoeopathic  treatment  has  been  established. 
To  record  the  growth  of  these  institutions  in  America  and  the  labors  of 
the  men  who  established  them  under  trying  circumstances,  often  fighting 
their  way  through  storms  of  opposition,  rising  above  all  difficulties,  is  the 
province  of  this  work. 

Thirty  years  ago  Dr.  Carroll  Dunham  undertook  the  preparation  of 
a  history  of  homoeopathy,  but  ill  health  and  an  untimely  death  prevented 
its  completion  by  his  hand,  and  others  took  up  the  task  he  was  obliged  to 
relinquish.  This  history  appeared  in  a  supplemental  volume  of  the  tran- 
sactions of  the  World's  Homoeopathic  Convention  held  in  Philadelphia 
during  the  centennial  of  1876.  The  substantial  growth  of  homoeopathy  in 
America  has  been  since  that  time.  Then  scarcely  a  homoeopathic  college 
owned  any  property,  and  there  Avere  few  well-equipped  homoeopathic  hos- 
pitals in  the  land.  To  be  sure,  some  vigorous  homceopathic  societies  ex- 
isted, and  it  is  to  their  vigor  and  activity  that  we  owe  the  chief  part  of 
our  advancement.  These  societies  have  been  the  organized  force  of  the 
school.  They  have  furnished  it  with  inspiration  and  have,  at  the  same 
time,  been  its  critics.  They  have  acted  as  censors  on  colleges  and  facul- 
ties, and  m  many  ways  have  been  the  parent  of  the  vigorous  homoeopathy 
of  to-day.  We  owe  much  tO'  those  men  who,  early  foreseeing  the  difficul- 
ties which  were  to  beset  the  establishment  of  a  new  school  of  medicine, 


and  recognizing  the  necessity  of  an  organized  force,  were  moved  to  estab- 
lish the  first  national  medical  society  in  the  United  States,  the  American 
institute  of  Homoeopathy. 

Like  tribute  may  be  paid  to  the  genius  of  those  who  organized  the 
state  societies,  which  in  time  came  to  exercise  a  strong  influence  over 
state  legislatures,  as  it  is  these  bodies  which  govern  medical  practice  in 
this  country,  and  conserA'e  the  welfare  of  the  whole  school.  The  history 
of  medical  legislation  as  it  relates  to  our  school  to-day  is  interesting, 
showing  what  was  done  by  a  small  band  of  men  who  believed  in  their 
cause,  and  asked  for  nothing  but  justice  against  a  powerful  organization 
actuated  by  malice,  hatred,  and  ofttimes  by  superstition.  Were  it  not 
for  the  work  done  by  our  state  societies  most  of  the  institutions  that  we 
have  to-day  would  not  be  in  existence. 

Another  potent  force  in  the  building  up  of  the  homoeopathic  school 
of  medicine  has  been  its  literature  as  presented  in  its  journals  and  text 
books.  The  same  wisdom  that  foresaw  the  necessity  of  organization 
foresaw  the  necessity  of  an  individual  literature.  Homoeopathic  jour- 
nals were  early  established,  not  only  carrying  each  month  fresh  encour- 
agement to  the  physicians  of  the  school,  but  bringing  much  help  in  the 
way  of  new  provings.  thus  widening  their  therapeutic  field.  At  the 
same  time  these  journals  kept  abreast  of  the  best  there  was  in  the  whole 
domain  of  medicine  and  surgery.  Text  books  of  'homoeopathic  thera- 
peutics were  issued  by  the  score  within  a  comparatively  short  time  after 
the  establishment  of  the  school  in  America.  Thus  it  was  that  the  homoeo- 
pathic physician  became  independent  of  his  allopathic  rival  and  enemy, 
and  the  increasing  strength  of  his  school  g^ave  him  confidence  in  his 
system  and  confidence  in  himself. 

All  this,  however,  was  only  the  means  to  an  end.  The  real  strength 
of  the  entire  system  lay  in  the  superiority  of  the  homoeopathic  principle 
over  the  empiricism  of  the  then  dominant  school  of  practice.  But  no 
matter  how  great  an  advancement  our  system  may  ha^'e  been  over  that 
already  in  practice,  it  could  not  by  its  truth  alone  have  made  headway 
against  bigotry,  wdiich  is  sometimes  called  conservatism,  together  with 
an  animositv  which  is  not  scientific  and  which  in  this  case  reflects  no 
credit  on  the  self-styled  regular  school  of  medicine. 

It  was  no  easy  task  that  our  predecessors  set  for  themselves  in  es- 
tablishing a  new  school  of  medicine  under  these  conditions,  and  what 
we  are  to-day.  and  what  we  will  be  in  the  future,  we  owe  to  the  ability, 
energy  and  self-sacrificing  cliaracter  of  those  who  fought  the  battle  when 


it  was  raging  hottest  and  who  never  swerved  from  the  course  they  had 
laid  out  for  themselves.  It  is  to  preserve  the  work  of  these  men  that 
this  history  has  been  written. 

This  history  of  homoeopathy  takes  up  events  in  their  natural  se- 
quence. After  a  resume  of  Hahnemann's  life  and  the  events  attending 
the  founding  of  the  system  in  Europe,  it  brings  us  to  America  with  the 
landing  in  New  York  of  Hans  Burch  Gram  and  the  planting  of  homoe- 
opathy in  the  metropolis.  Of  much  greater  importance,  however,  was 
the  landing  of  Constantine  Hering  and  his  comrades,  and  the  opening 
of  the  Allentown  Academy,  afterwards  the  college  in  Philadelphia.  That 
was  really  the  nucleus  of  the  homceopathic  school  in  America.  From 
these  two  points  the  growth  of  homoeopathy  in  every  state,  city  and 
territory,  and  the  founding  of  societies,  colleges  and  hospitals  are  taken 
up  in  convenient  order. 

In  preparing  a  comprehensive  history  of  homoeopathy  and  its  insti- 
tutions, it  has  been  necessary  to  draw  information  from  many  and  varied 
sources.  The  names  of  the  collaborators  are  sufficient  to  guarantee  the 
sincerity  and  thoroughness  of  the  work.  They  are  not  only  the  repre- 
sentative men  and  women  of  the  school,  but  the  subjects  upon  which 
they  have  written  have  been  those  of  which  they  were  above  all  the  most 
competent  to  treat,  and  their  personal  sympathy  and  interest  has  given 
to  their  papers  a  value  which  could  not  attach  to  the  work  of  the  ordinary 
writer  of  historical  facts.  Each  contributor  has  done  his  work  cheer- 
fully, and  any  words  which  might  be  set  down  here,  no  matter  how 
fulsome  in  praise,  would  but  poorly  express  the  appreciation  which  the 
editor  and  publishers  feel  for  their  careful  and  faithful  assistance. 

The  great  aim  has  been  reliability,  and  no  pains  have  been  spared 
to  make  it  such  a  work  as  will  live  in  the  annals  of  true  historv. 


William  Harvey  King,  M.D.,  LL.D.      .     .  New  York  City 

Thomas  Lindsley  Bradford,  M.D.     .     .     .  Philadelphia,   Pennsylvania 

Willis  Alonzo  Dewey,  M.D Ann  Arbor,  Michigan 

Pemberton  Dudley,  M.D.,  LL.D.      .     .     .  Philadelphia,   Pennsylvania 

George  Theodore  Shower,  M.D.       .     .     .  Baltimore,  ^Maryland 

Daniel  A.  MacLachlan,  M.  D.     .     .         .  Detroit,  Michigan 

George  Royal,  M.D Des  Moines,  Iowa 

Charles  Edgar  Walton,    M.D.,    LL.D.     .  Cincinnati,  Ohio 

JiRAH  Dewey  Buck,  M.D Cincinnati,  Ohio 

James  Polk  Willard,  M.D Denver,  Colorado 

Andrew  Leight  Monroe,  M.D Louisville,  Kentucky 

William  Davis  Foster,  M.D Kansas  City,  Missouri 

Howard  Roy  Chislett,  M.D Chicago,  Illinois 

LuciEN  Claude  McElwee,  M.D Saint  Louis,  Missouri 

Allen  Corson  Cowperthwaite,  M.D.,  Ph.D.,  LL.D.     Chicago,  Illinois 

John  Blair  Smith  King,  M.D Chicago,  Illinois 

David  Herrick  Beckwith,  M.D.       .     .     .  Cleveland,  Ohio 

James  Richey  Horner,  A.M.,  M.D.    .     .     .  Cleveland,  Ohio 

Gaius  J.  Jones,  M.D Cleveland,  Ohio 

Wilbert  B.  Hinsdale,  M.D Ann  Arbor,  Michigan 

Guernsey  Penny  Waring,  M.D Evanston,  Illinois 

M;  Belle  Brown,  M.D New  York  City 

Annie  S.  Higbie,  M.D New  York  City 

John  Preston  Sutherland,  M.D.     .     .     .  Boston,  Massachusetts 

James  William  Ward,  M.D San  Francisco,  California 

Henry  C.   Allen, Chicago,  Illinois 

Lewis  Cass  Aldrich Binghamton,  New  York 




The  Subject  Introduced — Discovery  in  Medical  Science — Brief  Allusion  to  the  Founder 
— Homoeopathy  in  Germany — Bohemia — Austria — Russia — France — Italy — Amer- 
ica— Sweden — Great  Britain — Spain — Belgium — Cuba   17 


The  Beginnings  of  Flomoeopathy — Hahnemann,  the  Founder — His  Birth  and  Educa- 
tion— His  Trials  and  Triumphs — His  Death — Brief  Allusion  to  Some  of  the 
Provers,  Disciples  of  the  Founder 22 



Introductory  Observations — Condition  of  Homoeopathy  at  the  Time  of  Gram's  Arrival 
in  America — He  Settles  in  New  York — His  Practice  and  Followers — Homoeo- 
pathic Medical  Societies,  State  and  Local — Hospitals  and  Charitable  Institutions — 
The  Pioneers  of  Homoeopathy  in  New  York 44 



The  Cholera  Epidemic  of  1832 — Hahnemann  an  Honorary  Member  of  the  New  York 
Medical  Society — The  Pioneer  Homoeopathic  Medical  Society — Reminiscences  of 
Early  Homoeopathic  Practitioners — Curtis — Kirby — Vanderburgh^ — Paine — Dutcher 
— Wright — Ball — Freeman — Cook — Bowers — Harris — Palmer — McVickar — Joslin — 
Belcher — Stewart — Hallock — Quin — Wells — A  Chapter  of  Reminiscences 76 



Outspreading  of  the  Homoeopathic  Doctrine  from  New  York  City  into  the  Several 
Counties  of  the  State — The  Pioneers  and  Their  Trials  and  Triumphs — Reminis- 
cences and  Sketches 94 



Introductory  Remarks — Primacy  of  Pennsylvania  in  Homceopalhic  Institutions — Ho- 
moeopathic Medical  Society  of  Pennsylvania — Other  State  and  Local  Societies — 
Allentown  Academy — Recollections  of  Early  Practitioners — Detwiller.  the  Pre- 
scriber — Wesselhoeft  and  Freytag,  the  Founders — Becker  and  Helfrich,  the 
Preacher  Physicians — Ihm,  the  Pioneer  m  Philadelphia — Hering,  the  Prover.  Phil- 
osopher, Scientist  and  Founder — Brief  Allusion  to  Other  Early  Practitioners — Lists 
of  Pioneer  Physicians — Homoeopathic  Dispensaries  iii 



Early  Introduction  of  Hahnemann's  System  in  the  West  and  Southwest — Virginia 
Societies — Allentown  Academy  Bears  Good  Fruit — The  Pioneer  in  Virginia  a 
Layman — The  Caspar!  Brothers — Campos — Hardy — Hobson — Atw-ood — Hughes — 
Other  Early  Practitioners  in  the  Old  Dominion 162 




-Gradual  Introduction  of  Homoeopathy  in  the  West — Cope,  the  Pioneer  of  the  New- 
System  in  Ohio— Beckwith's  Recollections  of  Sturm — Pulte,  the  Pioneer  and 
Founder  of  a  Great  School  of  Medical  Learning — Cholera  Plague  of  1849  and 
Later  Years — Homoeopathy  attacked  by  the  Old  Enemy — Early  Homoeopaths  in 
Cincinnati  and  Cleveland — Attempts  to  Establish  a  Medical  College — Eclectic  Med- 
ical Listitute  Establishes  a  Chair  of  Homoeopathy — Reminiscences  of  Early  Prac- 
titioners       166 



Purpose  of  the  Homoeopathic  Society  of  Cincinnati — Hill  of  the  Ecletlic  Medical  In- 
stitute of  Cincinnati  Converted  to  Plomoeopathy — Shepherd,  Ijie  Pioneer  in  Hamil- 
ton County — Reminiscences  of  Early  Physicians — Pulte,  the  Founder,  Scholar  and 
Physician — The  Western  College  of  Homoeopathic  Medicine 177 



Condition  of  Medicine  in  Louisiana  in  Martin's  Time — The  Southern  Homceopathic 
Medical  Association — Charity  Homoeopathic  Hospital — Dr.  Joseph  Martin,  the 
Pioneer  Homoeopath  in  Louisiana — Taft,  the  Second  Practitioner — Reminiscences 
of   Other    Early    Homoeopathic    Practitioners 188 



The  Maryland  Homoeopathic  State  Medical  Society — Other  Societies — Felix  R.  Mc- 
Manus,  the  Pioneer — His  Life  and  Experiences — Schmidt,  the  Prussian  Convert 
— Haynel,  the  German,  and  Busch,  the  Saxon — Cyriax,  Hardy  and  Geiger — List  of 
Early  Practitioners   194 



The  First  Prescriber  of  Homoeopathic  Doses  in  Connecticut — Early  Planting  and  Sub- 
sequent Growth  of  Homa-opathy  in  the  State — Societies  and  Hospitals — The 
Taylors,  Father  and  Son — New  Milford  First  to  Have  a  Homoeopathic  Physician 
— The  Tatts  in  Hartford — John  Schue — Introduction  of  the  New  System  in  the 
Counties — Pioneers,  Early  Practitioners  and  Reminiscences — List  of  Old  Practi- 
tioners     200 



How  the  Seed  was  First  Sown  in  the  Old  Bay  State — New  York  Furnishes  the  Pioneer 
—Gregg  and  Flagg,  the  Standard  Bearers — Their  Followers  and  Proselytes — The 
Homoeopathic  Fraternity  of  ]\Iassachusetts — Its  Organization  and  Membership — 
The  Massachusetts  Homceopathic  Medical  Society — Brief  Allusion  to  the  Homoeo- 
pathic Institutions,  and  the  Pioneers  of  the  Profession  in  the  Several  Counties  of 
the  Commonwealth    210 



Occupation  of  New  Jersey  by  Homoeopaths  from  New  York  on  the  North  and  Phila- 
delphia on  the  West— The  First  Practitioner  Converts  from  the  Allopathic  Ranks 
— Dr.  Isaac  Moreau  Ward,  the  Pioneer — Early  Society  Organization — Pioneers  of 
Homoeopathy  in  the  Several  Counties  of  New  Jersey — Reminiscences  of  Prom- 
inent  Early   Practitioners    240 




Sowing  the  Seed  of  Homoeopatliy  in  the  Old  Green  Mountain  State — Baird,  the  Inde- 
pendent, Self-Educated  and  Successful  Practitioner,  the  Pioneer — Brief  Allusion 
to  State,  District  and  County  Societies — How  and  by  Whom  Homoeopathy  was 
Introduced  in  the  Counties  of  Vermont 258 



Treatment  of  Gosewisch  at  the  Hands  of  Delaware  Allopaths — His  Great  Work_  for 
Homoeopathy — Harlan,  the  Second  Homoeopathic  Physician  in  the  State — Quinby 
— Negendank — Swinney — Curtis — Lawton — Tantum '. 269 



Parlin,  the  Pioneer  of  Homoeopathy  in  Rhode  Island — His  Accomplishments  and  Polit- 
ical Misfortunes — Early  Homoeopathic  Practitioners  in  the  Several  Towns  of  the 
State — Reminiscences,  Statistics  and  Biography 275 



A  Hospitable  Welcome  Greets  Homoeopathy  in  Kentucky — Bernstein,  the  Pioneer, 
Finds  Warm  Friends  Among  the  Allopaths — Their  Estimate  of  His  Worth — Early 
Practitioners  in  Various  Parts  of  the  State — A  Chapter  of  Statistics,  Reminis- 
cences and  Biography 282 



Dr.  Moses  Atwood,  a  Convert  of  Gregg's,  the  Pioneer  of  Homoeopathy  in  New  Hamp- 
shire— The  State  Homoeopathic  Medical  Society — Early  Practitioners  in  the  Sev- 
eral Counties  289 



Dr.  Isaac  Coe,  the  Pioneer  of  Homceopathy  in  Indiana,  was  Hull's  Converted  Allopath 
— Outspreading  of  the  Practice  in  the  State — The  State  and  Other  Homoeopathic 
Medical  Societies — Recollections  of  Early  Practitioners — A  Table  of  Converts.,.  295 



Early  Homoeopathy  in  the  Pine  Tree  State — Characteristics  of  the  Early  Practitioners 
— The  State  and  Other  Medical  Societies — Sandicky,  the  Itinerant  Homoeopath — 
His  Converts  and  Followers — List  of  Early  Practitioners 303 



Brief  Allusion  to  the  Hahnemann  Monument — Ceremonies  of  the  Unveiling — The 
Washington  Convention — Homoeopathic  Societies  and  Hospitals — Dr.  John  Piper, 
the  First  Homoeopathic  Physician  in  the  District  of  Columbia — Reminiscences  and 
List  of  Early  Practitioners 315 



Beginnings  of  Homoeopathy  in  Michigan — Early  Practitioners  all  Converted  Allopaths 
— Record  of  Medical  Societies — Hall  and  Lamb,  the  Pioneers — Reminiscences  and 
Lists  of  Early  Practitioners  322 




This  State  not  Highly  Productive  of  Homoeopathic  History— Gilbert  and  Schley,  the 

Pioneers— Reminiscences  of  Other  Early  Practitioners   334 



The  Pioneers  of  Homoeopathy  in  Wisconsin— The  Conditions  There  Described  by  Dr. 
Chittenden— Wisconsin  State  Homoeopathic  Medical  Society— Recollections  of  the 
Pioneers  and  Their  Early  Experiences— List  of  Old  Practitioners 337 



Homoeopathy  Never  Strong  in  Alabama— Dr.  Monroe  Describes  Some  Early  Ex- 
periences— The  State  Medical  Association — Ulrich  and  Schafer,  the  Pioneers — 
Later  Accessions  to  the  Homoeopathic  Ranks — Reminiscences  and  Tables  of  Early 
Practitioners 342 



Early  Homoeopathic  Conditions  in  Illinois — Experiences  of  Dr.  David  Sheppard  Smith, 
Allopath  and  Homoeopath— Zabina  Eastman  and  the  "Western  Citizen  "—Effects 
of  the  Chicago  Fire  of  1871  on  Homoeopathy  in  that  City — Homoeopathic  Medical 
Societies  and  Hospitals — Reminiscences  and  Lists  of  Early  Homoeopathic  Prac- 
titioners    345 



Early  Homoeopathy  in  Missouri — Subsequent  Growth  of  the  System — Dr.  John  Temple 
and  His  Works — Medical  Societies  and  Hospitals — Reminiscences  and  Lists  of 
Early  Homoeopathic   Practitioners 3^3 



Nashville  a  Center  of  Medical  Education — Experiences  of  Drs.  Harsh,  Wheaton  and 
Kellogg,  Early  Homoeopathic  Practitioners  in  Tennessee — Homoeopathic  Medical 
Society  of  Tennessee — Reminiscences  and  List  of  Early  Practitioners  in  the  State  369 



Introduction  of  Hahnemann's  System  in  the  Lone  Star  State — The  Texas  Homoeo- 
pathic Medical  Association — Dr.  Parker,  the  Pioneer — His  Life  and  Works — Other 
Early  Practitioners  in  Various  Parts  of  the  State 373 



Homoeopathy  Finds  Lodgment  on  the  Pacific  Slope  in  1849 — Pioneers  were  both 
Physicians  and  Gold  Hunters — The  State  Medical  Society — Benjamin  Ober,  the 
Pioneer  Homoeopath — Reminiscences  and  List  of  Practitioners Zll 



Trials  of  Dr.  Beck,  the  First  Homoeopathic  Physician  in  Iowa — Subsequent  Permanent 
Introduction  and  Development  of  the  New  System  in  the  State — Iowa  Medical 
Societies — Reminiscences  and  List  of  Early  Practitioners 38S 




Relations  of  Civil  and  Homoeopathic  History  in  Minnesota — Planting  Hahnemann's 
System  in  the  State — Societies  and  Hospitals— Reminiscences  of  Early  Practi- 
tioners        389 



The  Planting  of  Homoeopathy  in  Mississippi  by  Dr.  Davis — His  Early  Experiences — 
Growth  of  Hahnemann's  System  of  Medicine  in  the  State — The  State  Medical 
Society — Reminiscences  and  List  of  Early  Practitioners 395 



Homoeopathy  Instrodnced  in  Omaha  in  1862 — Wright,  the  Pioneer — Drs.  Way  and 
Hemingway  in  Nebraska  City — The  State  Homoeopathic  Medical  Society — Gradual 
Growth  of  the  System  in  Nebraska — Reminiscences  of  Early  Practitioners 398 



A  Brief  Chapter  of  Reminiscences — Dr.  Alfred  Hughes  and  His  Sister — List  of  Prac- 
titioners in  the  State  402 



Homoeopathy   Introduced   in   the   State  by   Dr.   Freeman — Reminiscences   and   List   of 

Other  Early  Practitioners  in  North  Carolina   i 405 



Late  Planting  and  Rapid  Growth  of  Homoeopathy  in  Colorado — Ingersol,  the  First 
Practitioner,  and  Marix,  the  Permanent  Practitioner — State  Medical  Society — 
Homoeopathy  in  Montana  begins  in  1866 — Its  Subsequent  Growth — Meagre  History 
on  Florida- — Early  Practitioners  in  all  these  States — The  Florida  Homoeopathic 
Medical  Society — Reminiscences   407 



Dr.  Leslie  Jacob  Coombs,  the  Pioneer  Homoeopath  in  Oregon — Later  Growth  of  the 
System  in  the  State — Medical  Societies  and  Hospitals  in  Kansas — Dr.  John  Hazard 
Henry,  the  First  Homoeopath  in   South   Carolina — Dr.  John  Doy,  the   Pioneer  of 
.  PIomcEopathy   in    Kansas — Societies   and    Hospitals — Reminiscences 412 



Dr.  Isaiah  White,  the  First  Homteopath  in  Salt  Lake  City — Dr.  John  Bowman, 
Cheyenne — Dr.  11.  J.  Alorrison  in  Arizona — Dr.  E.  O.  Plumbe  in  Dakota — Dr. 
D.  G.  Strong  in  Idaho — Lists  of  Early  Practitioners 417 






HauxemaxXX Frontispiece 

Dr.  Johann  Ernst  Staff ^9 

Dr.  Gustav  Wilhelm  Gross  23 

Hahnemann's  Birthplace  in  Meissen   24 

Dr.  Carl  'Gottlob  Franz  25 

Dr.  Franz  Hartmann   28 

Dr.  Moritz  Muller  30 

Dr.  Carl  Haubold 31 

Dr.  Carl  F.  Trinks 32 

Dr.  G.  a.  H.  Muhlenbein  34 

Hahnemann's  Home  in  Coethen 36 

Friedrich  Rummel,  M.  D 37 

Dr.  Georg  Aug.  Benj.  Scpiweikert  ■. 39 

Dr.  Carl  Georg  Ch.  Hartlaub  41 

Dr.  Julius  Schweikert  ._ 42 

Hans  Burgh  Gram,  M.  D .' 46 

Main  Entrance,  Middletown  State  Hom.  Hospital 51 

Main  Building,  Middletown  State  Hom.  FIospital 53 

Metropolitan  Hospital,  Blackwell's  Island  55 

Utica  Homoeopathic  Hospital  59 

M.  O.  Terry,  Surg.  Gen.  S.  N.  Y 62 

John  Franklin  Gray,  M.  D 65 

A.  Gerald  Hull,  A.  M.,  M.  D 69 

Dr.  S.  R.  Kirby   71 

Federal  Vanderburgh,  M.  D Si 

E.  E.  Snyder,  M.  D 83 

Walter  C.  Palmer,  M.  D 85 

J.  A.  McVickar,  M.  D 87 

B.  F.  Joslin,  M.  D 89 

Lewis  Hallock,  M.  D 91 

P.  P.  Wells,  M.  D 92 

Horatio  Robinson,  M.  D 96 

H.  C.  Hubbard,  M.  D 97 

Horace  M.  Paine,  M.  D 103 

Allentown  Academy 115 

IMain  Group  of  Buildings,  PENNSYLV,^NIA  Homoeopathic  State  Hospital  for  Insane.  118 

Children's  Homoeopathic  Hospital   120 

Hering  Building,  Medical  and  Surgical  Dept 121 

Lippe  Isolated  Pavilion  122 

Sargent  or  Maternity  Building   123 

HoMOEOP.\THic  Hospital,  Pittsburgh   124 

McClelland  in  the  Operating  Room,  Pittsburgh  Hom.  Hosp 126 

willard  in  the  operating  room,  pittsburgh  hom.  hosp 127 

Henry  Detwiller,  M.  D > 129 

Samuel  R.  Dubs,  M.  D 131 

H.  H.  Hoffman,  M.  D 135 

J.  C.  Burgher,  INI.  D 137 

Hering's  Lachesis  Snake  141 

John  Henry  Floto,  M.  D 143 

Charles  Neidhard,  M.  D 146 

James  Kitchen,  M.  D 149 

Alvan  E.  Small,  M.  D 151 

Joseph  Berens,  M.  D 152 

G.  Reichhelm,  M.  D 153 

Benjamin  Becker,  M.  D 155 

Obadiah  C.  Brickley,  M.  D 157 

John  F.  Cooper,  M.  D 158 

Ohio  Hospital  for  Women  and  Children,  Cincinnati 171 

James  G.  Hunt,  M.  D 173 

John  Wheeler,  M.  D \ , 175 


Seven  Old  Fellows  I77 

Alfred  Shepherd,  M.  D 179 

William  Owens,  M.  D 182 

Storm  Rosa,  M.  D 183 

Prominent  Cleveland  Homoeopaths   184 

Wm.  H.  Holcombe,  M.  D 191 

Thomas  Shearer,  M.  D 195 

Westboro  Hom.  Asylum  for  Insane 212A 

Milton  Fuller,  M.  D 217'' 

Famous  Patrons  of  Homoeopathy  220 

Alvin  M.  Gushing,  M.  D 224 

Geo.  W.  Swazey,  M.  D 227 

G.  F.  Matthes,  M.  D 229 

A.  A.  Klein,  M.  D 230 

Henry  B.  Clarke,  M.  D 231 

Elisha  J.  Jones,  M.  D 232 

Geo.  Russell,  M.  D 233 

Geo.  W.  Richards,  M.  D 243 

Daniel  R.  Gardiner,  M.  D 246 

Bowman  H.  Shivers,  M.  D 247 

Jos.  C.  Boardman,  M.  D 250 

Samuel  A.  Jones,  M.  D 254 

Theodore  Y.  Kinne,  M.  D 255 

G.  N.  Brigham,  M.  D 260 

Geo.  E.  E.  Sparhawk,  M.  D 262 

C.  B.  Currier,  M.  D 264 

Jos.  R.  Tantum,  M.  D.. 270 

Homoeopathic  Hospital  of  Delaware  271 

Caleb  Harlan,  M.  D 272 

Chas.  H.  Lawton,  M.  D : 273 

George  B.  Peck,  M.  D 277 

Wm.  L.  Breyfogle,  M.  D 285 

Joshua  F.  Whittle,  M.  D 290 

Oliver  L.  Bradford,  M.  D 291 

Oliver  P.  Baer,  M.  D 296 

George  W.  Bowen,  M.  D 299 

Wm.  E.  Payne,  M.  D 304 

Eliphalet  Clark,  M.  D 306 

James  H.  Payne,  M.  D 309 

Nancy  T.  Williams,  M.  D 3" 

Hahnemann  Monument — Presentation  Ceremony  314 

Hahnemann  Monument — Presentation  by  Dr.  Walton • 316 

Ode  to  Hahnemann,  by  Dr.  Wm.  Tod  Helmuth  3^6 

TuLLio  S.  VERDf,  M.  D 318 

Susan  Ann  Edson,  M.  D 319 

Jehu  Brainerd,  M.  D 320 

W.  Hanford  White,  M.  D 323 

Edwin  M.  Hale,  M.  D 328 

Charles  J.  Hempel,  M.  D 332 

F.  H.  Orme,  M.  D 335 

Wm.  L.  Cleveland,  M.  D 336 

Chicago  Homoeopathic  Hospital 346 

T.  C.  Duncan,  M.  D 3SO 

F.  F.  DE  Derky,  M.  D 353 

C.  Ferd.  Kuechler,  M.  D 355 

Leonard  Pratt,  M.  D .- 359 

T.  G.  CoMSTocK,  M.  D 365 

Jabez  P.  Dake,  M.  D '. 371 

E.  J.  Eraser,  M.  D 378 

Frederick  Hiller,  M.  D 379 

John  Esten,  M.  D 381 

George  W.  Barnes,  M.  D 383 

Wm.  H.  Leonard,  M.  D 391 


Abell,  D.  T.,  367. 
Abbott,  Jehial,  233. 
Academy,  Allentown,  114. 
Academy,  North  American,   114. 
Act  to  Protect  Citizens  from  Quackerj',  2i7^- 
Adams  Co.  Homo.  Med.  Assn.,  351. 
Adams  County,  Pa.,  Homo,  in,  153. 
Adam,  Dr.,  41. 
Adams,  Ira,  g8. 
Adams,  R.  E.  W.,  174,  356. 
Alabama,  Homo,  in,  342. 
Alaska,  Homo,  in,  420. 
Albany  City  Homo.  Hosp.,  54. 
Albertson,  J.  A.,  380. 
Albright,  G.,  343. 
Aldrich,  Henry  C,  392. 
Allen,  John  R.,  371. 
Allen,  Samuel  Smith,  loi. 
Allentown  Academy,  114. 
Allentown    Academy,    Founders    of,    117. 
Alley,  W.  W.,  96. 
Anderson,  Moses,  149. 
Angell,   E.   P.,  375. 
Angell,  Henry  C,  225. 
Angell,  James,  375. 
Angell,   Richard,    190.  ' 
Angell,  Richard,  285. 
Angell,   Richard,   343. 
Annin,  Jonathan  D.,  243. 
Anthony,   W.    C,   357. 
Appleton,  John  W.  M.,  403. 
Archiv  fur  die  Homoopathische  Heilkunst, 

Arcoli,  Dr.,   164. 
Arizona,  Homo,  in,  419. 
Arizona  State  Homo.  Med.  Assn.,  419. 
Arkansas,  Homo,  in,  422. 
Arkansas  State  Homo.  Med.  Assn.,  422. 
Armstrong    County,    Pa.,    Homoeopathy   in, 

Arnold,  Rawdon,  413. 
Arthur,   Asa  A.,   266. 
Asiatic  Cholera,  172. 
Atwood,  Aaron  H.,  163. 
Atwood,  Aaron  H.,  292. 
Atwood,  Moses,  290. 

Austin,  James  H.,  204. 
Austin,  John  Hayden,  249. 
Ayers,  E.  Darwin,  422. 

Babcock,   J.,    357. 
Bachmeister,  Theodore,  360. 
Baer,  Oliver  P.,  298. 
Bagley,  Alvan,  424. 
Bailey,  Charles,  235. 
Baird,  David  H.,  258. 
Baker,  David,  99. 
Baker,   Mary  G.,  235. 
Balch,  Edward  T.,  382. 
Baldwin  Place  Home,  214. 
Ball,  Alonzo  S.,  85. 
Baltimore  Homo.  Med.  Soc,  195. 
Banks,  W.  H.,  334. 
Bannister,  Charles  B.,  340. 
Barker,  G.  W.,  175. 
Barlow,  Samuel  B.,  88. 
Barnes,  George  W.,  180,  383. 
Barrows,  George,  229. 
Barrows,  Ira.   231,   276,   279. 
Barrows,  J.  H.,  308. 
Bartlett,  Abner,  361. 
Bauer,  Adolph,  152,  177. 
Bayard,  Edward,  91. 
Bayer,   Charles,   151. 
Beakley,  John  Stoat,  381. 
Beardsley,  Herman,  424. 
Beaumont,    Eckhart   L.,   375. 
Beaumont,  John  H..  359. 
Beaver  County,  Pa.,  Homo,  in,  154. 
Beck,   Dr.,   385. 
Becker,  Benj.,  153,  156. 
Becker,   Rev.    Chris.  J.,    135. 
Beckwith,   Ephraim   C.,   179. 
Beebe,  Gaylord  D.,  354.     ■ 
Beebe,    Nelson   D.,   359. 
Beeman,  J.,  176. 
Belcher,  George  Elisha,  91. 
Belden,  Charles  D.,  419. 
Belden,  James  G.,  190,  343. 
Belgium,  Homoeopathy  in,  20. 
Bell,  James  B.,  311. 
Bell,  William  C,  204. 


Bennett,  Hollis  K.,  266. 

Bennington  Co..  Homo,  in,  266. 

Berens,   Bernard,   149. 

Berens,  Joseph,   148. 

Berks  County,  Pa.,  Homo,  in,  153. 

Biegler,  Augustus  P.,  94. 

Bigelow,  Thomas,  264. 

Bigler,  George  W.,   174. 

Birch,  George  B.,  366. 

Birnstill.  Joseph.  94,  234. 

Bishop,  David  F..   loi. 

Bishop.  Herbert  M..  207. 

Bishop.  Leverett,  100. 

Bishop,   Robert   S.,    102. 

Bissell.    Arthur    T..    179. 

Bitely.   Eugene,   330,   331. 

Blackwood,    B.    W.,   249. 

Blackwood,  Thomas.  326. 

Blackwood,  Thomas  R..  249. 

Blair  County,  Pa.,  Homo,  in,  154. 

Blaisdell,  J.   M.,  310. 

Blake.  Edmund  H..  375. 

Blake,  James   H.,  375. 

Blodgett,  T.   S.,  264. 

Boardman,  Joseph  C.,  249. 

Bolles.  Richard   M..  89. 

Bosler,  Jacob.   176. 

Boston,   Early  Physicians,  237. 

Bowen.  Eleazer.  252. 

Bowen.   George   W..   300. 

Bowers.  Benj.  F.,  89. 

Bowie,  Alonzo  P.,  154. 

Bowman,  John  R..  417. 

Bradford  Co.,  Pa..  Homo,  in,  153. 

Bradford,   Oliver  Leech,  2t;j,  292. 

Bradford,  Richmond.  308,  312. 

Bradley.   E.  W.,  384. 

Brainerd,  Jehu,  321. 

Bramon,  Joaquin,  20. 

Bratt.  James  D..   192. 

Breed.   Simeon  R.,  361. 

Breyfogle,  Charles  W.,  382. 

Brigham,  Gershom  N.,  260. 

Briry,   Milton   S..  312. 

Brooklyn  Homo.  Hosp.,  53. 

Brooklyn  Maternity  Hosp.,  55. 

Brooklyn   Nursery   and    Infants'   Hosp..   55. 

Brooklyn,  N.  Y.,  Early  Homo.   Practice  in, 

Brooks,  C.  A.,  237. 
Brooks.  John   B.,  422. 
Brooks.   Paschal   P.,  339. 
Broome  County,  N.  Y.,  Homo.  in.  loi. 
Brown,  Asa'W.,  204. 
Brown,  Henry  R.,  207. 
Brown.  Joseph  R.,  375. 
Brown,  L.  W.,  254. 
Brown,  Titus  L.,   101. 
Browne,  Faulcon,  406. 
Browne.  Gardner  S..  202. 
Brownell.    11.   T..   202. 

Brownson,  Dr.,  loi. 
Bruchhausen.   Caspar,  95. 
Brugger,   Ignatius,   156. 
Bryan,  Thomas,  154. 
Bryant,  Charles  J.,  380. 
Buddeke,  Ivo  W.,  zi^- 
Buffalo  Homo.  Hosp.,  55.  59. 
Bugbee,  Rev.  Aurin,  234. 
Buih,  George  B.,  366. 
Bulkeley,    Wm.    E.,   205. 
Bull,  John,  422. 
Bumstead,  L.  J.,  400. 
Bunting,  J.  Crowley.   154. 
Burnham.   N.  G..  298. 
Burnside.  Aaron  W..  360. 
Burr,  Charles  H.,  307. 
Burr,  E.  D.,  330. 
Burr,  W.  A.,  399. 
Burrett,  Alex.  H.,   151. 
Burritt,  Alex.,   174. 
Burritt.  Alex.  H.,   189. 
Burritt,    Amatus   R.,   343. 
Burritt.   Ely,   174. 
Busch,  Lewis,   199. 
Bute,  George  Henry.   137. 
Butler,  W.   P..  340. 
Byer,   Rev.   Father.    154. 
Byron.  E.   S.,  343,  410. 

Caboche.   Louis,    189. 
Caledonia    Co.    Homo.    Med.    Soc.    259. 
California.  Homo,   in,  2)17 ■ 
California    State   Homo.    Med.    Soc,   378. 
Cambria  County,  Pa.,  Homo,  in,  154. 
Camp,  Arthur  A.,  392. 
Campos.   F.  T.,   163. 
Capen,  Robert,  222. 
Carbon  County,   Pa.,   Homo.   in.   154. 
Carels,   Samuel,  249. 
Carley,   D.   H.   W.,   400. 
Carr,  Marvin  S.,  355,  357- 
Cartier,   Adolph,    191. 
Case,   S.   C,  400. 
Caspari,  Edward,  150,  174,  286. 
Casselberry.   Melville   L..   393.   403. 
Gate.  Shadrach  M.,  2.2%. 
Gator.  Harvey  Hull,  96. 
Cator,   Henry  Hull,  i},"/. 
Caulkins,   Russell.   202. 
Cedar  Valley  Homo.  Med.   Soc.  386. 
Central   Homo.  Med.  Assn..  304. 
Central  Homo.  Med.  Assn..  386. 
Central  Ills.  Homo.  Med.  Assn.,  349.  351. 
Central  New  York  Homo.  Med.  Soc,  49. 
Central   County,   Pa.,   Homo,   in,   154. 
Chamberlain,  Charles  H.,  261. 
Champlin,   H.  C,  236. 
Channing,  William.  74. 
Chapman.  H.  D..  235. 
Charity  Homo.    Hosp..   189. 


Chase,  A.  P.,  360. 

Chase,  Hiram  L.,  233. 

Chase,   Ira   Eaton.   236. 

Checver.   Daniel  A.,  360. 

Chester  County,   Pa.,   Homo,   in,   150. 

Chester,  Crozer  Home  and  Hosp.  at,  125. 

Chicago  Acad,  of  Homo.  Phys.  and  Surgs., 

Chicago  Acad,  of  Med.,  350'. 
Chicago  Bapt.  Hosp..  352. 
Chicago  City  Hosp..  351. 
Chicago  Homo.  ^ied.  Soc,  349. 
Chicago  Paed.  Soc,  350. 
Children's  Homo.  Hosp.  of  Phila.,  119. 
Children's  Hosp.,  364. 
Children's  Hosp.  of  Five  Points  House  of 

.Ind..  53. 
Cholera  Epidemic.  76. 
Cholera  Hosp.  of  Phila.,  119. 
Cincinnati,  Homo,  in,   171. 
Cincinnati  Hosp.  for  Women  and  Children. 

Cincinnati.  Pioneer  Homo,  of,  171. 
Clapp.   E.   H..  358. 
Clark,  Eliphalet,  306.  312. 
Clark,   Francis   H.,   222. 
Clark,  Joseph  K.,  2^4. 
Clark,  Luther,  218.^ 
Clarke,  Henry  B.,  229. 
Clarke,  John  Lewis,  229. 
Clarke,  Peleg,  2-j-j.  280. 
Clay,   Geo.   B.   L..  247. 
Cleckley,    Francis   V.,   414. 
Clemens,  Rev.   Father,  389. 
Cleveland  Homo.  Hosp..  169. 
Cleveland,  Homo,  in,   174. 
Cleveland.  William  L.,  335. 
Clinton  County,  Pa.,  Homo,  in,  154. 
Coe,  DanieK  357. 
Coe,   Isaac,   295. 
Cohen,  Solomon  W.,  376. 
Colby,   Isaac,  225. 
Cole,    Harvey.    202. 
Collins  State  Homo.  Hosp..  52. 
Colorado,  Homo.  in.  407. 
Colorado    State    Homo.    Med.    Soc.    407. 
Columbia  County.  Pa.,  Homo,  in,  154. 
Communipaw  ]\Ied.  Soc,  241. 
Comstock,  Thomas  G.,  365. 
Connecticut,  Homo,  in,  200. 
Conn.  State  Homo.  ^led.  Soc,  200. 
Cook  Co.  Homo.  Med.  Soc.  349. 
Cook  Co.  Hosp.,  352. 
Cook,  George  W.,  88,  97. 
Cooley,   George   P.,  204. 
Coombs,  E.  H..  402. 
Coombs,  Leslie  J.,  384,  412. 
Cooper.  Isaac,  253. 
Corliss,   C.   T.,   297. 
Cornell,  George  B.,  252. 
Cortland  County,  N.  Y.,  Homo,  in,  97. 

Covert,  Dr.,  loi. 

Cowles,  E.  W.,  179,  328. 

Covvperthvi^aite,  Allen  C,  400. 

Cragin,  John.  343. 

Craighead,  James   B.,  369. 

Crane,   William,  341. 

Crispell,   Garrett   D.,  95. 

Cropper,  Charles,  181. 

Cross,  Edwin  C,  392. 

Cross,  L.  E.,  382. 

Cuba,  Homoeopathy  in,  20. 

Cumberland  County.  Homo,  in,  150. 

Cummings,  James  M.,  307. 

Curran,  William,  366. 

Currie,  Joseph  C.  251, 

Currier,  Chris.  B.,  262. 

Curtis,  John  Mitchell,  274. 

Curtis,  Joseph  Thomas,  78. 

Cuscaden,  T.  W.,  181. 

Gushing,  Alvin  M.,  224. 

Gushing,  John  J.,  380. 

Custis,  J.  B.  Gregg,  315. 

Cutler.  William  W.,  218. 

Cyriax.   E.   C.   Bernard,   199,  356. 


Daily,  J.  C.  422. 

Dake,  Chauncey  M.,  98. 

Dake,  Jabez  P..  370. 

Dake,  Jabez   W.,   102. 

Dake,   William   C,   370. 

Dakota.  Homo,  in,  418. 

Dakota  Homo.  ]\Ied.  Assn.,  418. 

Danforth.  Willis,  354,  360. 

Darby,    Pa.,   Homo,   in,    150. 

Dart,  J.  M.,  417. 

Davies,  John,  340.  355. 

Davis,  Augustus  F.,  395. 

Davis,  F.  A.  W.,   173. 

Davis,  J.  H.  H.,  376. 

Davis,  John  W.,  387. 

Davis,  Rev.  Dr.,  233. 

DeDerky,    Francis    F..   354. 

DeGersdorff,  E.  Bruno,  222. 

Delaware  Co.,  N.  Y.,  Homo,  in,  loi. 

Delaware  Co.,  Pa.,   Homo,  in,   150. 

Delaware,  Homo.  in.  269. 

DeMoor.  Apostle  of  Homoeopathy,  20. 

Des  Moines  Homo.  Clin.  Soc,  386. 

Detwiller,   Henry.   128. 

DeWolf.  John  J.,  2'](>. 

Dickinson.  Wilmot   H.,  386. 

Diederich,   Peter.  415. 

Dillingham,  Thomas  M.,  310. 

Dinsmore,   J.   B.,  236. 

Dispensaries  in  New  York,  102. 

Dispensaries   in   Pa.,   157. 

District  of  Columbia,  Homo,  in,  313. 

Dodge,  Lewis,   179,  326,  330. 

Dodge,  Moses,  306. 

Dodge,  Nathaniel,  386. 


Doran,   Charles  R.,  370,  410. 
Dornberg,    A.    G..    393. 
Douglas,  James   S.,  338. 
Dow,  Frank  E.,  265. 
Doy,  John,  327,  414. 
Drake,  Elijah  H.,  329. 
Dubs,   Samuel  R.,   148. 
Duffield,  Alfred  M.,  343. 
Duncan,  Thomas   C,  354. 
Dunham,   Dr.,  391. 
Duncombe,  Charles  S.,  339. 
Dunn,   McCann,   357. 
Dunnell,   Henry  Gale,  87. 
Dunwody,  William  E.,  335. 
Dutcher,  Benjamin  C,  84. 

Eastern  Dist.  Homo.  Med.  Soc,  241. 
Eastern  Ohio  Homo.  Med.  Soc,  168. 
Eaton,  Morton  M.,  354. 
Ebers,  H.,  365. 
Edie,  John  J.,  415. 
Edmonds,   W.   A.,   371.     • 
Edson,   Susan  Ann,  321. 
Eels,  Oliver  J.,  265. 
Egbert.  William   A.,  420. 
Eggert,  William  A.,  298. 
Ehrhart,  William  J.,  399. 
Ehrmann,  Benjamin,  173,  181. 
Ehrmann,  Ernest  J.,  151,  301. 
Ehrmann,  Francis,  150. 
Ehrmann,   Frederick,   151. 
Ehrmann,   Isedorich,  179. 
Eldridge,    Isaac    N.,"  326,    331. 
EUiger,    Dr.    G.,    149. 
Ellis,   Erastus  R.,  330. 

Ellis,  John,  326,  330. 

Ellis,    Sarah    M.,    410. 

Ely,  Elihu,  loi. 

Ensign,   Chas.  W.,  208. 

Erie   Co.,   N.   Y.,  Homo,   in,  97. 

Erie  Co.,  Pa.,  Homo,  in,  154. 

Esrey,  Wm.   P.,   152,   156. 

Essex  Co.  Homo.  Med.  Soc,  241. 

Essex  Co.,  N.  Y.,  Homo,  in,  98. 

Esten,  John,  381. 

Evans,  Charles  H.,  418. 

Evans,  J.  W.,  339- 

Everett,  Ambrose  S.,  408. 

Fabiola   Hospital,   380. 
Fairchild,  Stephen,  255. 
Falk,  Herman,  370. 
Falligant,   Louis   A.,   335. 
Farley,   Charles  I.,  393. 
Farmington,  Homo,  in,  310. 
Farnham.  Llewellyn  D.,  loi. 
Fayette   Co.,   Pa.,  Homo,   in,   154. 
Fee,  John,  366. 

Fell,   Ezra,   152. 
Fetterman,  Wilford  W.,  419. 
Field,  F.  S.,  97. 
Finster,  Frederick,  330. 
Finster,  Frederick,   Sketch,  c>3^. 
Fischer  of  Brunn,  Dr.,  43. 
Fisher,  Charles  E.,  375. 
Fiske,  Isaac,  229. 
Flagg,  Josiah  F.,  215. 
Fleniken,  Dr.,  366. 
Florence  Hospital,  58. 
Florida,  Homo,  in,  410. 
Florida   State  Homo.  ]\Ied.   Soc,  410. 
Floto,  John  H.,   143,  224,  382. 
Folger,  Robert  B.,  62. 
Foote,   Charles  C,  203. 
Foote,  Elial  Todd,  203. 
Fornies,  Dr.,  95. 
Foster,   H.    L.,   360. 

Fourteenth  Dist.   Homo.   Med.   Soc,  350. 
Fowler,  Samuel  M.,  410. 
Franklin  Co.,  Homo,   in,  266. 
Franklin,  Edward  C,  365,  387. 
Franz,   Karl   Gottlob,  39. 
Fraternity,   Mass.  Homo.,  210. 
Frazer,  Edwin  J.,  380. 

Frederick,   Grand   Duke  of,  invites   Hahne- 
mann to  Coethen,  35. 
Free  Homo.  Hosp.,  364.    • 
Freeland,  James   C,  237. 
Freeman,  Alfred,  86. 
Freeman,  William  K.,  405. 
Freligh,  Martin,  95. 
Freytag,  Eberhard.  134. 
Friederick,  Dr.,  376. 
Fuller,  Milton,  217. 
Furgus  Falls,  State  Hosp.,  389. 

Gale,  Amory,  281. 

Gale.   Stephen  M.,  226,  235. 

Gallup,  William,  233,  307. 

Gardiner,  Daniel  R.,  246. 

Garrettson,  Jesse.  174. 

Garrettson.  Joseph.   174. 

Garrique,  Richard,  279. 

Gatchell,  Edwin  A..  406. 

Gatchell,  Horatio  P.,  180,  406. 

Gause,   Owen   B..   251,  414. 

Gause.  Percival  O.  B..  414. 

Geary.  John  F..  380. 

Gee,  Rodman  S..  339. 

Geiger,  Rev.  Jacob.  199. 

Geist.  Chris.  Fred..  144,  227. 

Georgia,  Flomo.  in,  334. 

German  Central  Homceopathic  Union,  35. 

Gifford,  J.  R..  236. 

Gilbert,  Edward  Aug.,  358. 

Gilbert,  James  B.,  334. 

Gilbert,  Samuel  H.,  341. 

Giles,  Albert,  339. 


Gilman,  John,   179. 

Gilman,  Martin,  396. 

Glass,  Robert,  189. 

Gohier,   Marie   AI.   d'H.   Marriage   with 

Hahnemann,  2)1- 
Good  Samaritan  Hosp.,  364. 
Goodrich,  D.  O.,  329. 
Goodwin,  D.  M.,  392. 
Goodwin,  T.  S.,  310. 
Gorham,  G.  E.,  418. 
Gosewisch,  J.  C.,  271. 
Gourhea.  J.,   154. 

Gowanda  State  Homo.  Hosp..  52. 
Grace  Homo.  Hosp.,  201. 
Grace  •Homo.  Med.  Soc,  201. 
Grace  Hospital,  325. 
Graham,   David,  341. 
Grainger,  John,  364. 
Gram,  Hans  Burch,  life  of,  60. 
Gram.  Hans  Burch,  the  Pioneer  of  Homo'y 

in  America,  44. 
Graves.  Samuel  \V.,  230. 
Gray,  John  F..  67. 
Great  Britain,  Homoeopathy  in,  20. 
Green,  Daniel  H.,  280. 
Green,  George  S.,  202. 
Green.  Jonas,  145,  319. 
Green.  W.  E.,  422. 
Greene,  Nathaniel,  279,  281. 
Gregg,   Samuel.  210. 
Gregg.  Samuel,  life  of,  215. 
Griswold,  W.  N.,  380. 
Gross.  Gustav  Wilhelm,  39. 
Grove,  Charles  E..  424. 
Guernsey.  Henry  N..  261. 
Guernsey.   William  F.,  261. 
Guilbert,  Edward  A..  387. 
Gulby.  John  B..  360. 


Hadfield.  J.  H..  422. 
Haeseler.  Charles,  144. 
Hahnemann  Acquires  Great  Wealth.  38. 
Hahnemann,  at  Dessau.  25. 
Hahnemann,  at  Georgenthal,  27. 
Hahnemann,  at  Gommern,  26. 
Hahnemann,   at  Hamburg.  28. 
Hahnemann,  at   Hermanstadt,  24. 
Hahnemann,  at  Konigshetter.  28. 
Hahnemann,  at  Leipsic,  23,  26. 
Hahnemann,  at  Molschleben,  28. 
Hahnemann,   Birth.  23. 
Hahnemann  Club.  Terre  Haute.  297. 
Hahnemann,  Death  of  His  Wife,  35. 
Hahnemann,   Discoveries   of,   18. 
Hahnemann.  Early  Life  and  Education,  23. 
Hahnemann.  Family  Misfortunes.  27. 
Hahnemann,  Fiftieth   Birthday,  35. 
Hahnemann,   First   Marriage,   25. 
Hahnemann.  His   Character.  18. 
Hahnemann.  His  Death,  38. 

Hahnemann,  His   Dogma,   18. 

Hahnemann,   His  New   Principle,  28. 

Hahnemann,  His  Organon,  29. 

Hahnemann,    Honorary   Member  of  N.   Y. 
Co.  Med.  Soc,  "jy. 

Hahnemann  Hosp.,  N.  Y.,  54. 

Hahnemann  Hosp.,  Scranton,  128. 

Hahnemann,  Lectures  to  His  Disciples,  34. 

Hahnemann   Med.    Soc.   of  the  Old  Do- 
minion,  162. 

Hahnemann   Monument,   315. 

Hahnemann,    Persecution   Renewed,   34. 

Hahnemann,  Personal  Characteristics,  36. 

Hahnemann,  Poverty  and  Persecution,  29. 

Hahnemann,  Relations  with  His  Pupils,  40. 

Hahnemann,  Removes  to  Dresden,  26. 

Hahnemann,  Removes  to  Paris,  38. 

Hahnemann,  Second  Marriage,  37. 

Hahnemann,  Summoned  to  Court,  34. 

Hahnemann,  the  Founder,  22. 

Hahnemannian  Society,  112. 

Hale,  Edwin  M.,  330. 

Hale,  Edwin  M.,  Sketch,  331. 

Hall,  A.,  95. 

Hall,  E.  Bentley,  252. 

Hall,  S.  S.,  325- 

Hallock,  Lewis,  91. 

Hamilton  Co.,  Ohio,  Homo,  in,  177. 

Hammond,  H.  H..  414. 

Hampden  Homo.  Hosp.,  213. 

Hand,   Stephen  D.,  loi. 

Hardenstein,  A.  O.  H.,  396. 

Hardin  Co.  Soc.  of  Homo.  Phys.,  386. 

Hardy,  James  E.,  199. 

Hardy,  Thos.  L,  163. 

Hargous  Memo.  Hahn.  Hosp.,  58. 

Harlan,  Caleb,  271. 

Harlem  Homo.  Hosp.  and  Disp.,  59. 

Harris,  C.  F.,  loi. 

Harris,  Jerome,  236. 

Harris,  John  T..  223,  230. 

Harris,  Zina,  89. 

Harsh.   Philip,  369. 

Hart.  Charles  N.,  408. 

Hartford.  Homo,  in,  201. 

Hartmann,  Franz,  40. 

Hasbrouck,  Joseph,  256. 

Haseler,  Henry,  400. 

Haslam,  D.  B.,  393. 

Hastings,  Charles,  329. 

Hatch.  Philo  L.,  391. 

Hatfield,  George  T.,  390. 

Hawley,  Liverus  B.,   loi. 

Hayward,  Joseph  Warren,  231. 

Hayward,  M.  P.,  202. 

Haynel,  Adolph  F.,   198. 

Haves.  Dr..  loi. 

Hebber.  W.  W..  235. 

Helfrich.  John  Henry.  136. 

Helfrich.  Rev.  Johannes,   136. 

Helmuth,  William  Tod,  366. 



Hemingway,  Dr.,  399. 

Henipel.  Charles  J.,  ^33- 

Henry.  Jolm  H.,  343. 

Henry.  John  Hazard,  413. 

Hering.  Constantine,  138. 

Hering,   Constantine.  a   Latin   Scholar,   139. 

Hering,    Constantine,    Becomes    a    Natural- 
ist,  139. 

Hering,  Constantine,  Birth  and  Early  Life, 

Hering,   Constantine,   Converted  to   Homoe- 
opathy, 140. 

Hering,  Constantine,  Goes  to   Philadelphia, 

Hering,  Constantine,  His  Death.   143. 

Hering,   Constantine,   Lands   at    Martha's 
Vineyard,   142. 

Hering.    Constantine,    Marriage,    142. 

Hering,  Constantine,  Offends  the  King.  141. 

Hering,    Constantine,    Practices    in    Para- 
maribo,  141. 

Hering,   Constantine,  Receives  His  Degree, 

Hering.    Constantine,    the    Lachesis    Snake, 

Hering,  Constantine,  the  Three  Fates,   139. 

Hering.   Constantine.  Visits   Surinam,   140. 

Herkimer  County.  N.  Y.,  Homo,  in,  98. 

Higgins.  Sylvester  B.,  406. 

Hill,  Benj.   L.,   177. 

Hill,  George,  179. 

Hill,  Rev.  Moses,  205. 

Hill,  Rev.   Mr.,  310. 

Hill,  Robert   Louis.  387. 

Hiller,  Frederick,  381,  423. 

Hines,  Frank,  405. 

Hobson,  Joseph  V..   163. 

Hoffendahl.  Charles  F.,  94,  218. 

Holcombe,   William   H.,   192. 

Holcombe.  William  H.,  396. 

Holland,  H.  N.,  300. 

Holt,  Aaron  P.,  360. 

Holt,  Captain,  366. 

Holt,  Daniel.  202.  227. 

Home,  J.  Lewis  Crozer,  125. 

Homo.  Clin.  Soc.  of  Md.,  195. 

Homoeopathic  Clin.  Soc.  of  Rock  Island, 

etc.,  351. 
Homoeopathic  Fraternity  of  Mass..  210. 
HouKcopathic   Hospital,   Chicago,  351. 
HouKjeopathic  Hosp.  for  Chil..  214. 
Homoeopathic  Hosp.  of  Essex  Co.,  242. 
Homo.    Hosp.     for    Insane    at    Allentown, 

Pa.,  118. 
Homoeopathic  Hospital  at  Leipsic,  37. 
HomcEopathic  Hosp.,  Minneapolis,  390. 
Homo.   Hosp.  of  Phila.,   119. 
Homfeopathic   Hosp.  and    Ir.   Sch.,   Kansas 

City,  364. 
Homoeopathic  Hosp.,  Ward's  Is!.,  57. 
HouKjeopathic   Med.  Acad.,  49. 

Homoeopathic  Med.  Assn.  of  Alabama,  342. 
Homoeopathic  Med.  Assn.  of  Wabash  Val., 

Homoeopathic  Med.   Soc.  of  Camden,  241. 
Homoeopathic  Med.  Soc.  of  Del..  269. 
Homo.  Med.  Soc.  of  Eastern  Ohio,  168. 
Homoeopathic  Med.  Soc.  of  King  Co.,  424. 
Homoeopathic  Med.  Soc.  of  Mich.,  324. 
Homoeopathic   ]\Ied.    Soc.   of  No.   Md.   and 

So.  Mich..  297. 
Homoeopathic  Med.  Soc.  of  Northern  New 

York.  49. 
Homo.  Med.  Soc.  of  Ohio.  167. 
Homoeopathic   Med.  Soc.  of   Penna.,   112. 
Homoeopathic  Med.  Soc.  of  Tennessee,  370. 
Homo.    Med.    and    Surg.    Hosp.    of    Pitts- 
burgh, 122. 
Homo.  Med.  and   Surg.  Hosp.  of  Reading, 

Homoeopathic    Society   of    Central    New 

York,  49. 
Homoeopathic  Society  of  Northampton  and 

Cos.  Adj.,  113. 
Homoeopathy  in  Alabama,  342. 
Homoeopathy  in  Alaska,  420. 
Homoeopathy  in  Arizona,  419. 
Homoeopathy  in  Arkansas,  422. 
Homoeopathy,   Beginnings  of,   17. 
Homtx^opathy  iii   California,  377. 
Homoeopathy  in   Colorado.  407. 
Homoeopathy  in  Connecticut.  200. 
Homoeopathy  in  the  Dakotas.  418. 
Homoeopathy   in   Delaware.   269. 
Homoeopathy  in  District  of  Columbia,  315. 
Homoeopathy  in   European  Countries,   18. 
Homoeopathy.  First  Use  of  the  Name,  30. 
Homoeopathy  in  Florida,  410. 
Homoeopathy   in   Georgia,  334. 
Homoeopathy  in   Idaho,  420. 
Homoeopathy  in  Illinois,  345. 
Homoeopathy  in  Indiana,  295. 
Homoeopathy  in  Indian  Ter.,  424. 
Homoeopathy  in   Iowa,  385. 
Homoeopathy  in  Kansas,  414. 
Homoeopathy  in  Kentucky.  283. 
Homo,  in  Louisiana,  188. 
Homoeopathy   in    Maine.   303. 
Homo,  in   Maryland.   194. 
Homoeopathy  in  Massachusetts,  210. 
Homoeopathy  in  Michigan,  322'. 
Homoeopathy  in  Minnesota.  389. 
Homoeopathy  in  Mississippi,  395. 
Homoeopathy  in  Missouri,  363. 
Homoeopathy  in  Montana,  409. 
Homoeopathy  in  Nebraska,  398. 
Homoeopathy  in  Nevada,  423. 
Homoeopathy  in  New  Hampshire,  289. 
Homoeopathy  in   New  Jersey,  240. 
Homoeopathy  in  New  Mexico,  425. 
Homoeopathy  in  New  York,  44. 
Homoeopathy  in  North  Carolina,  405. 


HdiiKtopathy  in  Oliio.   i66. 
}  lom(tO])atliv  ill  Oklalioma.  425. 
1  fomojopalliy  in  Oregon.  412. 
MomcEOpatliy  in   Fcnna.,  III. 
Honi(Cf)patli\'  in  Rhode   Island,  275. 
HonKtopatliy  in  So.  Carolina.  413. 
lionKeopathy  in    Tennessee.  369. 
HonKPopathy  in  Texas,  37^3. 
lionKropatliy  in  Utah,  417. 
lloiiKeopathy  in  Vermont,  258. 
Vlomctopathy  in  Virginia,  162. 
Homoeopathy  in  Washington.  424. 
Homoeopathy  West  of  Allegheny  ^Its.,  154. 
Homoeopathy  in  West  Virginia.  402. 
Homoeopathy  in  Wisconsin,  t^^j. 
Homoeopathy  in  Wyoming.  417. 
Hoppin.  Conrtland.  280. 
Hoppin.  Washington.  2y~,  280. 
Hornbnrg.   Chris.   Gottlob.  39. 


of  Md 


Albany  City  Homo..  54. 
Brooklyn  Homo.,  53. 
Brooklyn  Maternity.  55. 
Brooklyn   Nursery  and   Inf'ts,  55. 
Buffalo  Homo.,  55.  59.  ' 
Chicago  Baptist,  352. 
Chicago  City.  351. 
Chicago  Jiomo..  351. 
Children's  of  Boston,  214. 
Children's    Five    Points   House 

Children's  of  Philadelphia,   119. 
Children's.  St.  Louis.  364. 
Cleveland  Homo..  169. 
Collin's  State  Homo..  52. 
Cook  Co..  352. 
Fabiola  of  Oakland,  380. 
Florence.  58. 
Free  Homo..  364. 
Good  Samaritan,  364. 
Good   Samar.   Dea.,  57. 
Gowanda   State  Homo.,  52. 
Grace.  Detroit.  325. 
Grace  of  New  Haven,  201. 
Hahnemann,  Ladies'  Aid  Soc,  54. 
Hahnemann,  N.  Y.,  54. 
Hahnemann  at  Scranton.  128. 
Hampden  Homo..  213. 
Hargon's  Memo.   Hahn..  58. 
Harlem  Homo..  59. 
Homo,  of  Essex  Co..  242. 
Homo,  of  Phila..  119. 
Isabella  Helmuth,  57. 
J.  Lewis  Crozer.   125. 
Kansas  City  Homo..  364. 
Kansas  Surg..  415. 
Laura  Franklin  Free.  57. 
Maryland  Homo..  195. 
Mass.  Homo..  213. 
Med..    Surg,    and    Matern..    of 




Memo,   for  Women  and  Chil..  57. 

Metropolitan.  56. 

Middletown  State  Homo..  51. 

Minneapolis  Homo.,  390. 

Mt.  Vernon  Homo.,  59. 

National  Homo.,  317. 

Newburyport  Homo.,  214. 

New  Orleans,   189. 

N.  Y.  Homo.  Surg.,  54,  57. 

N.  Y.  Homo,  for  Women  and 

s,  Ohio,  168. 
.  Passaic  Homo.,  242. 
,  Penna.  Homo.,  119. 
,  Pittsburgh  Homo..  122. 
.  Portland  ^leth..  413. 
,  Rhode  Island  Homo.,  276. 
.  Rochester  Homo.,  57. 
.  St.  Luke's.  410. 
,  St.  Luke's  of  Phila..  125. 
,  St.  Mary's  Homo..  242. 
.  St.  Paul  Homo..  390. 
.  St.  Vincent's.  169. 
,  Syracuse  Homo..  59. 
,  Toledo  Prot..  171. 
,  Utica  Homo..  59. 
,  Ward's  Island,  57. 
,  West  Jersey,  242. 
,  West  Phila.,  128. 
,  Wichita  Homo.,  415. 
,  Wm.  McKinley  Memo.*  242. 
.  Wilmington  Homo..  270. 

for  Women  and  Children,  Ohio. 

Hospital.  Med.  and   Surg,  of  Reading.   123. 

tal.  Woman's   Homo.,   St.   Louis, 
tal.  Woman's  Southern  of  Phila., 
tal,  Worcester  Homo..  214. 
tal.  World's  Fair  Homo.,  352. 
tal,  Yonkers  Homo.,  59. 

Hotchkiss,  Jesse  Temple,  102. 

Houghton,  Milo  G.,  263. 

Houghton,  Thomas.  365. 

House  of  Good  Samar.  Dea.,  57. 

Hoyt.  Daniel  O..  174. 

Hubbard.  Henry  C,  97. 

Hubbard.  Levi.  415. 

Hudson  Co.  Homo.  ]Med.  Soc,  242. 

Hudson  River  Homo.  Med.  Soc,  51. 

Huff,  E.,  286. 

Hughes,  Alfred,  163,  402,  403. 

Hughes,  Eliza  C,  402. 

Hull.  Amos  Gerald,  72. 

Humphreys,   Erastus,   100. 

Humphreys,   Frederick.   100. 

Humphrey.  Gideon,  144. 

Hunt,   F.   G.,  344. 

Hunt,  Henry  Francis,  248. 

Hunt.  James  George.  173.  i8r. 

Hunt.  R.  S..  154. 

Hunt.  Samuel  P.,  335. 

Hunter.  Rev.  Wm.,  403. 



Hunter,  Thomas  C,  301. 
Hunter,  W..  154. 
Huntington,  T.  Romayn,  392. 
Hurlburt,  Edwin  T.  M.,  400. 
Huson,  Richard,  lOi. 
Hutawa,  Charles,  367. 
Hutchinson,  James  B.,  302. 
Hyde,  W.  A.,  367. 

Idaho,  Homo,  in,  420. 

Ihm,  Car],  137. 

Illinois,   Homo,   in,  34. 

Illinois  State  Homo.  Med.  Assn.,  347. 

Illinois  Val.  Homo.  Med.  Soc,  349. 

Indiana  County,  Pa.,  Homo,  in,  154. 

Indiana,  Homo  in.,  295. 

Indiana  Institute  of  Homo.,  297. 

Indianapolis  Homo.  Inst.,  297. 

Indian  Territory,  Homo,  in,  424. 

Inevarity,  Dr.,  344. 

Ingalls.  William,  219. 

Ingersol,   Dr.,  407. 

Ingerson,  H.  H.,  383. 

Inglis,  George,  154. 

Insane  Asylum,  Westboro,  212. 

Iowa,  Homo,  in,  385. 

Iowa  Homo.  Med.  Assn.,  386. 

Isabella  Helmuth  Hosp.,  57. 

Isham.  Henry,  206. 

Italy,  Homoeopathy  in,  18. 

Iverson,  Rev.  A.  M.,  341. 

Jackson,  Mercy  B.,  222. 

Jackson,  William  F.,  223. 

Jamaica,  Homceopathy  in,  20. 

James,  Richard  M.,  387. 

Jeanes,  Jacob,  144. 

Jefferson  County,  Pa.,  Homo,  in.,  154. 

Jeffords,  George  P.,  308,  312. 

Jeffries,  Charles,  327. 

Jewett,  John  R.,  z^y. 

Jewett,  John  R.,  Sketch,  331. 

J.  Lewis  Crozer  Home  and  Hosp.,  125. 

Johnson,  Daniel  A.,  223. 

Johnson,  James  D.,  202. 

Johnson,  Perry  E.,  358. 

Johnston,  James,  420. 

Jones,  Elisha  Utley,  230. 

Jones,  Erasmus  D.,  98. 

Jones,  Samuel  Arthur,  253. 

Joslin,  Benj.  Fr.,  90. 

Judkins,  Charles  W.,  408. 


Xankakee  and  DesPlaines  Val.  Homo.  Med. 

Assn.,  350. 
Kansas  City  Homo.  Hosp.,  364. 

Kansas,  Homo,  in,  414. 
Kansas  Homo.  Med.  Soc,  415. 
Kansas  Surg.  Hosp.,  415. 
Keep,  Lester,  205. 
Kellogg,  Edward  W.,  202. 
Kellogg,  George  M.,  369. 
Kentucky,  Homo,  in,  283. 
Kentucky  State  Homo.  Aled.  Soc,  283. 
Kimball,  Daniel  S.,  97. 
Kings  County,  N.  Y.,  Homo,  in,  99. 
Kirby,  Stephen  Reynolds,  78. 
Kirkpatrick,  Alex.,  253. 
Kitchen,  James,  147. 
Kittinger,  Leonard,  273. 
Knapp,  Franklin  L.,  loi. 
Knapp,  H..  326. 
Knight,  Elam  C,  206. 
Knight,  E.  C,  236. 
Knorr,  Louis,  335. 
Koers,  J.  H.,  375. 
Koller,  Baron  Francis,  42. 
Kuchler,    Johanna,    First   Wife    of   Hahne- 
mann, 25. 
Kuechler,  Karl  F.,  356. 
Kiimmel.  Ernest  R.,  339. 
Kyle,  Dr.,  179. 


Ladies'  Aid  Soc.  of  Hahn.  Hosp.,  54 

Lafon,  Thomas,  244. 

Lamb,  C.  A.,  325. 

LaMoille  Co.,  Homo,  in,  266. 

LaMunyon.  Ira  W^.  400. 

Lancaster  county,  Pa.,  Homo,  in,  151. 

LaSalle  Co..  Homo.  Med.  Soc,  351. 

Laura  Franklin  Free  Hosp.  for  Children, 

Lawton,  Charles  H.,  274. 
Lebanon  County,  Pa.,  Homo,  in,  153. 
Leech,  J.  Stuart,  153. 
Leech,  J.  W.,  179. 
Leipsic,  Homoeopathic  Hospital,  37. 
Leritz,  Jacob,  147. 
Leon.  Alexis,  190. 
Leonard,  William  H.,  392. 
Lewis  County,  N.  Y.,  Homo,  in,  98. 
Lewis,  Edwin  W.,  lOi. 
Lewis,  Emlin,  399. 
Lexington,  Homo,  in,  367. 
Lillie,  Rev.  James,  95. 
Lindsay.  Albert,  223. 
Lingen,  George,  147,  343. 
Linn  Co.,  Homo.  IMed.  Soc,  386. 
Linnell,  J.  E..  235. 
Lippe,  Adolph,  153. 

Livingston  County,  N.  Y.,  Homo.  in.  98. 
Loguc.  John  D..  374. 
Lord,  Israel  S.  P.,  357- 
Louisiana,  Homo,  in,  188. 
Lounsbury,   George,  404. 



Lovejoy,  Ezekiel,  loo,  153. 

Ludlam,  Reuben,  353. 

Lund,  Dr.  Hans  Chris.,  42. 

Lund,  Oscar  F.,  252. 

Lux,  Wilhelm,  Veterinarian  Homoeopa- 

thist,  41. 
Lyon,  Irving  M.,  202. 
Lytle,  Randal  M.,  370. 


Madison  County,  N.  Y.,  Homo,  in,  102. 

Maine,  Homo,  in,  303. 

Maine  Homo.  Med.  Soc,  304. 

Mann,  Thos.  H.,  279. 

Mansa,  Edward,  150. 

Mansfield,  Wm.  Q.,  415. 

Manter,  N.  H.,  176. 

Marion  Co.  Homo.  Med.  Soc,  297. 

Marix,  Martin  M.,  407,  415. 

Marsden,  John  H.,  153. 

Marsh,  Anna  E.  P.,  408. 

Marsh,  Horatio  R.,  421. 

Marston,   Mortimer,  386. 

Martin,  Joseph,  189. 

Marvin,  S.,  154. 

Maryland  Homo.  Hosp.,  195. 

Maryland,  Homo,  in,  194. 

Maryland 'State  Homo.  Med.  Soc.  194. 

Massachusetts,  Early  Physicians,  238. 

Massachusetts  Homo.  Hosp.,  213. 

Massachusetts,  Homo,  in,  210. 

Massachusetts  Homo.  Med.  Soc,  210. 

Materia  Medica   Pura,   Presented  to  the 

World,  33. 
Maternity  Hosp.,  Minneapolis,  390. 
Matlack,  Charles  F.,  137. 
Matthes,  Gustavus  F.,  229. 
May,  Robert,  152. 
McAffee,  Edwin  M.,  360. 
McCanless,  W.  W.,  406. 
McCarthy,  Lewis,  96. 
McCheeney,  Alfred  B.,  354,  358. 
McClure,  W.  B.,  402. 
McGeorge,   Wallace,   253. 
Mclntire,  Dr.,  343. 
McKinley  Memo.  Hosp.,  242. 
McManus,  Felix  R.,  196. 
^McNeil,  Daniel,  252. 
^IcVickar,  John  Aug.,  90. 
Medical  Investigation  Club,  195. 
Medical  Science  Club  of  Chicago,  351. 
Medical  Society,  Baltimore  Homo.,  195. 
Medical  Society,  Caledonia  Co.,  259. 
Medical    Society,   Calif.    State,   378. 
^ledical  Society,  Camden  Homo.,  241. 
Medical  Society,  Central  Ills.  Homo.,  349. 
Medical  Societj',  Central  N.  Y.,  49. 
Medical  Society,  Chicago  Homo.,  349. 
Medical  Society,  Clinical  of  Balto.,  195. 
Ixledlcal  Society,  Colorado  State,  407. 

Medical  Society, 
Medical  Society, 
Medical  Society, 
Medical  Society, 

Medical  Society, 
Medical  Society, 
Medical  Society, 
Medical  Society, 
Medical  Society, 
Medical  Society, 
Medical  Society, 
Medical  Society, 
Medical  Society, 
Medical    Society, 

and  Cos.  Adj., 
Medical  Society, 
Medical  Society, 
Medical  Society, 
Medical  Society, 
!Medical  Society, 
Medical  Society, 
Medical  Society, 
Medical  Societj^ 
Medical  Society, 
Medical  Society, 
Medical  Society, 
Medical  Society, 
INIedical  Society, 
Medical  Society, 
IMedical  Society, 
Medical  Society, 
IMedical  Society, 
Medical  Society, 
Medical  Society, 
Medical  Society, 
IMedical  Society, 
Medical  Society, 
Medical  Society, 
Medical    Society, 

Medical     Society, 

shire,  289. 
Medical  Society, 
Medical  Society, 
IMedical  Society, 
Medical  Society, 
Medical  Society, 
Medical  Society, 
Medical  Society, 
Aledical  Society, 
IMedical  Society, 
^Medical  Society, 
^ledical  Society, 
Medical  Society, 
Medical  Society, 
Medical  Society, 
Medical  Society, 
Medical  Society, 
IMedical  Society, 
Medical  Societv. 

Communipaw,  241. 
Conn.  State,  200. 
Cook  Co.  Homo.,  349. 
County  and  Local  in  Pa., 

Delaware  Homo.,  269. 
Eastern  Dist.  Homo.,  241. 
Eastern  Ohio,  168. 
Essex  Co.  Homo.,  241. 
Florida  State,  410. 
Fourteenth  Dist.,  350. 
Grace  of  New  Haven,  201. 
Hahnemannian,    112. 
Homo,  of  Alabama,  342. 

Homo,   of   Northampton 


Homo,  of  Penna.,  112. 
Hudson  Co.  Homo.,  242. 
Hudson  River  Homo.,  51. 
Illinois  State  Homo.,  347. 
Illinois  Valley,  349. 
Indiana  Institute,  297. 
Kansas  Homo.,  415. 
Kentucky  State,  283. 
La  Salle  Co.  Homo.,  351. 
Maine  Homo.,  304. 
Maryland  State,  194. 
Mass.  Homo.,  210. 
Medico-Chirurgical,  50. 
IMichigan  Homo.,  324. 
IMilitary  Tract,  349. 
Miss.  State  Homo.,  395. 
Nebraska  State,  398. 
New  Hampshire,  289. 
New  Haven,  201. 
New  Jersey  State,  241. 
N.  Y.  Homo.,  48,  82. 
Northern  Ills.  Homo.,  349. 
N.  Ind.  and  S.  Mich.,  297. 

Northern    Indiana    Inst, 

Northern    New    Hamp- 

Northern  New  York,  49. 
N.  W.  Ills.  Homo.,  351. 
Ohio  Homo.,  167. 
Old  Dominion,  162. 
Oregon  State.  412. 
Pacific  of  Cal.,  379. 
Rhode  Island  Homo.,  276. 
Rockford  Homo.,  351. 
Southern,  188. 
Southern  Tier,  50. 
Tennessee  Homo.,  370. 
Terre  Haute.  297. 
Topeka  Homo.,  415. 
Vermont  Homo.,  258. 
Washington  Homo.,  317. 
Washington  State,  424. 
Wayne  Co.  Homo.,  297. 
Western  Dist.  N.  J.,  241. 



Medical  Society,  Western  Kentucky,  284. 
Medical  Society,  Western  N.  Y.,  50. 
Medical  Society.  West  Va.,  163. 
Medical  Society,  Wisconsin  State,  338. 
Medical  Society,  Women's  of  Chicago,  351. 
Med.,  Surg,  and  Matern.  Hosp.,  121. 
Medico-Chirurgical  Society  of  Central  New 

York.  50. 
Melrose,  James.  358. 

Memorial  Hosp.  for  Women  and  Chil.,  57. 
Mercer  County,  Pa.,  Homo,  in,  154. 
Mercer,  William  M.,  375. 
Merrill,  John,  312. 
Merrill.  S.  A.,  387. 
]\Ierriman,  Charles  L.,  328. 
Metropolitan  Hosp.  on  Blackwell's  Isl.,  56. 
Michigan,  Homo,  in,  322. 
Middleton,  John  D.,  404. 
Middleton,  R.  S.,  244. 
Middletown  State  Homo.  Hosp.,  51. 
Military  Tract  Homo.  Med.  Soc,  349. 
Miller,  Adam,  173. 
Miller,  Adam,  354,  359. 
Miller,  A.,  408. 
Miller,  A.  C,  403. 
Miller,  John  J.,  419. 
Minneapolis  Homo.  Hosp..  390. 
Minneapolis  Matem.  Hosp.,  390. 
Minnesota,  Homo,  in,  389. 
Minnesota  State  Homo.  Inst.,  390. 
Minter,  Samuel,  190.      ^ 
Mississippi,  Homo,  in,  395. 
Missouri  Homoeopathic  Inst.,  364. 
Missouri,  Homo,  in,  363. 
Missouri  Inst,  of  Homo.,  364. 
Moffat,  Reuben  Curtis,.  102. 
IMoffit,  Elizabeth,  364. 
Montana,  Homo,  in,  409. 
Monument  to  Hahnemann,  315. 
Moore,  G.  T.,  154. 
Moore,  John  D.,  244. 
Moore,  J.  Murray,  381. 
Morgan,  John  C,  358. 
Morgan,  J.  H.,  372. 
Morgan,  Louis  A.,  loi. 
Morgan,  W.  L.,  402. 
Morrill,  Alpheus,  175. 
Morris,  M.,  415. 
Morrison,  H.  J.,  419. 
Morse,  Nathan  R.,  225. 
Morton,  Lucien  H.,  203. 
Mosher,  John,  325. 
Mosher,  John,   Biog.,   331. 
Mount  Vernon  Homo.  Hosp.,  59. 
Muhlenbein,  Dr.  Geo.  A.  H.,  42. 
Mulford,  Charles  W.,  255. 
Mi.iller,  Moritz  Wilhelm,  42. 
Munger,  Erastus  A.,  100. 
iMunsey,  Barton,  405. 
Murphy,  William,  287. 
Murrell,  William  J.,  343. 


National  Homo.  Hosp.,  317. 

Nebraska,  Homo,  in,  398. 

Nebraska   State  Homo.  Med.  Soc,  398. 

Negendank.  August,  272. 

Neidhard.  Charles,   147. 

Nevada,  Homo,  in,  423. 

Newburyport  Homo.   Hosp.,  214. 

Newell,  William  H..  252. 

New  Hampshire,  Homo,  in,  289. 

New  Hampshire  Homo.  Med.  Soc,  289. 

New  Haven,  Homo,  in,  202. 

New  Haven  Homo.  Med.  Soc,  201. 

New  Jersey.  Homo,  in,  240. 

New  Jersey  State  Homo.  Med.  Soc,  241. 

New  Mexico,  Homo,  in,  425. 

New  Orleans,  Homo,  in,  189. 

New  Orleans,  Pharmacies,  192. 

Newton,  Charles,  253. 

New  York  City,  Early  Homos.,  99. 

New  York  Homo.   Hosp.   for  Women  and 

Chil.,  54. 
New  York,  Homoeopathy  in,  44. 
New  York  Homoeopathic   Medical  Society, 

New  York  Homo.  Society,  82. 
New  York  Homo.  Surg.  Hosp.,  54,  57. 
New  York  State  Sch.  for  Tr.  Nurses,  55. 
Niagara  County,  N.  Y.,  Homo.  in.  loi. 
Nichols,  Lemuel  B.,  234. 
Nichols,  Z.  B.,  390. 
North    American    Acad,    of    the    Homo. 

Healing  Art,  114. 
North  Carolina,  Homo,  in,  405. 
Northeastern  Iowa  Homo.  Med.   Soc,  386. 
Northern  111.  Homo.  Med.  Assn..  349. 
Northern  Indiana  Homo.  Inst.,  297. 
Northern  N.  H.  Homo.  Med.  Soc,  289. 
North  Mo.  Val.  Homo.  Med.  Soc,  386. 
Northrup,   Daniel  W.,  202. 
Northwestern  Ills.  Homo.  Med.   Soc,  351. 
Novelle,  Orleans,   Soc.  Hahn,,   188. 


Oakland    Homo.    Hosp.    and    Disp.    Assn., 

Ober,  Benjamin,  377. 
Ober,  Levi  E.,  340,  357. 
Ockford,  George  M.,  253. 
O'Dell,  Charles  M.,  329- 
Oehme,  Ferdinand,  222. 
Ohio  Homo.  Hosps.,  168. 
Ohio,  Homo,  in,  166. 
Ohio,  Homo.  Med.  Soc,  167. 
Ohio  Hosp.  for  Women  and  Chil.,  170. 
Oklahoma,  Homo,  in,  425. 
Okie,  Abraham  H.,  275. 
Old  Dominion,  Hahn.  Med.  Soc,  162. 
Olds,  E.  R,  326. 



Olipliant,  D.  S.,   191. 

Orange  County,  N.  Y.,  Homo,  in,  102. 

Orange  Co.,  Vt..  Homo,  in,  267. 

Orcutt.  Hiram  C,  259. 

Ordway,  L.  S.,  422. 

Oregon,  Homo.  in.  412.  , 

Oregon  State  Homo.  Med.  Soc,  412. 

Organon.  It.s  Appearance,  29. 

Orleans  County,  N.  Y.,  Homo,  in,  102. 

Ornie.   Francis  H.,  334. 

Osborne.  James   H.,  204. 

Osgood,   David,   221. 

Owens,  William.   t8i. 

Pacific  Homo.  Med.  Soc,  379. 
Pahl,  H.  F.,  376. 
Paine,  Henry  i)elavan,  84. 
Paine,  Horace  M.,   102. 
Paine,  Joseph  P.,  223. 
Palmer,  Walter  C,  89. 
Parker,  Henry  C,  Z7i- 
Parkhurst,  Charles  B.,  259. 
Parlin,  Louis,  275. 
Parsons,   Ephraim,   358. 
Parsons,  George  R.,  375. 
Parsons,  William   H.,  415. 
Passaic  Homo.  Hosp.,  242. 
Patton,  J.  H.,  164. 
Paulson,  Dr.,  380. 
Payne,  John,   307. 
Payne,  William  E.,  305. 
Peabody,  Adams,  387. 
Peabody,  Ira  W.,  loi. 
Peacock,  Thomas,  247. 
Pearce,  Henry,  340.  " 
Pearson,  Clement,  386. 
Peck,  William,  174. 
Pelton,  Harrison  S..  420. 
Pelton,  Sylvester,  101. 
Penniman,  William.  392. 
Penna.  Homo.  Hosp.   for  Chil.,   119. 
Pennsylvania,  Homo,   in,   iii. 
Pennsylvania,  Old  Practitioners  in,  160. 
Perkins,  Robert   S.,   163. 
Perrine,   George  W..  339. 
Perrine,  James  K.,  420. 
Perry,  J.  D.,  325. 
Peterson,  James,  290. 
PfeifTer,  Geo.  S.  F.,  147,  249. 
Pfonts,  John  S..  339.  413. 
Pharmacies  in  New  York  State,  102. 
Pharmacies  in  Ohio.  185. 
Philadelphia,  List  of  Old  Homo.   Practi- 
tioners, 159. 
Phillips,   Albert   W..   2aS. 
Pike,  A.  J.,  261. 
Piper,  John,  317. 
Pitney,  Aaron,  345. 
Pittsburgh,  Homo,  in,  153. 

Plumbe,  E.  O.,  418. 

Polk  Co.  Homo.  Med.  Soc,  386. 

Pollock,  Alex.,  360. 

Pomeroy,   Thomas   F.,   Sketch,    331. 

Pond,  L  W.,  154. 

Pope,  Gustavus  W.,  319. 

Porter,   David  C,  154. 

Porter,   Isaac   G.,  202. 

Porter,   Maria  W.,  387. 

Porter,   William  W.,  357. 

Portland  Meth.   Hosp.,  413. 

Potter,   E.,  356. 

Powers,  David  C.  330. 

Practitioners   in   New   York,  Early,   104. 

Practitioners  in  Penna.,   160. 

Practitioners   in   Phila.,    159. 

Pratt,  Leonard,   153,  358. 

Pratt,  S.  Milton,  415. 

Prentice,  Nathan   Fay,  359. 

Pretsch,   Dr.,   154. 

Price,  Dr.,  174. 

Price,  E.  H.,  372. 

Provers'  Union,  38. 

Provers'  Union  and  Mat.  Med.  Club,  351. 

Pulsifer,  Moses  R.,  310. 

Pulsifer,  Nathan  G.  H.,  310. 

Pulte,  Joseph  H.,  152,  171. 

Pyburn,  George,  408. 


Quin.  James  M.,  92. 
Quinby,   Watson    Fell,  iji. 


Raue,  Charles  G.,  230. 

Ravold,  Jacques,  366. 

Raymond,  Jonas   C,  383. 

Rea,  Albert,  312. 

Reading  Homo.  Hosp.,   123. 

Reed,  Maro  Mch.,  358. 

Reichhelm,   GustaVus,   154. 

Reid,  Fidelia  R.  H.,  340. 

Reinhold,   C.   G.,   150. 

Reisner.  J.   C.,   153. 

Rensselaer  County,  N.  Y.,  Homo,  in,  97. 

Rend,  William  R..  382. 

Rhees,  Morgan  John,  245. 

Rheiwinkle,   F.   H.,   177. 

Rhode  Island  Homo.  Hosp.,  276. 

Rhode  Island,  Homo,  in,  275. 

Rhode  Island  Homo.  Med.  Soc,  276. 

Rich,  Jane  A.,  266. 

Richards,   George   W.,  244. 

Richmond,  B.  W.,  175. 

Richter,  F.  L..  418. 

Richter,  Moritz,  380. 

Ring,  Hamilton,  180. 

Rivera,   D.,   376. 

Roberts,  Francis  A.,  308. 

Roberts,  Jacob,  308. 



Robinson,  Henry  D.,  255. 
Robinson,  Horatio,  95. 
Robinson,  Lucy,  400. 
Robinson,  Samuel  A.,  154. 
Roche,  Manning  B.,  228. 
Rochester  Homo.  Hosp.,  57. 
Rockford  Homo.  Med.  Soc,  351. 
Rock  River  Inst,  of  Homo.,  350. 
Rockwell,  R.  W.,  205. 
Rodman,   Wm.  W.,  206. 
Rogers,  Smith,  329. 
Romig,  George  M.,  135. 
Romig,  John,   135. 
Romig,  William  H.,  135. 
Rosa,  Lemuel  K.,  183. 
Rosa,  Storm,  182. 
Rosenstein,  L  G.,  283. 
Rossman,  Robert,  98. 
Routh,  G.  E.,  zy^. 
Royer,  Dr.,  375. 
Rueckert,  Ernst  Ferd.,  40. 
Runner,  Reuben  C.,  367. 
Russell,   George,  232. 
Rutherford,  C.  E.,  301. 
Rutland  Co.,  Homo,  in,  267. 
Rutter,  J.  C,  154. 

Saal,   Gerhard,   176. 
Sabine,  L.,  325. 
St.  Luke's  Homo.  Hosp.,  125. 
St.  Luke's  Hosp.,  410. 
St.  Mary's  Homo.  Hosp.,  Passaic,  242. 
St.  Paul  Homo.  Hosp.,  390. 
St.  Vincent's  Hosp.,  169. 
Sanborn,  Beniah,  263. 
Sanborn,  J.  M.,  263. 
Sanborn,  John,  264. 
Sandicky,  Dr.,  305. 
Sanford,   Charles  E.,  204. 
Sanford,  Edward,  235. 
San  Francisco  Co.  Soc.  of  Homo.  Practi- 
tioners, 380. 
San  Francisco  Surg,  and  Gynec.  Inst.,  380. 
Saunders,   Chas.   F.,  278. 
Savage,  A.  M.,  102. 
Sawin,  Isaac  W.,  281. 
Sawyer,  Alfred  I.,  Sketch,  332. 
Sawyer,  Bcnj.  E.,  236. 
Saxenburger,  F.,  399. 
Saynisch,  Lewis,   149. 
Schafer,   Dr.,  343. 
Scheurer,  P.,  143. 
Schlagel,  Dr.,   174. 
Schley,  James  M.,  334. 
Schmidt,  Jacob,  144,  198. 
Schmoelc,  William,   144. 
Schue,  John,  202. 

Schuyler  County,  N.  Y.,  Homo,  in,   loi. 
Scott   Co,   Homo.   INIed.   Soc,  386. 
Scott,  Dr..   154. 

Scott,  M.  L.,  407. 

Searles,  Samuel,  154. 

Sears,   R.   H.,   Reminiscences,   301. 

Seidlitz,  George  M.,  387. 

Sel fridge,  J.  M.,  382. 

Shackford,  Rufus,  307. 

Shawnee  Co.  Homo.  Med.  Soc,  415. 

Shearer,  Thomas,  414. 

Sheffield,   Henry,  369. 

Shepherd,  Alfred,  177. 

Shepherd,    David,    175. 

Sheppard,  Wm.  R.,  254. 

Sherman,  John  H.,  237. 

Shipman,  George  E.,  353,  355. 

Shivers,  Bowman  H.,  247. 

Sieze,  Emanuel,  94. 

Similia  Similibus  Curantur,  Principle  of, 

Sisson,  Edward  R.,  229. 
Sisson,  William  H.  H.,  399. 
Sioux  City  Homo.  Med.  Assn.,  386. 
Skeels,    Alfred    P.,   393. 
Skiff,  Charles  H.,  202. 
Skiff.  Chas.  W.,  203. 
Skiff,  Paul  C,  203. 
Slye.  Lawton  C,  340. 
Small,  Alvan  E.,  150. 
Smith,  David  S.,  345. 
Smith,  D.  S.,  357. 
Smith,  Eugene,  422. 
Smith,  F.  S.,  154. 
Smith,  John  Elisha,  400. 
Snow,  Robert  A.,   179. 
Societe  Hahn.  De  La  N.  Orleans,  188. 
Society  of  Homo.  Pract.,  380. 
Society  of  Homo.  Phys.  of  Iowa,  386. 
Sook,   Henry   L.,   176. 
South   Carolina,  Homo,  in,  413. 
Southern   Cal.   State  Asy.   for   Insane  and 

I  neb.,  380. 
Southern  Homo.  Med.  Assn.,  188. 
Southern  Kan.   Homo.  Med.  Assn.,  415. 
Southern  Tier  Homo.  Med.  Soc,  50. 
Spain,   Homoeopathy  in,  20. 
Sparhawk,  George  E.  F.,  262. 
Sparhawk,  Samuel  H.,  263. 
Spaulding,  Dr.,  99,  364. 
Spencer,    Nathan,   98. 
Sperry,  Dr.,  390. 
Spooner,  John  P.,  216. 
Spranger,  F.  X.,  154. 
Springer,  C.  F.,  375. 
Stapf,   Johann   Ernst,   38. 
Starr,  Edward  W.,  335. 
Starrett,  Simon  P.,  393. 
State  Asylum  for  Insane,  Mo.,  364. 
State  Homo.  Med.  Soc.  of  Miss.,  395. 
Stearns,  Daniel  Edward.  T},. 
Stegemann,  Dr.,  42. 
Steinestel,  J.  D.,  365. 
Stevens,  Charles  A.,  98. 


Stevens,  Grenville  S.,  277. 

Stevens,  Porter,  383. 

Stewart,  David  G.,  300. 

Stewart,  Jerry  W.,  415. 

Stewart,  Walter,  91,  396. 

Stone,  Henry  E.,  205. 

Storke,  Eugene  F.,  408. 

Stout,  Henry  Rice,  410. 

Stratton,  C.  W.,  236. 

Streeter,  George  D.,  ^j'jd,  399. 

Sturdevant,  Thomas,  254. 

Sturm,  William,  171. 

Suffolk  County,  N.  Y.,  Homo,  in,  102.  . 

Swain,  Marcus,  340. 

Swan,  Daniel,  216. 

Swazey,  George  W.,  226. 

Sweden,  Homoeopathy  in,  19. 

Swinney,  John  G.,  273. 

Syracuse  and  Utica  Com.  of  Homo.  Phys. 

Syracuse  Homo.  Hosp.,  59. 


Tacoma  Homo.  Acad,  of  Med.,  424. 
Taft,  Cincinnatus  A.,  201. 
Taft,  Gustavus  M.,  201. 
Tantum,   Joseph   R.,   274. 
Taplin,  T.  C,  259. 
Tarbell,  John  Adams,  219. 
Taxil,  L.  V.  M.,  189. 
Taylor,  Charles,  201. 
Taylor,  Charles  W.,  234. 
Taylor,  Dr.  George,  201. 
Taylor,  John,  92. 
Taylor,  Oliver  B.,  204. 
Temple,  John,  363. 
Temple,  Peter,  367. 
Tennessee,  Homo,  in,  369. 
Terre  Haute  Homo.  Med.  Soc,  297. 
Texas,  Homo,  in,  2)1})- 
Texas  Homo.  Med.  Assn.,  2,^2,- 
Tifft,  John,  176. 

Tioga  County,  Pa..  Homo,  in,  149. 
Thayer,  David,  221. 
Thayer,   S.  B.,  327. 
Thayer,  S.  B.,  Biog.,  331. 
The  Dakotas,  Homo,  in,  418. 
Thomas,  Wm.  Way,  273. 
Thompson,  Greenfield,  310. 
Thorp,  John  H.,  loi. 
Thorne,  Joshua,  366. 
Thorne,  L.,  406. 
Todd,  W.  S.,  Sr.,  loi. 
Toledo  Protestant  Hosp.,  171. 
Tomlinson,  Rev.  Mr.,  222. 
Topeka  Homo.  Med.  Soc,  415. 
Tracy,  L.  M.,  96,  338. 
Train,  Horace  Dwight,  223. 
Trinks,  Dr.  C.  F.,  41. 
Troyer,  Moses,  355. 

Tucker,  S.  Giles,  202. 
Tyson,  Dr.,  367. 


Ulrich,  Dr.,  343. 
Utah,  Homo,  in,  417. 
Utah  Homo.  Med.  Assn.,  417. 
Utica  Homo.  Hosp.,  59. 

Vail,   Ira,   364. 
Vail,  J.,  190. 

Van  Beuren,  Louis  Folk,  78. 
Van  Buren,  L.  H.,  295. 
Vanderburgh,  Federal,  79. 
Van  Deusen,  H.  A.,  237. 
Van  Deusen,  James  M.,  261. 
Van  Dusen,  A.,  327. 
Vastine,   Thomas  J.,   364. 
Veith,   Prof.   S.,  41. 
Venango  County,  Pa.,  Homo,  in,  154. 
\"erdi.  Giro  S.,  321. 
Verdi,  Tullio  S.,  320. 
Vermont,  Homo,  in,  258.     ' 
Vermont  Homo.  Med.  Soc,  258. 
Vinal,  L.  G.,  255. 
Virginia,  Homo,  in,  162. 
Virginia,  Old  Phys.  of,  164. 
Voak,  John  Emory,  357. 
von  Gottschalk,  Wm.,  281. 


Wager,  Sanford,  265. 

Waggoner,   Calvin  C.,  388. 

Wahlenberg,     Dr.     George,      Introduces 

Hom'y  in  Sweden,  19. 
Wakeman,  John  A.,  360. 
Walkenbarth,  Dr.,  366. 
Walker,  Amos,  326. 
Walker,  Charles,  222. 
Walker,  George  S.,  2^6. 
Walker,   L.,  400. 
Walthall,  Dr.,  164. 
Walther,  Edward,  388,  391. 
Ward,  Isaac  M.,  242. 
Ward,  Walter,  245. 
Ward's  Island  Homo.  Hosp.,  57. 
Warner,  Nash  Hull,  97. 
Washington  Co.,  Pa.,  Homo,  in,  154. 
Washington,  D.  C,  Homo,  in,  315. 
Washington  Homo.  Med.  Soc,  317. 
Washington,  Homo,  in,  424. 
Washington   Medical  and  Surgical   Club, 

Washington  State  Homo.  Med.   Soc,  424. 
W'auke,   Dr..    152. 
Way,  Jacob  H.,  399. 
Wayne  Co.  Homo.  Med.  Soc,  297. 
Wayne  County,  Pa.,  Homo,  in,  154. 



Weber,   Charles  S.,  392. 

Webster,  Elias,  179. 

Webster,  H.  D.   L.,  422. 

Webster,  William,   179. 

Wedelstaedt,  H.,  390. 

Weisicker,  Dr.,  383. 

Weld.   Chris.   M.,  219. 

Wellman,  Washington  I.,  loi. 

Wells,  Phineas  P.,  93. 

Werder,  Max  J.,   154. 

Werder,   Maximilian,  382. 

Westboro  Asylum   for  Insane,  212. 

West,   Edwin,   154. 

West  Jersey  Homo.  Hosp.,  242. 

West   Phila.   Homo.   Hosp.  and   Disp.,   128 

West  Virginia,  Homo,  in,  402. 

West  Virginia  Homo.  Med.  Soc,  163. 

Wesselhoeft,  Robert,   134,  233. 

Wesselhoeft,  William,  132,  218. 

Western  Dist.  N.  J.  Homo.  Med.  Soc,  241. 

Western  Ky.  Homo.  Med.  Soc.,  284. 

Western  New  York  Homo.  Med.  Soc.  50. 

Wheat,  John  N.,  392. 

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Wheeler.  John,  174. 

White.  Isaiah,  417. 

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Whitehead,  Coburn,   149. 

Whitfield,  N.  C,  418. 

Whitman,  Joshua  A.,  413. 

Whitman,  Marcus,  412. 

Whittier,  Daniel  B.,  237. 

Whittle,  Joshua  F.,  290. 

Wichita    Homo.    Hosp.,  415. 

Wicstling,  Dr.,  154. 

Wigand,  Henry,   179. 

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Wilder,  Daniel,  229. 

Wilkinson,  Ross  M.,  246. 

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History  of  Homoeopathy 




The  Subject  Introduced — Discovery  in  IMedical  Science — Brief  Allusion  to  the  Founder — 
Homoeopathy  in  Germany  —  Bohemia — Austria — Russia — France — Italy — America — 
Sweden — Great   Britain^Spain — Belgium — Cuba. 

The  discovery  of  glaring  and  inexctisable  inconsistencies  in  the  practice 
and  administration  of  medicine  during  the  last  quarter  of  the  eighteenth 
century  led  to  the  promulgation  of  a  safer  method  of  cure  than  the  world 
had  before  known.  It  is  said  that  evolution  and  development  were  the  talis- 
manic  watchwords  of  the  nineteenth  century,  during  which  were  made  the 
greatest  strides  in  advancement  in  the  arts  and  sciences  that  the  world  had 
known  in  all  history,  and  that  among  the  thousands  of  remarkable  discov- 
eries which  marked  that  century  most  of  them  dated  within  the  last  half 
thereof.  This  may  be  true,  and  if  it  is  homoeopathy  is  to  be  credited  to  the 
advances  in  medical  science  of  the  preceding  century,  and  to  have  attained 
its  greatest  degree  of  development  and  perfection  during  the  last  fifty  years. 
Homa-opathy  at  the  beginning  of  the  twentieth  century  rests  on  the  solid 
fundamental  principle  established  by  its  founder  more  than  a  hundred  years 
ago,  and  from  that  beginning  has  advanced  in  every  conceivable  direction, 
keeping  even  step  with  the  grand  march  of  progress  in  every  branch  of 
science  throughout  all  subsequent  time. 

It  was  not  that  Hahnemann  was  raised  up  for  his  special  mission  in  life ; 
he  was  born  and  raised  and  trained  as  were  others  of  his  time ;  in  childhood 
and  youth  endowed  with  mental  qualities  as  were  those  with  whom  he  asso- 
ciated, not  more  gifted  than  they,  perhaps,  but,  unlike  them,  was  possessed 
of  a  studious  mind,  an  inquiring  nature,  and  he  loved  the  companionship  of 
his  books  more  than  the  pleasures  of  idle  hours,  and  far  more  than  he  loved 
his  father's  workshop,  v/here  he  was  sought  to  be  kept  with  the  brushes  and 
paints  and  porcelain  wares  until  he  was  skilled  in  the  art  of  his  father.  But 
whatever  the  environment  of  his  youth,  his  early  advantages  in  education 
and  his  ultimate  determination  to  enter  tipon  the  life  of  a  physician,  Hahne- 
mann was  in  many  respects  a  remarkable  man,  and  what  he  did  was  only  the 
right  employment  of  the  talents  with  which  he  had  been  endowed  by  nature 
and  directed  by  circumstances. 

It  has  been  said  with  much  truth  that  the  early  history  of  homoeopathy 
in  Germany  was  only  the  history  of  Hahnemann's  life  in  that  country,  the 


story  of  which  is  told  by  Bradford  in  these  pages,  as  it  has  been  told  by  hun- 
dreds of  other  commentators.  "  It  is  easy  to  show,"  Ptihlitian  says  of  Hahne- 
mann, "  that  when  he  advanced  his  new  doctrine  he  not  only  made  opposi- 
tion to  the  spirit  of  that  time,  but  that  he  necessarily  paid  a  tribute  to  the 
latter  by  plantmg  the  roots  of  the  new  system  into  the  old  soil.  We  know 
from  his  biography  that  he  withdrew  in  disgust  from  the  old  shallow  mode 
of  practice  and  devoted  iiimself  for  some  time  to  the  study  of  chemistry." 

To  appreciate  the  worth  of  Hahnemann's  character  one  must  also  know 
something  of  the  condition  of  medicine  in  his  time,  but  a  thorough  study  of 
this  subject  leads  into  a  limitless  field,  dangerous  and  uncertain  even  to 
the  cautious  logician  of  the  twentieth  century,  for  the  greatest  achievements 
in  this  particular  branch  of  science  are  credited  to  the  last  fifty  years.  This 
is  true  not  only  of  the  homoeopathic  school,  but  as  well  of  the  so-called  (by 
themselves)  regular  school. 

But  the  opponents  of  the  doctrine  propounded  by  Hahnemann,  and  im- 
proved upon  and  elaborated  by  his  more  modern  followers,  never  have 
regarded  homcEopathy  in  the  light  of  advanced  medical  science,  and  with 
the  truth  before  them  of  the  enlightened  age  in  which  they  live,  still  charac- 
terize the  principles  of  siniilia  similihus  ciirantiir  as  one  of  the  fallacies  of 
a  former  era ;  but  they  practice  it,  at  times  consult  its  "  dogmatic  "  theories, 
and  liaving  intelligently  investigated  and  compared  it  with  the  teachings 
under  which  they  themselves  were  schooled,  they  are  frequently  led  to  accept 
its  truths  and  employ  them  in  practice.  It  is  a  fact  that  in  America  to-day 
just  about  one-sixth  part  of  the  medical  practitioners  employing  the  agencies 
of  cure  taught  exclusively  in  homoeopathic  schools  are  graduates  of-  allo- 
pathic colleges,  and  that  notwithstanding  the  fact  that  of  the  hundred  schools 
of  medical  instruction  in  America  onlv  one-fifth  of  them  are  distinctly  homoe- 
opathic in  teaching. 

Hahnemann  propounded  his  startling  dogma  in  Germany  in  1790,  after 
which  the  new  school  passed  through  many  wonderful  and  prolonged  tests, 
trials  and  opposition  before  it  was  recognized  and  tolerated  in  other  countries. 
But  the  seed  had  been  sown  in  fertile  German  soil,  grew  there  and  flour- 
ished, and  eventually  spread  out  its  branches  into  other  lands.  According 
to  Altschul,  the  new  doctrine  was  introduced  in  Bohemia  in  1817,  and  in 
the  next  year  Veith,  the  great  nestor,  had  his  attention  directed  to  it  by 
Krastiansky.  the  famous  army  surgeon.  In  Austria  it  found  lodgment  in 
1819,  with  Gossncr  practicing  in  Oberhollabrun  and  Mussek  in  Seafeld.  but 
in  the  same  year  Emperor  Francis  I  ordered  that  "  Dr.  Hahnemann's  homoe- 
opathic method  of  cure  should  be  generally  and  strictly  forbidden;"  but  the 
prohibition  was  only  temporary.  In  Russia  the  system  was  first  introduced 
by  laymen  as  early  as  1823,  and  soon  afterward  Dr.  Adams,  the  friend  of 
Hahnemann,  began  practice  in  St.  Petersburg.  France  caught  the  infection 
in  1830.  when  the  new  doctrine  found  there  its  first  expounder  in  Count  des 
Guidi,  a  doctor  of  medicine,  doctor  of  science,  and  inspector  of  the  Uni- 
versity at  Lyons,  who  had  occasion  to  consult  de  Romani,  a  homoeopathic 
physician  of  great  reputation  in  Naples. 

In  writing  of  the  introduction  of  homoeopathy  into  Italy,  Dadea,  M.D. 
of  Turin,  says  the  seed  was  sown  in  the  soil  of  Naples  by  the  Austrians 
who  entered  that  citv  in  March,  1821,  "to  deprive  its  noble  inhabitants  of 
the  liberty  they  had  gained  bv  the  revolution  of  the  same  year.  The  general 
in   command   of   the   army   of   occupation,   Baron    Francis   Koller,   a   devoted 



friend  of  homaopathy,  presented  to  the  Royal  Academy  of  Naples  a  copy 
of  Hahnemann's  Organon  and  Materia  Medica,  inviting  them  to  make  use 
of  it  for  the  benefit  of  conscience  and  humanity." 

Gram  carried  the  new  system  on  his  voyage  to  America  in  1825,  when 
he  set  foot  on  the  soil  of  New  York,  then,  as  now,  the  first  city  in  the  land, 
and  he  the  first  exponent  of  the  doctrine,  a  scholar,  teacher,  and  in  every 
respect  a  gentleman,  but  not  well  calculated  to  combat  the  prejudices  of 
those  who  made  war  on  his  principles.  This  was  the  home-coming  of  Gram, 
but  the  tidings  he  bore  found  no  warm  welcome  on  this  side  of  the  Atlantic. 
Further  than  this  it  does  not  become  this  chapter  to  treat  of  homceopathy  in 

Dr.  Johann  Ernst  Stapf. 

America,  that  being  the  principal  subject  of  the  greater  work  of  which  these 
comments  arc  only  introductory. 

The  honor  of  having  introduced  homoeopathy  in  Sweden  is  accorded  to 
Dr.  George  Wahlenberg,  a  professor  in  the  University  of  Upsala,  whose 
duties  required  him  to  lecture  on  the  subjects  of  botany  and  pharmacia  and 
organica,  and  who  in  order  to  qualify  himself  for  his  work  felt  bound  to 
study  the  few  homoeopathic  books  then  extant;  and  having  studied  them, 
he  became  convinced  of  their  rational  truth,  although  he  himself  never  prac- 
ticed the  new  system.  This  honor  fell  to  Leidbeck  and  Souden.  whose  first 
proselyte  was  Sonderberg,  the  eminent  botanist  and  ornithologist,  who  had 
settled  in  the  little  ancient  town  of  Sigtuna. 

Kerr,  :M.D.  of  Cheltenham,  in  his  historical  narrative  savs  that  although 
Hahnemann  published  his  Organon  of  Medicine  as  far  back' as  1810,  it  was 


not  until  1826  that  professional  notice  of  homoeopathy  was  taken  in  Great 
Britain,  when  at  a  meeting  of  the  Medical  Society  of  London  in  that  year 
the  subject  was  introduced,  inquired  into,  voted  upon,  and  "  dropped ;"  a 
most  natural  result  when  the  condition  of  the  medical  profession  in  the 
United  Kingdom  at  that  time  is  considered.  In  the  next  year,  however, 
there  settled  in  London  Frederic  F.  Quin,  physician  and  one  of  the  suite  of 
Prince  Leopold  of  Saxe-Coburg.  Quin  had  studied  homoeopathy  in  Ger- 
many, practiced  it  in  Naples,  and  had  the  honor  of  introducing  it  in  England. 
But  Quin,  on  account  of  his  presumption  in  practicing  in  England  without 
license  from  that  august  body,  the  censors  of  the  Royal  College  of  Physicians, 
was  brought  to  bar  by  them,  threatened  with  penalties,  but  not  giving  heed 
to  these  admonitions  was  left  severely  alone  to  pursue  his  own  pleasure  in 
undisturbed  peace.  Later  on,  however,  homoeopathy  came  under  the  ban 
of  persecution  in  Great  Britain  and  was  subjected  to  a  series  of  bitter  attacks, 
but  withstood  them  all  and  emerged  from  the  contest  stronger  and  better 
than  ever  before. 

"  In  1829  there  came  to  Madrid,"  says  the  narrative  of  the  homoeopathic 
society  of  the  Spanish  capital  city,  "  a  royal  commission  sent  by  the  King 
of  Naples  to  attend  the  marriage  of  Donna  Maria  Christina  with  Don  Ferdi- 
nand VII,  to  which  commission  Dr.  Horatiis,  a  practitioner  of  homoeopathy,, 
was  attached  as  physician.  But  as  his  stay  in  Spain  was  short  he  left  no 
notable  results  of  the  reformed  medicine  which  he  practiced."  Of  more 
importance  were  the  services  rendered  by  a  layman,  Zuarte,  a  merchant  of 
Cadiz,  who,  when  travelling  for  his  health,  made  the  acquaintance  of  Necker, 
and  became  an  enthusiast  on  the  subject  of  homoeopathic  treatment.  Zuarte 
was  the  friend  of  Senor  Vilalba  of  the  diplomatic  corps,  and  they  traveled 
together  to  Coethen  to  visit  Hahnemann  and  consult  with  him  concerning 
the  illness  of  the  former.  Following  the  founder's  advice,  he  went  to  Lyons 
and  was  cured,  and  in  the  gratitude  of  his  heart  he  bought  copies  of  Hahne- 
mann's works  and  distributed  them  among  the  physicians  of  Andalusia;  and 
he  sent  to  Leipsic,  at  his  own  expense,  a  medical  student  to  receive  the 
instructions  of  the  most  famous  German  homoeopaths  of  the  time.  Thus  the 
homoeopathic  doctrine  first  became  known  in  Spain  in  1829  and  1830,  and 
was  first  practiced  -in  the  Andalusian  provinces  of  that  country. 

Belgium  in  the  center  of  Western  Europe  has  for  centuries  excited  the 
covetousness  of  her  powerful  neighbors — Holland  on  the  north ;  the  German 
empire  011  the  east ;  France  on  the  west  and  southwest,  and  England  on  the 
west  and  separated  from  her  by  the  North  Sea.  During  the  last  five  cen- 
turies Belgium  has  been  occupied  in  turn  by  France,  Spain  and  Germany, 
and  not  until  1830  was  she  separated  from  Holland  to  establish  an  inde- 
pendent government.  About  1829  homoeopathy  made  its  appearance  in  the 
country,  when  DeMoor  of  Alost,  titular  surgeon  of  the  civil  hospital,  made 
himself  the  apostle  of  the  new  system.  About  two  years  afterward  Varlez 
and  Carlier  adopted  homoeopathic  practice  in  Brussels,  and  in  1837  thev,. 
with  the  assistance  of  Brixhe,  Dugniolle,  Van  Meerbur,  Dunemberg  and 
others  founded  the  Belgian  Homaopathic  Society. 

Homoeopathy  was  introduced  into  Havana  about  1842  by  Francisco  de 
P.  Escopet,  who  came  from  Spain  at  that  time.  The  earliest  practitioner 
of  the  school  in  Santiago  de  Cuba  was  Joaquin  Bramon,  who  came  from 
Barcelona  in  Spain  in  1845  and  continued  in  practice  until  1847.     I"  Jamaica 


"homoeopathy  was  practically  unknown  until  after  1870,  and  then  its  advocates 
were  for  a  time  suppressed  by  the  civil  authorities. 

Such,  then,  is  a  mere  outline  of  the  introduction  of  homoeopathy  in 
various  European  countries  and  some  of  their  western  possessions.  It  is 
not  the  province  of  this  work  to  treat  in  detail  the  history  of  homoeopathy 
in  other  countries  than  America,  but  only  to  trace  in  a  general  way  the 
gradual  outspreading  of  the  system  from  its  original  home  in  Germany  to 
other  foreign  principalities  and  ultimately  into  America ;  and  whatever  is 
written  in  these  introductory  pages  is  only  to  lay  the  foundation  of  the  ex- 
haustive narrative  which  begins  with  the  story  of  Hahnemann's  life  and  his 
subsequent  achievements  as  told  by  Bradford. 



The  Beginnings  of  Homoeopathy — Hahnemann,  the  Founder — His  Birth  and  Education — 
His  Trials  and  Triumphs — His  Death — Brief  Allusion  to  Some  of  the  Provers, 
Disciples  of  the  Founder. 

By  Thomas  Lindsley  Bradford,  M.  D. 

The  principle  of  similia  similibus  curantur  is  as  old  as  the  history  of 
medicine.  The  fact  that  a  substance  capable  of  producing  a  certain  series 
of  symptoms  will  also  remove  like  symptoms  when  produced  by  some  other 
cause,  was  known  to  the  ancient  fathers  of  medicine.  But  like  many  another 
truth,  although  cures  resulted  occasionally  and  were  noted  by  medical  writers, 
no  effort  ever  was  made  to  understand  and  make  practical  iise  of  this  law  of 
nature  until  Hahnemann,  a  German  chemist  and  physician,  whose  attention 
was  by  chance  called  to  it,  began  by  personal  experimentation  to  test  its  truth. 
After  much  effort,  through  trials,  through  trouble  and  ridicule,  harassed 
by  poverty,  ostracised  by  his  fellows,  he  steadily  pursued  his  way,  destined 
to  triumph  in  the  end  and  to  lay  his  burden  down,  having  passed  by  many 
years  the  usual  span  of  life,  in  the  most  brilliant  of  the  cities  built  by  men, 
rich,  respected,  and  honored,  recognized  as  the  founder  and  the  master  of 
a  great  medical  system  whose  practitioners  were  established  in  many  coun- 
tries. And  it  was  no  idle  utterance  that  fell  frrrally  from  his  Itps — "  Hon 
inutilis  vixi " — I  have  not  lived  in  vain. 

It  has  been  said  that  genius  consists  in  a  capacity  for  taking  infinite 
pains.  It  is  equally  true  that  the  exercise  of  that  faculty  is  not  entirely  at 
the  option  of  the  individual.  There  is  a  force  within  man  that  impels  him 
to  labor  at  an  appointed  task,  at  the  picture,  the  book,  the  nation's  cause,  or 
humanity's.  The  artist  is  unhappy  away  from  his  canvas  where  every  touch 
is  a  means  to  the  fulfilment  of  a  definite  purpose,  and  he  must  continue  to 
lay  tint  upon  tint  and  color  beside  color  until  the  glorious  conception  of  the 
perfect  picture  is  fixed  upon  the  canvas  to  delight  future  generations  of 
man.  The  author  must  write  on  regardless  of  his  surroundings ;  he  can  not 
help  himself ;  his  tale  must  be  told.  The  general  must  direct  his  army  piti- 
lessly onward  over  rough  ways,  where  dead  bodies  are,  past  burning  homes, 
onward  to  victory  or  death ;  it  is  his  destiny  and  he  must  fulfill  it.  The  reformer 
must  walk  steadily,  with  unheeding  ears,  and  with  eyes  fixed  upon  a  future 
beyond  the  ken  of  his  fellows ;  he  must  bear  the  jeers  of  the  world^s  idlers, 
pressing  onward  to  the  end,  be  it  stake  or  laurel  crown.  Each  by  the  impell- 
ing power  within  him  is  driven  to  accomplish  his  destiny.  It  is  only  at  cer- 
tain periods  in  the  world's  history  that  such  a  man  is  born,  kindling  in  his 
heart  from  childhood  the  sacred  fire.  The  results  of  these  rare  birth-gifts 
to  the  world  mark  epochs  in  its  history,  and  by  them  mankind  is  advanced 
a  step  toward  the  fulfilment  of  the  Creator's  end.  Such  a  man  was  Hahne- 
mann, the  story  of  whose  remarkable  life  and  medical  system  is  about  to 
be  told. 



Samuel  Christian  Frederick  Hahnemann  was  born  on  the  night  of  April 
lo,  1755,  at  Meissen,  Saxony,  the  son  of  a  porcelain  painter.  It  is  related 
that  the  father  gave  his  son  when  the  latter  was  five  years  old  lessons  in 
thinking,  devoting  a  certain  time  each  day  to  that  instruction.  The  good 
father  during  these  hours  would  advise  the  boy  to  prove  all  things  and  to 
hold  fast  to  that  which  was  good.  Early  in  life  he  was  placed  in  the  village 
school,  and  it  was  a  habit  of  his  boyhood  to  wander  over  the  beautiful  hills 

of  Meissen.     He  loved  to  study  the  plants  and     ^  

made  an  herbarium ;  he  was   fond  of  natural     ■  ■  *  ] 

history.  So  apt  v/as  he  that  when  twelve  years 
old  the  good  Master  Miiller  intrusted  to  him  to 
teach  the  rudiments  of  Greek  to  the  other 
pupils.  About  this  time  the  frugal  father 
wished  to  take  him  from  school  and,  after  the 
way  of  German  fathers,  set  him  to  work,  but 
Magister  Miiller,  the  principal,  entreated  the 
father  and  ofifered  to  remit  the  tuition,  upon 
which  the  bright,  studious  lad  was  allowed  to 
remain  at  his  books.  At  sixteen  he  entered 
the  Meissen  private  school.  Several  times  the 
father  took  his  son  from  school  only  to  be  per- 
suaded to  allow  him  to  return.  Once  he  ap- 
prenticed him  to  a  grocer  at  Leipsic,  but  the 
lad  ran  away  and  returned  home,  where  his 
mother  concealed  him  for  several  days  until 
the  father's  heart  was  softened.  It  is  also  re- 
lated that  the  father  objected  to  the  waste  of 
lighting  fluid  needed  for  midnight  study,  upon 
which  the  son  fashioned  a  rude  clay  lamp  and  hid  himself  with  his  books  at 
night  in  a  retired  nook  in  the  rambling  old  Eck-house  where  he  lived. 

There  was  a  wonderful  native  force  within  the  boy  impelling  him  to 
study,  to  store  his  mind  with  useful  knowledge,  and  that  despite  paternal 
frowns  and  other  difficulties.  He  had  to  learn — it  was  destiny — and  the 
father  at  last  began  to  realize  that  there  was  something  in  this  country-bred 
lad  of  twenty  years ;  this  eccentric  son,  who  already  knew  somewhat  of  Latin, 
Greek,  Hebrew,  history,  and  physics,  and  whom  nothing  in  the  way  of  oppo- 
sition could  deter  from  knowing,  and  that  he  ouglit  no  longer  attempt  to 
curb.  And  so  when  Samuel  was  twenty  years  old,  in  1775,  and  when  the 
Easter  beils  were  linging,  Hahnemann,  the  student,  received  from  his  father 
about  twenty  dollars,  with  permission  to  journev  to  Leipsic,  the  university 
town,  and  win  his  way  m  his  own  manner.  He  began  student  life  in  Leipsic 
by  attending  lectures  during  the  day  and  devoting  the  nights  to  translations 
from  the  English  into  German,  and  he  also  taught  German  and  French  to 
a  rich  young  Greek.  A  generous  citizen  of  ]\Ieissen  had  presented  him  with 
free  tickets  to  the  medical  lectures,  but  his  literary  occupations  were  such  as 
to  prevent  him  from  attending  them  regularly ;  but  he  studied  hard  and 
saved  his  money  that  he  might  sooner  go  to  the  more  advantageous  schools 
of  V^ienna.  Soon  after  he  went  to  Leipsic  he  was  defrauded  of  his  savings, 
and  for  nine  months  was  obliged  to  live  on  a  little  more  than  sixty-eight 
florins,  and  then  to  seek  a  self-supporting  position.  But  the  way  was  pro- 
vided in  the  person  of  Dr.  \'on  Ouarin,  who  was  physician  to  ^laria  Theresa 

Dr.  Gustay  Wilhelm  Gross. 



and  Emperor  Joseph.  He  assisted  this  young  Saxon  scholar,  who  thus  spoke 
■of  his  benefactor  many  years  afterwards :  '''  He  respected,  loved  and  in- 
structed me  as  if  I  had  been  the  lirst  of  his  pupils,  and  even  more  than  this, 
and  he  did  it  all  without  expecting  any  compensation  from  me.  To  him  I 
am  indebted  for  my  calling  as  a  physician.  I  had  his  friendship  and  I  may 
almost  say  his  love,  and  I  was  the  only  one  of  my  age  whom  he  took  with 
him  to  visit  his  private  patients." 

Von  Ouarin  secured  for  Hahnemann  the  position  of  private  physician 
and  librarian  to  the  Baron  von  Bruckenthal,  who  was  governor  of  Sieben- 
burgen  and  lived  in  the  city  of  Hermanstadt.  For  a  year  and  nine  months 
he  remained  in  the  delightful  seclusion  of  Von  Bruckenthal's  great  library, 
filled   with    priceless   books   and   manuscripts.      He   catalogued   his   collections 

ljrtlliirmanii9  (Oclmtt^liaiis  in  ilUififii. 
Hahnemann's  Birthplace  in  Meissen. 

of  rare  coins  and  also  the  books,  and  arranged  them.  And  he  studied  them. 
He  was  always  studying,  making  ready  for  the  future  that  as  yet  he  dreamed 
not  of,  and  was  impelled  always  by  an  unknown  inward  force  to  gain  new 
and  varied  knowledge.  When  Hahnemann  left  Hermanstadt  he  was  master 
of  Greek,  Latin,  English,  Hebrew,  Italian,  Syriac,  Arabic,  Spanish,  German, 
and  had  besides  a  little  knowledge  of  Chaldaic ;  and  then  he  was  only  twenty- 
four  years  of  age. 

This  is  the  man  who  has  been  called  "  that  ignorant  German  fanatic !  " 
He  bade  the  good  baron  farewell  in  the  spring  of  1779,  and  went  to  the  Uni- 
versity of  Erlangen  to  take  his  degree  as  doctor  of  medicine,  chosing  Erlan- 
gen  because  the  fees  were  less  than  at  \'ienna.  At  this  place  on  August  10, 
1779,  he  successfully  defended  his  thesis,  and  received  his  diploma.  From 
the   time   of  graduation   in  August   until   some  time   in   the   year   1780,   it   is 


probable  that  Hahnemann  travelled  about  in  the  towns  of  Lower  Hungary. 
In  the  summer  of  1780  a  home-longing  overcame  him  and  he  returned  to 
Saxony,  locating  in  the  little  town  of  Hetstadt  in  a  copper  mining  country, 
where  he  found  little  to  do  but  study  the  mining.  He  remained  there  nine 
months,  going  thence  in  the  springtime  of  1781  to  Dessau,  where  he  first 
turned  his  attention  to  chemistry,  of  which  he  afterwards  became  one  of  the 
most  able  exponents  and  experimentalists  of  the  time.  Here  also  he  gained 
much  knowledge  of  practical  mining  and  smelting,  which  he  afterwards 
utilized  in  writing  upon  those  subjects ;  and,  as  he  so  quaintly  said :  "  I 
filled  the  dormer  windows  of  my  mind." 

In    Dessau    Hahnemann    met    Johanna    Henrietta    Leopoldine    Kuchler, 
■daughter  of  apothecary  Kuchler,  who  became  his  life  companion.     Thev  were 

Dr.  Carl  Gottlob  Franz. 

Tiiarried  in  Dessau,  December  i,  1782.  He  was  twenty-seven  and  she  nine- 
teen years  old.  He  had  a  short  time  previous  taken  the  post  of  parish  doctor 
at  Gommern,  a  small  town  not  far  from  Magdeburg.  They  went  there  and 
he  at  once  began  regularly  to  practice  his  profession.  Hahnemann  said  that 
there  had  previously  been  no  physician  at  this  place,  and  that  the  inhabitants 
had  no  desire  for  any  such  person.  Here  he  remained  two  years  and  nine 
months.  While  there  he  made  some  important  translations  and  published 
his  first  original  book  "  On  the  Treatment  of  Old  Sores  and  Ulcers."  In 
this  work  he  gave  the  results  of  his  experience  in  Transylvania,  and  said 
that  the  patients  probably  would  have  done  quite  as  well  without  him.  And 
in  writing  of  his  treatment  of  a  case  of  caries  of  the  metatarsal  bone  he  said : 


"  I  scrapeci  the  carious  bone  clean  out  and  removed  all  the  dead  part,  dressed 
it  with  alcohol  and  watched  the  result  "  (not  a  bad  method  of  treatment  for 
the  surgery  of  the  present  day,  and  that  was  in  1784).  The  matter  of  hygiene 
was  mentioned  in  his  book,  although  at  that  time  it  was  very  little  under- 
stood.    Even  then  the  master  was  teaching  in  advance  of  his  time. 

He  now  began,  as  he  says,  to  taste  the  delights  of  home ;  he  was  con- 
tented ;  his  books  and  his  official  position  supported  him ;  but  the  rude  and 
barbarous  medical  methods  of  the  day  disturbed  his  logical  and  educated 
mind,  which  was  trained  to  expect  definite  results ;  and  he  disliked  to  give 
compounds  of  whose  effects  on  patients  he  was  ignorant.  He  could  not 
accept  the  loose  ways  and  methods  of  the  existing  medical  schools.  In  the 
celebrated  letter  to  Hufeland,  the  "  Nestor  of  German  medicine,"  on  the 
"  Necessity  of  a  Regeneration  in  Medicine,"  published  some  time  afterward, 
Hahnemann  fully  explained  his  feelings  at  that  period  of  his  life,  and  his 
reasons  for  giving  up  the  old  practice  of  medicine  hampered  by  dogmas  of 
doubt.  He  resigned  his  position  at  Gommern  in  the  autumn  of  1784  and 
entirely  gave  up  practice  that  (in  his  own  words)  "  I  might  no  longer  incur 
the  risk  of  doing  injury,  and  I  engaged  exclusively  in  chemistry  and  in  liter- 
ary occupations."  His  mind  was  now  reaching  out  toward  his  ideal.  As  he 
once  said  to  Hufeland.  lie  could  not  understand  a  God  who  had  not  provided 
some  certain  method  of  contemplating  diseases  from  their  own  aspect  and 
of  curing  them  with  certainty.  "  But  why  has  this  method  not  been  dis- 
covered during  the  twenty-five  or  thirty  centuries  in  which  men  have  called 
themselves  physicians  ?  Because  it  is  too  near  us,  and  too  easy ;  because  to 
attain  it  there  is  no  need  of  brilliant  sophisms  or  seducing  hypotheses."  Im- 
pelled by  a  something  within  him  to  seek,  Hahnemann  gave  up  the  old  prac- 
tice of  medicine  and  reduced  himself  and  familv  to  comparative  poverty  for 
conscience  sake,  and  in  the  fulfillment  of  the  immutable  law  in  his  nature 
that  he  was  powerless  to  overcome.  From  Gommern  he  removed  to  brilliant 
Dresden,  then  the  home  of  the  arts  and  the  sciences,  and  devoted  his  time 
to  translations  and  the  study  of  chemistry.  He  also  studied  medical  juris-  • 
prudence  with  Dr.  Wagner,  the  town  physician  or  health  officer,  who  became* 
his  friend  and  gave  him  charge  of  the  hospitals  of  the  town  for  a  year.  xA.t 
this  time  Hahnemann  was  well  known  in  Germany  as  a  scholarly  translator 
of  scientific  books,  and  a  daring  and  successful  experimentalist  in  chemistry. 
He  was  received  with  warm  welcome  by  the  distinguished  scholars  who  re- 
sided in  Dresden.  Adelung,  who  had  made  a  compilation  in  five  volumes  of 
the  history  of  all  the  known  languages  and  dialects  ("  Mithridates  ")  and 
who  was  perhaps  the  foremost  philologist  in  the  world ;  Dasdorf.  the  libra- 
rian of  the  great  Electoral  library — himself  a  ripe  scholar ;  Blumenbach, 
the  naturalist;  and  Laviosier,  the  ill-fated  chemist,  a  victim  of  the  reign  of 
terror.  Such  was  the  company  Hahnemann  enjoyed,  a  scholar  in  a  scholarly 
atmosphere,  and  in  the  companionship  of  men  of  wisdom.  This  life  con- 
tinued four  pleasant  years.  Up  to  this  time  all  the  translations  of  scientific- 
works  and  the  original  books  he  had  written  were  of  such  a  nature  as  to 
render  him  more  fit  for  the  groat  discoveries  he  was  soon  destined  to  make. 

In  Septeml)er.  1789.  Hahnemann  removed  to  Leipsic  and  continued  his 
literary  work.  liefore  this  it  is  probable  that  he  had  no  idea  that  he  was 
to  be  a  medical  reformer.  There  is  nothing  in  his  writings  to  indicate  such 
a  thought.  He  was  simply  a  learned  physician  and  chemist,  too  honest  to 
bleed  and  purge  and  dose  his   fellow  men.  and  vaguely   sc-eking  in   his   own- 


mind  for  some  more  reasonable  and  safe  method  of  cure.  Soon  after  his 
arrival  at  Leipsic  and  while  he  was  translating  from  the  English  the  materia 
medica  of  the  great  Scotch  physician,  William  Cullen,  he  was  led  by  certain 
statements  in  the  book  to  make  some  original  experiments  upon  himself  re- 
garding the  effects  of  Peruvian  bark.  As  a  result  he  added  a  footnote  to  the 
second  volume  of  his  translationXjn  which  he  said :  "  I  took  by  way  of 
experiment,  twice  a  day,  four  drachms  of  good  China.  My  feet,  finger  tips^ 
&c.,  at  first  became  cold ;  I  grew  languid  and  drowsy ;  then  my  heart  began 
to  palpitate,  and  my  pulse  grew  hard  and  small ;  intolerable  anxiety,  trembling 
(but  without  cold  rigor),  prostration  throughout  all  my  limbs;  then  pulsation 
in  my  head,  redness  of  my  cheeks,  thirst,  and — in  short — all  these  symptoms 
which  are  ordinarily  characteristic  of  Intermittent  Fever,  made  their  appear- 
ance, one  after  another,  yet  without  the  peculiar  chilly  rigor.  This  paroxysm 
lasted  two  or  three  hours  each  time,  and  recurred,  if  I  repeated  the  dose,  not 
otherwise.  I  discontinued  it  and  was  in  good  health."  This  discovery  led  to 
experiment;  analysis  led  to  synthesis.  J 

Hahnemann  passed  six  years  in  noting  the  effects  of  different  drugs  and 
poisons  on  healthy  persons  and  in  studying  old  volumes  of  recorded  experi- 
ments in  materia  medica.  His  family  was  pressed  into  the  service  and  friends 
also  assisted  him.  Each  was  tried  in  various  doses  and  in  every  possible 
variety  of  circumstance,  that  the  real  effect  might  be  clearly  understood.  All 
the  time  he  could  spare  from  his  translations  was  devoted  to  these  provings 
and  to  chemical  research. 

He  now  had  several  children  and  was  so  poor  that  the  whole  family 
lived  in  a  single  room,  while  the  father  pursued  his  work  in  one  corner,  sep- 
arated from  the  others  only  by  a  curtain.  It  was  his  custom  to  sit  up  every 
other  night  translating  in  order  to  gain  m.ore  time  for  his  experiments.  In 
1 79 1  poverty  compelled  him  to  go  to  the  little  village  of  Stotteritz,  where  he 
could  live  still  more  cheaply.  While  there  he  helped  in  the  work  of  the 
house,  wore  the  garments  and  the  heavy  wooden  clogs  of  the  poor  German, 
and  even  kneaded  the  bread  with  his  own  hands.  Sickness  befell  his  family. 
He  had  lost  faith  in  medicine.  Of  this  period  he  writes :  "  Where  shall  I 
look  for  aid,  sure  aid?  sighed  the  disconsolate  father  on  hearing  the  moaning 
of  his  dear,  inexpressibly  sick  children.  The  darkness  of  the  night  and  the 
dreariness  of  the  desert  all  around  me ;  no  prospect  of  relief  for  my  oppressed 
paternal  heart."  Yet  always  he  had  in  mind  the  determination  to  continue  his 
experiments,  to  elaborate  the  new  law  that  he  had  begun  to  make  practicable. 

Previous  to  this  time  Hahnemann  had  no  opportunity  of  testing  on  the 
sick  the  result  of  the  drug-provings  on  the  healthy,  but  now  it  came.  A 
certain  influential  man,  Herr  Klockingbring,  had  by  ridicule  been  rendered 
violently  insane,  and  his  wife,  having  heard  of  Hahnemann,  was  induced  to 
request  him  to  attend  her  husbandr  Through  her  influence  the  Duke  of 
Gotha  gave  up  to  Hahnemann  for  the  experiment  a  wing  in  his  old  hunting 
castle  at  Georgenthal  at  the  foot  of  the'  Thuringian  mountains,  nine  miles 
from  his  own  capital  of  Gotha.  He  caused  it  to  be  properlv  arranged  for 
the  reception  of  the  maniac  and  his  keepers.  He  was  taken  with  the  madness 
in  the  winter  of  1791-92.  It  probably  was  in  the  spring  of  1792  that  Hahne- 
mann's attention  was  .first  called  to  the  case,  and  during  that  summer  he 
went  to  Georgenthal.  It  was  a  case  of  acute  mania  and  Klockingbring  was 
very  violent,  requiring  several  keepers.  Hahnemann  says  that  for  "two  weeks 
he  watched  him  without  giving  hmi  any  medicine.     It 'was  the  fashion  then 


to  treat  insane  persons  with  great  severity,  chaining,  beating  and  placing 
them  in  dark  dungeons.  Hahnemann  did  not  approve  of  this  and  treated 
his  distinguished  patient  with  great  gentleness.  It  has  been  claimed  that 
Hahnemann  was  in  advance  of  the  celebrated  alienist  Pinel  in  this  plan  of 
treating  the  insane.  It  was  during  this  same  year  of  1792  that  Pinel  first 
unchained  the  maniacs  in  the  hospital  of  Bicetre  at  Paris.  In  1793  Klock- 
ingbring  returned  to  Hanover  completely  cured. 

Hahnemann  left  Georgenthal  in  May,  1793,  going  thence  to  Molschle- 
bcn,  a  smiall  village  near  Gotha.  From  letters  written  at  this  time  by  him 
to  a  patient,  and  which  have  been  published,  we  are  able  to  determine  his 
whereabouts  very  correctly.   He  went  from  Molschleben  to  Pyrmont,  and  from 

Dr.    Franz    Hartmann. 

there  in  1796  to  Wolfenbuttel,  and  thence  to  Konigslutter,  where  he  remained 
imtil  1799,  when  he  went  to  Hamburg.  The  life  at  Konigslutter  is  mem- 
orable because  while  living  there  he  published,  in  1796,  in  "  The  Journal  for 
Practicing  Physicians,"  edited  by  his  friend  Hufeland,  and  which  was  the  most 
important  medical  journal  of  that  time,  his  celebrated  essay  on  a  "New  Prin- 
ciple for  Ascertaining  the  Curative  Powers  of  Drugs."  In  this  he  gave 
to  the  world  for  the  first  time  his  principle — sttnilia  similibns  curantur,  explain- 
ing how  he  had  experimented  and  the  result.  It  was  only  after  six  years  of 
constant  trial  and  study  that  he  shared  his  wonderful  secret  with  the  medical 

During  the  last  year  of  the  life  at  Konigslutter  an  epidemic  of  scarlet 
fever  occurred,  and  Hahnemann  put  his  new  found  knowledge  to  the  proof. 


and  declared  that  belladonna,  inasmuch  as  it  would  produce  a  similar  drug 
condition,  would  cure  scarlet  fever — and  it  did;  and  because  he  first  tested 
the  cure  on  the  sick  and  did  not  reveal  its  name  until  he  was  sure  of  its 
effect,  his  enemies  even  to  the  present  day,  have  accused  him  of  dealing  in 
secret  remedies  and  nostrums.* 

But  in  prescribing  with  his  own  medicines  for  these  patients  he  had 
offended  against  the  law,  and  the  jealous  apothecaries  of  Konigslutter  hounded 
him  forth  to  fresh  wanderings.  In  the  autumn  of  1799  he  packed  all  his 
goods  and  his  family  into  a  large  wagon,  and  with  heavy  heart  left  the  town 
where  life  had  begun  to  present  some  sunshine,  and  started  on  the  road  to 
Hamburg.  On  the  journey  over  a  precipitous  part  of  the  way  the  wagon 
was  overturned ;  the  driver  was  thrown  from  his  seat ;  Hahnemann  himseli 
was  injured;  a  daughter's  leg  was  broken;  an  infant  son  Ernst  was  so  hurt 
that  he  soon  died,  and  his  property  was  damaged  by  falling  into  a  stream. 
At  the  nearest  village  of  Muhlhausen  he  was  obliged  to  remain  six  weeks  at. 
considerable  expense. 

He  settled  after  this  at  Altona  and  did  not  go  to  Hamburg  until  1800. 
It  was  in  this  year  that  Fleischer,  the  Leipsic  publisher,  gave  to  Hahnemann 
to  translate  an  English  book  containing  medical  prescriptions.  He  trans- 
lated the  text  into  good  German,  but  added  an  original  preface  in  which  he 
so  ridiculed  and  satirized  and  belittled  the  compound  prescriptions  of  the 
great  lights  of  the  English  n:edical  world  that  it  put  an  end  to  his  employ- 
ment by  that  publisher.  His  only  further  translation  was  the  Von  Haller 
Materia  Medica  fiom  the  Latin,  which  was  published  in  1806.  At  this 
period  he  wrote  several  essays  for  Hufeland's  journal.  In  1802  he  went 
from  Hamburg  to  Mollen  in  the  duchy  of  Lauenburg,  and  from  there  jour- 
neyed to  Eilenburg  in  beloved  Saxony.  He  was  not  allowed  to  remain  there, 
however,  as  the  health  officer  ordered  him  away.  From  thence  he  went  to- 
^lachern,  a  village  four  miles  from  Leipsic,  where  poverty  again  distressed 
him.  It  is  related  that  after  toiling  all  day  at  translating  (at  the  Haller 
Materia  Medica)  he  often  assisted  his  wife  to  wash  the  family  clothing  at 
night,  and  as  they  could  not  purchase  soap  they  employed  raw  potatoes  in- 
stead. The  portion  of  bread  allowed  to  each  was  so  small  that  he  w^as  accus- 
tomed to  weigh  it  out  in  equal  proportion.  From  Machern  he  went  to  Wit- 
tenburg.  departing  soon  after  for  Dessau,  where  he  lived  for  two  years. 

Hahnemann  left  Hamburg  about  the  beginning  of  1802.  He  could  not 
have  remained  long  in  one  place.  He  was  poor  and  persecuted,  driven  from 
town  to  town.  He  passed  about  two  years  at  Dessau  and,  according  to  a 
letter  written  by  him,  he  was  in  June,  1805,  domiciled  at  Torgau,  where  he 
remained  until  181 1,  when  he  went  to  Leipsic.  As  his  essays  in  the  medical 
journals  only  brought  him  into  condemnation  he  afterwards  published  his 
articles  in  the  "General  German  Gazette  of  Literature  and  Science." 

Hahnemann's  first  collection  of  provings — "  Fragmenta  de  Viribus  " — was- 
published  in  Latin  w^hile  he  was  at  Torgau,  in  1805.  Five  years  later  the 
first  edition  of  the  Organon  appeared.  In  this  he  gave  to  the  world  a  careful 
explanation  of  his  new  medical  discoveries  and  beliefs.  It  contained  every- 
thing relating  to  the  new  medical  method  and  in  it  he  for  the  first  time  men- 

'■^This   was   the   only   occasion  on   which   Hahnemann   ever  withheld   the 
name  and  purpose  of  any  medicament  employed  by  him. 



tioned  the  name  Homoeopathy.  The  work  appeared  in  1810,  from  the  press 
of  his  friend  and  patient,  Arnold.  The  book  consists  of  an  introduction  and 
the  Organon  itself.  The  introduction  is  entitled  "  Review  of  the  medication, 
allopathy  and  palliative  treatment  that  have  prevailed  to  the  present  time  in 
the  old  school  of  medicme,"  and  comprises  the  first  one  hundred  pages  of 
the  Organon. 

Hahnemann  here  presents  the  curious 
story  of  the  efforts  of  mankind  to  conquer 
disease.     He  writes :    "  But  ever  since  that 
time  (soon  after  Hippocrates,  therefore  for 
J^t^ll^    '  2,500  years)  men  have  occupied  themselves 

^^^H^  with  the  treatment  of  the  ever-increasing 

/        ^^^  '        multiplicity  of  diseases,  who,  led  astray  by 

"  -      '•       *  their  vanity,  sought  by  reasoning  and  guess- 

ing to  excogitate  the  mode  of  furnishing 
this  aid.  Innumerable  and  dissimilar  ideas 
respecting  the  nature  of  diseases  and  their 
remedies  sprang  from  so  many  dissimilar 
brains,  and  the  theoretical  views  these  gave 
rise  fo,  they  called  (structures)  systems, 
each  of  which  was  at  variance  with  the  rest 
and  self-contradictory.  Each  of  these  subtle 
expositions  at  first  threw  the  readers  into 
stupefied  amazeriient  at  the  incomprehen- 
sible wisdom  contained  in  it,  and  attracted 
to  the  system  monger  a  number  of  fol- 
lowers, who  re-echoed  his  unnatural  soph- 
istry, to  none  of  whom,  however,  was  it 
of  the  slightest  use  in  enabling  them  to 
cure  better,  until  a  new  system,  often  diranetrically  opposed  to  the  first,  thrust 
that  aside,  and  in  its  turn  gained  a  short-lived  renown.  None  of  them  was  in 
consonance  with  nature  and  experience ;  they  were  mere  theoretical  webs 
constructed  by  cunning  mtellects  out  of  pretended  consequences  which  could 
not  be  made  use  of  in  practice,  in  the  treatment  at  the  sick-bed,  on  account  of 
their  excessive  subtlety  and  repugnance  to  nature  and  only  served  for  empty 

Xi'  Simultaneously,  but  quite  independent  of  all  these  theories,  there  sprung 
up  a  mode  of  treatment  with  mixtures  of  unknown  medicinal  substances, 
against  forms  of  disease  arbitrarily  set  up,  and  directed  towards  some  ma- 
terial object,  completely  at  variance  with  nature  and  experience,  hence,  as 
may  be  supposed,  with  a  bad  result — such  is  old  medicine.  Allopathy,  as  it 
is  termedj 

"  Wiuiout  disparaging  the  services  which  many  physicians  have  rendered 
to  the  sciences  auxiliary  to  medicine,  to  natural  philosophy  and  chemistry, 
to  natural  history  in  its  various  branches,  and  to  that  of  man  in  particular, 
anthropology,  physiology  and  anatomy,  &c.,0.  shall  occupy  myself  here  with 
the  practical  part  of  medicine  only,  with  the  healing  art  itself,  in  order  to 
show  how  it  is  that  diseases  have  hitherto  been  imperfectly  treated.  I  speak 
merely  of  the  medical  art  as  hitherto  practiced,  whicl;i^_presuming  on  its 
antiquity,  imagines  itself  to  possess  a  scientific  character.^/ 

Hahnemann  then  discusses  various  medical  methods,  blood  letting,  evac- 

Dr.  Moritz  Miiller. 


iiant,  stimulating,  &c.  He  says  again :  "  The  presumed  character  of  the 
affection,  they  regarded  as  the  cause  of  the  disease,  and  hence  they  directed 
their  pretended  casual  treatment  against  spasm,  inflammation  (plethora),  fever, 
general  and  partial  debility,  mucus,  putridity,  obstructions,  &c.,  which  they 
thought  to  remove  by  means  of  their  antispasmodic,  antiphlogistic,  tonic, 
stimulant,  antiseptic,  dissolvent,  resolvent,  derivative,  evacuant,  atUtagonistic 
remedies,   (of  which  they  only  possessed  a  superficial  knowledge). 

^]jjut  all  semblance  of  appropriate  treatment  of  diseases  was  completely 
lost,  by  a  practice,  introduced  in  the  earliest  times,  and  even  made  into  a  rule: 
1  mean  the  mixture,  in  a  prescription,  of  various  medicinal  substances,  whose 
real  action  was,  almost  without  an  exception,  unknown,  and  which  without 
any    one    exception,    invariably    differed    so    much    among    each    other.      One 


'M'^'^  (r^i^^^ 




m  -^"'^H 


#    '  -^ 


Hry  ^M^^^^M 

r       ■  "> 

Dr.  Carl  Haubold. 

medicine  (the.  sphere  of  whose  medicinal  eft'ects  was  unknown)  was  placed 
forem.ost,  as  the  principal  remedy  (basis),  and  was  designed  to  subdue  what 
the  physician  deemed  the  chief  character  of  the  disease;  to  this  was  added 
some  other  drug  (equally  unknown  as  regards  the  sphere  of  its  medicinal 
action)  for  the  removal  of  some  particular  accessory  symptom,  or  to  strengthen 
the  action  of  the  first  (adjuvans)  ;  and  besides  these,  yet  another  (likewise 
unknown  as  to  the  sphere  of  its  medicinal  powers)  a  pretended  corrective 
remedy  (corrigens)  ;  these  were  all  mixed  together  (boiled,  infused) — and 
along  with  them,  some  medicinal  syrup,  or  distilled  medicinal  water,  also 
with  different  properties,  would  be  included  in  the  formula,  and  it  was  sup- 
posed that  each   of  the  ingredients   of   this   mixture   would   perform,   in   the 


diseased  body,  the  part  allotted  to  it  by  the  prescriber's  imagination,  without 
suffering  itself  to  be  disturbed  or  led  astray  by  the  other  things  mixed  up 
along  with  it;  which,  however,  could  not  in  reason  be  expected."  ^ 

Pie  then  goes  more  fully  into  the  absurdity  of  medicinal  mixtures  and 
cites  from  medical  writers  to  show  that  such  a  plan  is  ridiculous.  Again  he 
says :  "  It  was  high  time  for  the  wise  and  benevolent  Creator  and  Preserver 
of  mankind  to  put  a  stop  to  this  abomination,  to  command  a  cessation  of  these 
tortures,  and  to  reveal  a  healing  art  the  very  opposite  of  this,  which  should 
not  waste  the  vital  juices  and  powers  by  emetics,  perennial  scourings  out  of 
the  bowels,  warm  baths,  diaphoretics,  or  salivation ;  nor  shed  the  life's  blood, 
nor  torment  and  weaken  with  painful  appliances ;  nor,  in  place  of  curing  pa- 

Uv.  Carl  1'".   I'rinks. 

tients  suffering  from  diseases,  render  them  incurable  by  the  addition  of  vnew, 
chronic,  medicinal  maladies,  by  means  of  the  long  continued  use  of  wrong, 
powerful  medicines  of  unknown  properties ;  nor  yoke  the  horse  behind  the 
cart,  by  giving  strong  palliatives,  according  to  the  old  favorite  axiom,  con- 
traria  contrariis  curantiir;  nor  in  short,  in  place  of  lending  the  patient  aid, 
to  guide  him  in  the  way  to  death,  as  is  done  by  the  merciless  routine  practi- 
tioner, but  which  on  the  contrary  should  spare  the  patient's  strength  as  much 
as  possible,  and  should  rapidly  and  mildly  effect  an  unalloyed  and  perma- 
nent cure,  by  means  of  the  smallest  doses  of  simple  medicines  well  considered, 
and  selected  according  to  their  proved  effects,  by  the  only  therapeutic  law 
conformable  to  nature,  similia  simUibiis  curanhtr. 

"It  was  high^time  Pie  should  permit  the  discovery  of  howioeopathy. 


'"  Bv  observation,  reflection,  and  experiment,  I  discovered  that  in  oppo- 
sition to  the  old  allopathic  method,  the  true,  the  proper,  the  best  mode  of 
treatment,  is  contained  in  the  maxim  :  To  effect  a  mild,  rapid,  certain,  and 
permanent  cure,  choose,  in  every  case  of  disease,  a  medicine  which  can  itself 
produce  an  affection  similar  to  that  sought  to  be  cured. 

"  Hitherto  no  one  has  ever  lmii:;lit  this  homoeopathic  method  of  cure,  no 
one  has  practiced  it.  But  if  the  truth  is  only  to  be  found  in  this  method,  as 
I  can  prove  it  to  be,  we  might  expect  that,  even  though  it  remained  unper- 
ceived  for  thousands  of  years,  distinct  traces  of  it  w^ould  be  discovered  in 
every  age.     And  such  is  the  fact." 

Hahnemann  devoted  about  sixty  pages  to  quotations  from  the  writings 
of  old  physicians  from  Hippocrates  to  Sydenham,  describing  cures  effected 
according  to  the  doctrine  of  similars.  Each  cure  is  plainly  stated  with  a 
reference  in  each  case  to  the  medical  writer  responsible  for  the  statement. 
The  book  itself  is  devoted  to  instructions  in  practical  homoeopathy.  Hahne- 
mann never  claimed  to  discover  the  law  of  similia,  but  he  did  claim  that  he 
was  the  first  person  to  make  any  practical  demonstration  of  that  law. 

It  is  needless  to  say  that  the  propositions  advanced  in  the  Organon 
brought  down  upon  the  head  of  the  reformer  an  avalanche  of  abuse.  He 
had  raised  his  hand  against  the  traditions  of  years  and  he  was  attacked  by 
the  medical  journals  of  the  day.  Books  and  pamphlets  were  fulminated 
against  him.  The  reviews  were  so  virulent  that  even  the  better  of  Hahne- 
mann's enemies  condemned  them.  He  v/as  called  a  charlatan,  a  quack,  an 
ignoramus.  In  1811  his  son  published  a  refutation,  which  it  is  believed  Hahne- 
mann himself  wrote.  All  this  storm  of  abuse  he  answered  in  no  other  way. 
He  gave  his  answer  in  a  better  way,  in  181 1,  when  he  presented  to  the  w^orld 
the  first  volume  of  "  Materia  Medica  Pura." 

But  the  grand  impulse  was  strong  within  him.  He  felt  that  he  must 
find  a  wider  platform  from  which  to  shout  his  glad  tidings  to  sick  and  suf- 
fering hinnanity,  and  in  the  year  181 1  he  transferred  his  "Lares  and  Pe- 
nates ""  to  his  old  jiome  in  Leipsic,  the  place  he  had  first  entered  as  an  enthu- 
siastic and  scholarly  lad  of  twenty.  Since  then — Vienna,  Hermanstadt,  Er- 
langen,  Dessau,  Gommern,  Dresden,  Georgenthal,  the  wander-years,  and  after- 
w"ards  Tcrgau,  with  its  literary  results.  Trials,  malevolence,  privation,  and 
false  accusation,  all  had  followed  him  like  furies,  and  yet,  impelled  by  a 
strange  force,  the  genius  of  right  and  justice,  he  had  ever  and  steadily  gone 
on  towards  the  future  of  whose  brightness  even  yet  he  did  not  know. 

That  Hahnemann  ever  planned  any  means  of  promulgating  a  new  med- 
ical system  for  his  own  personal  advantage,  as  his  enemies  ever  asserted, 
anyone  conversant  with  his  character  must  utterly  discredit.  He  was  all 
through  his  long  life  the  victim  of  circumstance,  or,  as  some  of  his  followers 
claim,  of  a  "  Providence  "  that  fashioned  every  event  and  from  the  seemingly 
tangled  threads  in  his  web  of  life  wrought  the  perfect  picture ;  and  every 
bitter  trial  of  his  life  was  but  bringing  better  equipment  for  the  glorious  end. 

It  now  became  impressed  upon  Hahnem.ann's  mind  that  he  must  teach 
this  doctrine  of  medicine  publicly  to  men  ;  and  he  went  to  Leipsic  and  began 
to  lecture  on  the  principles  of  homoeopathy.  In  December,  181 1,  he  inserted 
a  notice  of  his  "  Aledical  Institute  "  in  a  journal  of  the  city.  But  before  he 
was  permitted  to  lecture  he  was  compelled  to  defend  a  thesis  before  the  fac- 
ulty of  medicine.  This  he  did  on  June  26.  1812.  Its  title  was  "  A  Disserta- 
tion on  the  Helleborism  of  the  Ancients,"  and  it  was  such  a  marvel  of  erudi- 



tion  that  no  one  attempted  to  dispute  it.  In  its  pages  containing  quotations 
from  the  Hebrew,  Latin,  Greek,  Arabic,  Italian.  French,  English  and  Ger- 
man there  was  evidence  of  profound  knowledge.  It  seemed  an  echo  from 
the  great  libraries  of  Hermanstadt  and  Dresden. 

Hahnemann  now  began  lecturing  Wednesday  and  Saturday  afternoons 
from  2  to  3  o'clock."  The  lectures  were  continued  semi-annually  during  his 
■entire  stay  at  Leipsic,  and  soon  attracted  hearers  from  the  medical  and  law 
students  and  the  younger  of  the  Leipsic  physicians.  The  fame  of  his  learn- 
ing and  a  desire  to  see  the  man  who  taught  such  medical  "  heresies  "  attracted 
many  to  him.  Soon  from  the  audiences  he  gathered  a  circle  of  young  men 
under  his  direction  who  began  to  make  provings  on  themselves.  The  result 
was  the  *'  Materia  Medica  Pura.  "  These  faithful  disciples  lived  near  Hahne- 
mann's house  and  were  almost  constantly  with  him.     Each  had  his  duty  to 

perform,  and  Hahnemann,  after  collect- 
ing the  symptoms,  verified  them,  sub- 
jecting them  to  the  finest  scrutiny  and 
with  the  most  scrupulous  exactitude  an- 
cdyzed  them.  The  plants  were  collected, 
the  ]ireparations  according  to  the  for- 
mula of  the  master  were  made,  and 
results  noted.  They  who  sat  at  the  feet 
of  the  teacher  afterwards  carried  the 
rew  doctrine  into  many  places.  Fortu- 
nately, the  story  has  been  told  by  some 
among  the  number  so  that  it  is  known 
how  the  reformer  lived  at  this  time.  He 
was  fully  occupied  with  his  lectures  and 
the  reception  of  patients  at  his  home. 
He  did  not  visit  them  at  their  houses. 
l);n'l\  with  his  wife  and  daughters  he 
walked  'in  one  of  the  public  gardens  of 
tl^e  city.  After  the  day's  labor  he  was 
accustomed  to  sit  among  his  students  in 
the  evening,  and  with  the  mug  of  "ghose" 
at  his  side  and  the  long  German  pipe  in 
his  hand,  he  would  tell  his  disciples  of 
the  curious  actions  and  ways  of  the  older  physicians  at  the  sick  bed,  or  relate 
circumstances  of  his  former  life  •  and  then  he  would  become  lost  to  the  sur- 
roundings, his  pipe  would  go  out,  and  one  of  liis  daughters  would  at  once  be 
called  to  relight  it. 

But  persecution  came.  The  students  were  accustomed  to  prescribe  for 
patients  and  Hahnemann's  reception  room  was  thronged  daily ;  both  master 
and  student  gave  medicine.  This  practice  was  contrary  to  the  law  of  that 
time,  and  the  apothecaries  whose  privileges  w^ere  supposed  to  be  encroached 
upon  appealed  to  the  courts  against  Hahnemann,  and  he  was  cited  to  appear. 
He  did  so,  and  also  addressed  a  letter  to  the  authorities  in  which  he  argued 
that  he  did  not  give  compound  prescriptions  but  only  simple  remedies  in  such 
minute  doses,  and  of  whose  pre])aration  the  apothecaries  knew  nothing,  that 
they  could  not  put  up  these  medicines ;  that  their  exclusive  right  was  only 
to  make  up  compound  prescriptions  and  that  homoeopathy  did  not  compound 

1>.  C.  A.   11.  Alulilenbein. 


or  dispense.     He  was  soon  notified  that  he  would  be  fined  twenty  thalers  for 
every  dispensation  afterwards. 

In  1820  a  celebrated  s^eneral,  Prince  von  Schwartzenberg,  who  had  been 
a  leader  of  the  allied  armies  against  Napoleon,  applied  to  Hahnemann  for 
treatment,  asking  that  he  attend  him  at  Vienna.  Hahnemann  replied  that  if 
he  wished  his  services  he  must  come  to  Leipsic  as  he  was  too  busy  to  go  to 
Vienna.  So  desirous  was  the  prince  to  consult  Hahnemann  that  he  came  to 
Leipsic  and  established  himself  in  a  suburb  of  the  city.  His  case  was  incur- 
able, and  he  died  about  six  months  afterwards,  of  apoplexy.  His  death  was 
the  cause  of  renewed  attacks  on  Hahnemann,  and  the  legal  persecutions,  that 
during  the  treatment  had  been  prevented  bv  the  Saxon  government  on  account 
■of  his  illustrious  patient,  were  resumed  with  redoubled  vigor.  Hahnemann's 
students  were  arrested,  fined,  and  even  imprisoned.  He  himself  was  so  per- 
secuted that  he  must  either  give  up  practice  or  resume  his  journeying  in 
quest  of  another  abiding  place.     Of  a  truth  it  may  be  said : 

"His  life  was  like  a  battle  or  a  march, 

And  like  the  wind's  blast,  never  resting,  homeless. 
He  stormed   across  the  war-convulsed  earth." 

Xot  far  from  Leipsic  was  one  of  the  many  little  principalities  of  which 
at  that  time  Germany  was  composed.  It  was  the  duchy  of  Anhalt-Coethen. 
One  of  its  notables,  the  Grand  Duke  Frederick,  had  heard  of  Hahnemann's 
wonderful  cures  and  was,  besides,  a  lover  of  justice.  He  offered  an  asylum 
to  the  persecuted  old  teacher,  appointed  him  his  privy  physician  with  the  title 
of  Hofrath,  and  by  edict  gave  him  permission  to  dispense  and  prescribe  within 
the  limits  of  his  kmgdom.  Early  in  May,  1821,  Hahnemann  shook  the  dust 
of  inhospitable  Leipsic  from  his  feet  and  with  his  faithful  students  accom- 
panying him  on  the  road  set  out  for  Coethen. 

It  was  a  delightful  place,  nestled  in  the  valley  of  a  small  river,  and  in 
its  quiet  the  master  passed  fifteen  years  of  his  eventful  life.  In  a  summer- 
house  at  th.e  end  of  a  paved  garden  he  studied  and  Avrote  and  meditated,  for- 
mulating, completing  and  perfecting  his  life  work.  His  "  Chronic  Diseases  " 
was  written  at  Coethen,  the  last  four  editions  of  Organon,  and  the  last  two 
editions  of  "  Materia  Medica  Pura." 

The  year  1829  was  memorable  because  on  August  10  Hahnemann  cele- 
brated the  fiftieth  anniversary  of  his  graduation  at  Eriangen.  His  disciples 
came  to  him,  bringing  gifts.  The  old  savant's  portrait  was  done  in  oil  and 
his  bust  v/as  modelled.  Stapf,  his  favorite  pupil,  had  collected  the  fugitive 
essays  he  had  written,  and  brought  the  first  copy  from  the  printer  as  his 
token.  Albrecht,  the  Dresden  friend  and  after-time  biographer,  delivered  a 
poem  in  his  praise.  Rummel  presented  the  honorary  diploma  from  his  alma 
mater.  The  scholarly  Aluhlenbein  made  a  Latin  oration,  giving  a  sketch  of 
his  life  and  labors.  The  good  duke  and  duchess  remembered  their  beloved 
physician.  Afterwards  there  was  a  grand  dinner.  The  disciples  came  from 
all  parts  of  the  country,  and  those  who  could  not  come  sent  letters  of  amity. 
This  occasion  resulted,  in  the  formation  of  the  German  Central  Homoeopathic 

Soon  afterward,  however,  a  great  sorrow  came,  and  the  wings  of  ashen 
^ray  were  unfolded  over  the  good  housewife.  For  years  she  had  devoted  her- 
self to  the  cares  of  life  that  her  husband  might  be  free  to  pursue  his  studies. 
At  the  time  of  her  illness  Hahnemann  also  was  ill,  but  he  kept  himself  at  her 



bedside  and  comforted  her.  After  her  death  their  daughters  continued  tO' 
care  for  the  household,  and  there  was  Httle  real  change  in  its  domestic  life. 

The  cholera  year  of  1832  came,  and  although  Hahnemann  never  had 
seen  a  case  of  that  character  his  knowledge  of  the  effects  of  medicines  upon 
the  system  enabled  him  to  suggest  the  remedies  that  would  be  found  useful. 
His  opinion  proved  correct,  because  it  was  founded  upon  a  law.  Now  the 
years  passed  peacefully  and  happily ;  the  wanderer  at  last  had  a  home.  Homoe- 
opathy was  known  and  men  of  ability,  physicians  and  laymen,  journeyed 
to  the  little  village  to  hear  the  old  sage  talk  and  to  learn  more  of  the  new 
and  rational  method  of  healing.  Coethen  became  the  schoolhouse  of  homce- 
opathv,  from  whence  went  willing  disciples  to  carry  the  teachings  to  all  parts 
of  the  world. 

Hahnemann  always  was  a  very  industrious  man ;  he  never  was  idle.  He 
proved  about  ninety  medicines  on  himself;  he  wrote  about  seventy  original 
w^orks  on  chemistrv  and  medicine,  some  of  them  in  several  volumes ;  he  trans- 

Hahnemann's  Home  in  Coethen. 

lated  fifteen  large  medical  and  scientific  works  from  the  English,  six  from  the 
French,  one  from  the  Italian,  and  one  from  the  Latin.  These  translations 
were  not  alone  on  medicine,  but  on  chemistry,  agriculture  and  general  Hter- 
ature.  Among  them  was  "  History  of  the  Lives  of  Abelard  and  Heloise." 
which  was  considered  a  remarkable' work  from  a  literary  standpoint.  Besides 
this  was  the  labor  of  attending  to  a  very  large  practice,  a  great  part  of  which 
was  by  letter.  He  was  not  only  a  physician,  reformer  and  chemist,  but  he 
was  an  accomplished  classical  scholar  and  critic,  well  versed  in  astronomy 
and  meteorology,  and  especially  fond  of  geography.  In  the  days  at  Coethen' 
he  was  at  seventy-five  years  interesting  himself  in  the  habits  of  spiders,  still 
studying  chemistVy,  and  keeping  himself  by  letter  en  rapport  with  his  fol- 
lowers in  different  parts  of  the  world. 

In  stature  Hahnemann  was  a  small  man.  inclined  to  stoutness;  his  car- 
riage was  upright  and  his  walk  dignified ;  his  step  was  firm  and  all  his  motions- 
active  ;  his  forehead  was  very  higli,  arched,  and  bore  the  impress  of  thought. 
In  early  life  he  wore  a  queue;  later  on  he  became  bald  on  the  top  of  his  head^ 


and  long  locks  of  curling  white  hair  fell  over  each  temple.  His  eye  was 
particularly  piercing  and  brilliant,  as  though  a  great  soul  looked  out  defiantly 
upon  the  noisy  world.  He  seldom  smiled  ;  life  had  been  too  real  for  much 
laughter,  yet  he  enjoyed  the  pleasure  of  others,  In  early  life  he  wore  small 
■clothes,  knee  breeches  and  shoes  with  buckles,  and  later  on  the  long  trousers ; 
his  coat  was  dark.  In  his  home  life  a  gaily  figured  dressing  gown  with  long 
skirts,  wadded  slippers  and  always  a  black  velvet  cap  on  his  head,  completed 
his  attire.  In  Paris  it  was  said  that  he  wore  his  hair  in  curl  papers  at  night. 
In  food  he  was  abstemious ;  he  vvas  fond  of  sweets  and  preferred  a  sort 
of  sunple  cake  to  bread.  His  vegetables  were  cabbage,  new  beans  and  spin- 
ach. He  usually  took  a  nap  after  eating.  Daily  he  took  exercise  in  the  open 
air,  and  worked  until  late  at  night.  His  usual  companion  was  a  little  pet 
"dog  that  lay  near  his  chair.     Hahnemann  had  eleven  children. 

Friedrich   Runime!,   M.   D. 

In  January,  1833,  a  fond  wish  of  the  great  teacher  was  realized.  A 
homoeopathic  hospital  was  formally  opened  at  Leipsic.  He  visited  it  later 
on  and  had  the  satisfaction  of  knowing  that  there  w^as  at  least  one  institution 
pledged  to  a  fair  trial  of  his  doctrines.  There  were  differences  afterward 
between  the  physicians  and  himself,  but  he  continued  his  interest  in  the  hos- 
pital as  long  as  he  remained  in  Germany. 

In  1835  this  old  man  who  had  for  some  time  thought  that  according  to 
the  law  of  nature  he  might  finish  his  pilgrimage  at  anv  time,  renewed  his 
lease  upon  life.  He  married  a  French  lady  of  thirty-five  vears,  one  Marie 
]Melanie  d'Hervilly  Gohier,  daughter  of  a  painter  who  had  been  adopted  by 


a  prominent  Frenchman.  She  had  heard  of  Hahnemann,  and  on  visiting  him 
they  were  mutually  attracted.  He  made  a  will  giving  his  children  most  o£ 
his  property,  and  on  January  28,  1835,  he  married ;  and  on  the  first  day  of 
Whitsuntide  of  the  same  year  he  departed  from  Coethen  with  his  bride.  His 
children  and  grandchildren  dined  with  them  at  Halle,  and  the  doctor  and  his 
wife  went  on  to  Pans.  Madame  Hahnemann  was  a  woman  of  ability,  an 
artist  and  poetess,  and  she  soon  became  also  a  physician.  She  was  of  good, 
family  and  the  life  became  a  gay  and  busy  one.  They  lived  in  style  in  a 
fashionable  part  of  the  city.  Soon  Hahnemann,  though  it  was  supposed  that 
he  intended  to  rest  from  his  labors  at  Paris,  was  engaged  in  a  larger  and 
more  exacting  practice  than  he  ever  before  had,  and  contrary  to  the  old 
custom  he  now  made  visits,  driving  about  in  his  carriage  after  the  manner 
of  other  city  physicians.  His  clientage  constantly  increased,  and  although 
he  had  given  away  most  of  his  property  on  leaving  Germany,  it  is  said  that 
during  the  eight  years  of  his  life  in  Paris  he  earned  4,000,000  francs.  The 
French  Homoeopathic  Society  honored  him  by  making  him  their  honorary 
president,  and  his  every  birthday  was  made  the  occasion  of  a  festival  in  his 
honor.  Many  distinguished  strangers  called  on  and  recognized  him  as  the 
founder  of  a  new  and  successful  school  of  medicine.  His  home  life  was 
happy;  he  enjoyed  the  opera  and  public  receptions,  but  he  did  no  more  liter- 
ary work. 

Death  came  at  last  to  take  away  the  great  man,  and  calmly,  trustingly, 
uncomplainingly,  although  at  the  last  he  suffered  much,  he  passed  away  early 
in  the  morning  of  Sunday,  July  2,  1843,  gently  whispering  "  I  have  not  lived 
in  vam." 

Previous  to  181 1,  the  year  in  which  Hahnemann  established  his  school 
in  Leipsic,  none  but  himself  had  practiced  his  system.  But  now  with  the 
students  from  the  university  attending  his  lectures  and  becoming  one  by  one 
convinced  of  the  truth  of  homoeopathy,  they  also  began  to  practice  quietly. 
The  first  of  them  to  embrace  homoeopathy  was  Johann  Ernst  Stapf.  who 
studied  the  new  system  as  early  as  181 1,  and  in  1812  practiced  with  onlv  the 
remedies  mentioned  in  the  first  volume  of  "  Materia  Medica  Pura."  Hart- 
mann  says  that  in  1814  Stapf  was  no  longer  living  in  Leipsic,  but  came  occa- 
sionally from  Naumburg,  where  he  was  established,  to  visit  his  old  friends. 
He  was  the  first  pupil  of  Hahnemann  and  was  very  near  and  dear  to  him. 

From  '1812  to  1821  the  lectures  by  Hahnemann  were  delivered  semi- 
annually on  Wednesday  and  Saturday  afternoons.  These  were  attended  by 
both  students  and  physicians.  During  this  time  Hahnemann  was  at  work  on 
his  "Materia  Medica  Pura."-  The  first  volume  had  been  published  in  181 1; 
the  second  and  third  were  issued  in  1816-17;  the  fourth  in  1818;  the  fifth  in 
1819,  and  the  sixth  m  1821.  This  consisted  of  a  record  of  the  symptoms 
resulting  from  various  medicinal  substances  that  had  been  proven  upon  them- 
selves by  a  number  of  the  young  men  who  were  attending  Hahnemann's 
lectures.  These  men  had  organized  themselves  into  a  Provers'  Union,  subject 
to  the  control  and  advice  of  the  master.  The  members  were  Stapf.  Gross, 
Hornburg,  Franz,  Wislicenus,  Teuthorn,  Herrmann.  Reuckert,  Langham- 
mcr  and  Hartmann ;  and  by  means  of  this  devoted  band  homoeopathv  was 
introduced  from  the  medical  family  of  Hahnemann  in  Leipsic  into  the  differ- 
ent parts  of  Germany. 

Johann  Ernst  Stapf  was  born  September  g.  1788.  at  Naumburg.  He 
was  educated  in  the   Nobility   school  of   Naumburg  and  Leipzig  Universitv- 



He  began  to  investigate  as  early  as  1811  and  was  practicing  homoeopathy  at 
Nainnburg  as  early  as  1814.  He  was  one  of  the  stalwarts  of  German  homce- 

Gnstav  Wilhelm  Gross,  born  at  Kaltenborn  near  Juterbogk,  September 
6,  1794,  went  to  Leipsic  in  1814  and  there  became  acquainted  with  Hahnemann 
and  his  followers.  He  remained  in  Leipsic  until  18 17,  when,  after  taking  his 
degree,  January  6,  1817,  he  established  himself  in  practice  as  a  homoeopathic 
physician  at  Juterbogk,  a  small  village  between  Leipsic  and  Berlin,  near  the 
Saxon  frontier.  Like  the  others  he  was  exposed  to  much  obloquy,  but  became 
one  of-  the  most  eminent  of  the  German  practitioners. 

Christian  Gottlob  Hornburg,  born  at  Chemnitz  October  18.  1793,  went 
to  Leipsic  to  study  theology  in  1813.     He  attended  Hahnemann's  lectures  on 


Dr.    Georg    Aug.    Benj.    Scliueikert. 

homoeopathy  and  decided  to  study  medicine.  He  was  one  of  those  who  prac- 
ticed homoeopathy  in  Leipsic  and  became  involved  in  the  trials  and  fines  that 
overwhelmed  the  students  of  Hahnemann  in  1819.  It  is  said  that  his  case 
of  medicines  was  taken  from  him  by  the  authorities  in  November,  1819,  and 
was  burned  with  considerable  public  formality  in  the  Paulina  (St.  Paul's) 
cemetery.  His  early  death  is  said  to  have  been  due  to  bitter  persecution  by 
.the  relentless  enemies  of  homoeopathy. 

Karl  Gottlob  Franz,  born  at  Plauen.  May  8,  1795.  went  to  Leipsic  in 
1814  and  soon  became  assistant  to  Hahnemann.  He  remained  in  Leipsic 
until  1825  and  then  went  to  \'ienna  as  physician  to  a  lady  of  noble  family, 
who  wished  homoeopathic  treatment. 


W.  E.  Wislicenus  introduced  homoeopathy  into  Eisenach  in  the  duchy  of 
Weimar,  at  an  early  date.  He  had  been  of  the  Leipsic  coterie.  It  is  said 
that  in  1821  he  made  trials  of  homoeopathy  in  the  Garrison  hospital  at  Berlin, 
which  was  under  control  of  the  military  surgeons.  The  results  were  favorable 
to  homoeopathy.  The  hospital  doctors  took  away  the  journal  in  which  he 
had  recorded  the  results  of  his  experiments,  to  read,  but  in  spite  of  his  earnest 
■entreaties  for  its  return  they  would  not  bring  it  back. 

Ernst  Ferdinand  Rueckert  was  born  near  Herrnhut,  March  3,  1795. 
He  went  to  Leipsic  m  1812,  and  v/as  one  of  the  first  of  Hahnemann's  pupils. 
From  1816  to  1817  he  visited  the  Medico-Chirurgical  Academy  at  Dresden. 
He  first  settled  at  Grimma,  but  soon  went  to  Mutchen  and  soon  after  again 
changed  location,  going  to  Bernstadt  in  1819.  He  practiced  homoeopathy  in 
a  number  of  other  localities  in  Germany  and  was  instrumental  in  spreading 
i  the  new  doctrine. 

\  A  distinguished  follower  of  Hahnemann  was  Franz  Hartmann,  who  was 

\  born  in  Delitsch  May  18,  1796,  and  who  joined  the  disciples  of  the  new 
\  medical  faith  in  1814.  After  passing  certain  examinations  and  after  some 
persecution,  he  finally  (1821)  located  at  Zschopau  as  a  practicing  physician. 
Although  he  covered  vip  his  homoeopathic  practice  to  a  certain  extent  the 
variations  in  his  m.ethods  and  the  brilliant  cures  he  made  caused  remark  and 
tended  to  spread  the  new  doctrine,  .  Frederick  Flahnemann  had  also  practiced 
for  a  time  in  an  erratic  way  in  Wolkenstein,  a  neighboring  town,  and  homoe- 
opathv  was  not  unknown  in  that  vicinity.  Hartmann  removed  to  Leipsic  in 

Previous  to  the  opening  of  the  Medical  Institute  by  Hahnemann  in  Leipsic 
in  1812,  the  storv  of  homoeopathy  is  embraced  in  the  life  of  its  founder. 
F'rom  1812  to  1821  many  enthusiastic  students  were  being  educated  to  become 
future  missionaries  in  disseminating  the  principles  of  the  new  school.  Medi- 
cines were  being  proven,  and  faith  in  their  efficacy  was  made  strbnger  by  ill- 
founded  and  wanton  persecution  both  of  Hahnemann  and  his  pupils.  When 
in  1821  the  master  gladly  accepted  the  peaceful  home  at  Coethen  a  new  epoch 
was  begun  in  the  history  of  homoeopathy.  Previous  to  this  Hahnemann  had 
exercised  more  or  less  control  over  his  students,  but  now  they  were  located 
ia  different  towns  and  began  to  act  independently.  It  was  not  long  before 
there  were  homoeopathic  practitioners  in  many  localities  in  Germany  and 
other  countries.  Hahnemann  from  Coethen  advised  his  followers  and  many 
physicians  journeyed  there  to  visit  and  learn  from  him. 

In  1821  Dr.  Stapf  established  at  Leipsic  a  jounxal  devoted  to  homoeopathy. 
It  was  an  octavo,  issued  three  times  a  year,  and  was  called  "  x\rchiv  fur  die 
homoopathische  Heilkunst "  (Archives  for  Homoeopathic  Healing).  This 
was  the  first  magazine  ever  published  in  the  interest  of  homoeopathy.  On  the 
reverse  of  the  title  of  each  number  is  a  quotation  from  Romeo  and  Juliet  that 
seems  to  prove  that  Shakespeare  must  have  heard  of  the  principle  of  similia : 

"Tut.  man,  one  fire  burns  out  another's  burning; 
One  pain   is  lessened  by  another's  anguish, 
Turn  giddy  and  be  holp  by  backward  turning: 

\  .One  desperate  grief  cures  with  another's  languish. 

I  Take  thou   some  new  infection  to  the  eye, 

And  the   rank  poison  of  the  old  will  die." 

The  provers  and  the  disciples  wrote  for  this  journal  and  it  soon  became 
}^  an  established  power  for  the  promotion  of  the  new  doctrine. 



At  this  period,  aljout  1821,  ( iross  was  practiciiii^  homoeopathy  at  Juterbogk. 
Moritz  Miiller  and  Carl  Haubold  were  settled  at  Leipsic,  where  the  veterinary 
surgeon,  Wilhelm  L.ux,  also  was  located.  He  had  employed  homoeopathy  in 
his  practice  since  1820,  and  to  him  the  doctrine  of  isopathy  is  due.  He  argued 
that  every  contagious  disease  carried  in  its  own  contagium  the  means  of  its 
cure,  and  therefore  as  a  remedy  for  anthrax  he  diluted  up  to  the  thirtieth 
potency  a  drop  of  the  blood  from  an  animal  afflicted  with  anthrax.  He  pre- 
pared in  the  same  way  other  pathological  products  and  took  for  a  motto 
acqualia  acqualibiis  instead  of  similia  similibns.  In  1833  ^''^  published  a  small 
pamphlet  entitled  "  Isopathy  of  Contagia,"  and  in  1837  another  called  "  Zooiasis 
or  Homaopathy  in  its  Application  to  the  Diseases  of  Animals."  The 
opinions  of  Lvix  have  had  a  decided  efifect  upon  homoeopathic  practice. 

Dr.  Carl   Georg  Ch.   Hartlaub. 

In  1821  Drs.  C.  F.  Trinks  and  Paul  Wolf  were  located  at  Dresden.  As 
early  as  18 19  one  Dr.  Gossner  was  practicing  homoeopathy  in  Oberhollabrun 
in  Lower  Austria,  and  Dr.  Mussek  in  Seefeld,  a  neighboring  town.  In 
Prague  Dr.  Marenzeller,  military  staff  surgeon,  and  attending  physician  to 
the  Archduke  John,  was  interested  in  homoeopathy. 

In  Vienna  Professor  S.  Veith,  as  early  as  181 7,  had  become  interested  in 
the  system  through  the  army  surgeon  Krastiansky  in  Klattau.  He  and  his 
brother,  who  was  a  pastor  of  St.  Stephen's,  practiced  homoeopathy  for  vears 
in  Vienna. 

In  1823  Dr.  Adam  located  in  St.  Petersburg,  Russia.  He.  had  met 
Hahnemaiui  in  Germany  and  became  a  convert  to  his  teaching.     Within  two 



vears  Dr.  Stegeniann  introduced  homoeopathy  into  the  provinces  of  the 
Eastern  sea.  At  Dorpat  he  induced  the  cHnical  professor,  Sahmen,  to  experi- 
ment with  homcDeopathic  remedies,  and  in  1825  he  pubHshed  a  work  on  the 
subject.  In  1827  M.  Marcus  at  Moscow  expressed  a  leaning  toward  homce- 
opathv.  A  convert  of  the  time  was  Dr.  Bigel,  physician  to  the  wife  of  th» 
Grand  Duke  Constantine  in  Warsaw.  He  had  accompanied  the  duke  to 
Dresden  and  during  a  fierce  medical  controversy  that  was  raging  was  led  to 
study  Hahnemann's  Organon.  He  became  convinced  of  the  truths  contained 
therein,  and  in  1825  published  his  "Justification  of  the  New  Curative  Method 
of  Dr.  Hahnemann  named  Homoeopathy."  In  1829  he  treated  homoeopath- 
icallv  the  inmates  of  a  hospital  in  Warsaw  for  the  children  of  soldiers.  In 
fact  ]v  introduced  homoeopathy  into  Warsaw. 

In  1 82 1  Baron  Francis  Roller .  an 
Austrian,  had  carried  the  Organon  to 
Naples  and  where  a  translation  had 
been  made  under  the  auspices  of  the 
Royal  Academy.  In  1822  he  had  called 
to  him  Dr.  George  Necker,  who  had 
been  a  student  of  Hahnemann  and  who 
was  the  first  physician  to  practice 
homncnpathy  in  Italy.  In  May,  1823, 
lie  opened  a  homoeopathic  dispensary 
for  the  poor  in  his  own  house  in  Naples. 
It  was  not  long  before  Drs.  Francisco 
Romani,  Giuseppe  Mauro  and  Cosmo 
Maria  de  Horatiis  became  converts. 

In  1821  Dr.  Hans  Christian  Lund, 
a  medical  practitioner  of  Copenhagen, 
then  fifty-six  years  old,  adopted  homoe- 
opathy and  introduced  it  in  Denmark. 
He  translated  into  Danish  many  books 
and  pamphlets  on  the  subject,  and  in 
1833  published  a  weekly  paper.  It  is 
claimed  that  Lund  was  the  means  of 
inducing  Hans  Burch  Gram  to  investi- 
gate the  teachings  of  homoeopath} . 
In  1822  Dr.  George  A.  H.  Muhlenbein,  an  eminent  practitioner  of  medi- 
cine in  the  duchy  of  Brunswick,  became  acquainted  with  the  principles  of 
homaopathy  by  reading  the  "Materia  Medica  Pura,"  and  he  soon  adopted  it  in 
his  practice  that  extended  over  the  whole  of  Northern  Germany.  He  was 
born  Octo1)er  24,  1764,  at  Konigslutter,  and  died  at  Schoeningcn    Januarv  8, 


Moritz  Wilhelm  Miiller,  one  of  the  bright  lights  of  the  allopathic  pro- 
fession in  Germany,  became  a  convert  to  homoeopathy  in  1819.  Hartmann 
thus  mentions  bis  conversion  :  "  I  remember  very  well  that  time  in  the  year 
1819  when  Miiller  sent  his  amanuensis  to  me  with  the  request  to  lend  him 
for  a  short  time  my  copy  of  the  Organon  to  read  through.  Shaking  my  head. 
I  handed  it  to  him  with  the  remark  that  so  celebrated  a  star  of  the  first  mag- 
nitude in  the  allopathic  firmanent  would  hardly  accept  homoeopathy  with  firm 
faith.  Rut  as  we  are  sometimes  deceived  in  this  life  it  was  so  in  this  case." 
Miiller  became  one  of  the  most  aggressive  of  the  homoeopathists  and  was  for 

Dr.  Julius  Scliwcikert. 

lllS'lOm'  (  )!•■  HOMG^OPATin'  Vi 

nmnv  years  a  prominent  factor  in  the  advancement  of  hom(e*i])ath\-   in  (jer- 
nian\-.     llis  home  was  m  Leipsic. 

Dr.  Fischer  of  Brunn  used  homoeopathic  remedies  before  1825  in  Eiben- 
shutz,  Saar  and  Rossitz,  in  Moravia.  In  Brunn  he  had  two  ^Hes,  Steigen- 
tisch,  a  merchant,  and  Albrecht,  a  government  official.  The  former  had  gone 
through  a  course  of  surgery  and  had  performed  medical  service  in  the  army. 
He  treated  chronic  cases  and  had  many  adherents,  chiefly  among  the  higher 
classes.  Albrecht  was  a  correspondent  of  Hahnemann  and  devoted  himself 
to  the  preparation  of  homceopathic  remedies.  He  also  was  successful  as  a 
practitioner.  He  was  not  a  physician  but  was  closely  identified  with  the  his- 
tory of  homo-opathy.  In  185 1  he  published  a  biographical  sketch  of  Hahne- 




By  Thomas  Lindsley  Bradford,  M.  D. 

Introductory  Observations — Condition  of  Homoeopathy  at  the  Time  of  Gram's  Arrival 
in  America — He  Settles  in  New  York — His  Practice  and  Followers — Homoeopathic 
Medical  Societies,  State  and  Local — Hospitals  and  Charitable  Institutions — The 
Pioneers  of  Homoeopathy  in  New  York. 

At  the  end  of  the  first  quarter  of  the  nineteenth  century  homceopathy  in 
Europe  was  in  a  satisfactory  condition,  increasing  in  popularity,  and  its  exem- 
plars were  daily  performing  good  works.  Hahnemann  at  Coethen  was  busy 
with  his  pen,  his  fertile  brain  evolving  and  sending  forth  into  the  world  new- 
principles  for  the  guidance  of  his  followers,  encouraging  them  with  sugges- 
tion and  advice ;  and  he  was  contented,  his  mind  at  peace  with  itself,  and 
he'  with  the  world,  and  his  personal  comfort  was  equally  assured.  His 
Organon  had  passed  its  third  German  edition,  was  translated  into  French  and 
his  "  Materia  Medica  Pura  "  in  six  volumes  had  been  issued  in  its  second  edi- 
tion. The  school  of  medicine  he  had  founded  was  then  planted  and  firmly  rooted 
in  nearly  all  the  stronger  European  countries,  but  as  yet  the  English  speaking 
people  had  not  shown  an  inclination  to  accept  the  doctrine,  or  even  to  investi- 
gate it,  but  had  brushed  it  aside  as  a  worthless  invention  put  before  a  credu- 
lous public  for  purposes  of  personal  gain. 

Such  were  the  conditions  with  reference  to  the  homoeopathic  school  of 
medicine  at  the  time  of  which  we  write,  about  the  year  1825,  when  the  whole 
number  of  its  practitioners  probably  numbered  less  than  an  hundred  men,  and 
they  equipped  with  not  more  than  the  limited  knowledge  acquired  from  the 
study  of  such  works  as  then  were  published  on  the  subject.  But  out  of  this 
comparative  darkness  there  came  a  man  of  education  and  refinement,  if  not 
of  strong  determination  of  character,  and  to  him  fell  the  lot  of  bearing  the 
gospel  of  homcieopathy  across  the  Atlantic  ocean  to  free  America.  There  was 
no  unusual  circumstance  attending  the  voyage  of  Gram  to  America,  nor  did 
he  come  for  the  especial  purpose  of  proclaiming  a  new  doctrine  in  medicine 
to  the  people.  Indeed,  his  purpose  appears  to  have  been  quite  to  the  contrary, 
for  then  he  possessed  a  competency,  and  his  return  to  the  land  of  his  birth 
was  in  the  nature  of  a  home-coming  with  its  attending  enjoyments  in  a  wide 
circle  of  friendships,  which  were  his  both  then  and  afterward  throughout  the 
period  of  his  interesting  life. 

In  the  course  of  time  Gram  came  to  the  city  of  New  York,  to  visit  with 
relatives,  and  there  was  nothing  then  that  indicated  an  inclination  to  take  up 
the  practice  of  medicine  until  reverses  of  fortune  compelled  him  to  resume  that 
avocation  as  a  means  of  livelihood ;  and  thus  by  force  of  circumstances — 
necessity  is  a  hard  master — Hans  Burch  Gram  became  the  pioneer  of  hon.oe- 
opathy  in  America.  Had  misfortune  overtaken  him  in  Maine,  where  he  hrst 
landed,  the  pleasant  distinction  would  have  been  accorded  to  the  Pine  Tree 
rather  than  the  Empire  state. 


Gram  stood  alone  in  the  practice  of  medicine  according  to  the  law  of  simi- 
lars less  than  two  years,  and  within  the  next  ten  years  nine  were  gathered 
together  in  tJie  name  of  homoeopathy  and  organized  themselves  into  that  which, 
they  called  the  New  York  Homoeopathic  Society,  of  which  Gray  was  the 
honored  head,  while  its  membership  included  the  entire  coterie  of  Hahne- 
mannians — Strong,  Baxter,  Vanderburgh,  Seymour,  Lohse,  Hull,  Wilsey,  Pat- 
terson, Strong,  Butler  and  Bock,  physicians  and  believers  but  not  all  active 
in  the  practice  of  medicine  at  that  time. 

Seven  years  later,  1841,  the  New  York  Homoeopathic  Physicians  Society 
was  organized  in  the  city  and  admitted  only  medical  practitioners  to  the  benefit 
of  membership ;  but  its  life  was  short  and  it  passed  out  of  existence  in  the 
course  of  six  or  seven  years.  Just  a  little  later  New  York  city  and  the  com- 
monwealth was  chiefly  instrumental  in  organizing  the  American  Institute  of 
Homoeopathy,  the  national  society,  whose  province  was  then,  as  now,  to  safe- 
guard the  homoeopathic  profession  and  practice  against  the  wiles  and  schemes- 
of  those  who  would  bring  its  principles  and  practice  into  ridicule  and  disre- 
pute. The  purpose  of  the  institute  was  and  is  perfectly  honorable ;  its  prin- 
ciples are  securely  based  in  established  truth,  and  its  functions  always  have 
been  administered  so  as  to  elevate  the  profession  and  hold  between  it  and  all- 
unworthy  methods  an  impassable  barrier. 

Even  before  the  organization  of  the  institute  the  gospel  of  the  school  it 
fostered  and  maintainecl  had  spread  out  into  remote  parts  of  the  state,  and 
through  its  instrumentality  societies  were  organized,  many  of  them  to  continue 
in  life  and  usefulness  to  the  present  time,  and  a  few  to  fall  by  the  wavside 
and  pass  into  history  in  the  ephemera  of  homoeopathy.  In  the  state  in  1852- 
three  hundred  and  one  homoeopathic  nractitioners  were  at  work,  and  five  years 
later  the  number  had  increased  to  four  hundred  and  fifty-three.  In  1870  the 
number  was  seven  hundred  and  twenty-seven ;  in  1880.  nine  hundred  and 
sixty-eight:  in  1899  twelve  hundred  and  three,  and  in  .1904  twelve  hundred  and 
six — more  than  a  full  regiment  of  professional  soldiers,  including  manv  offi- 
cers, and  in  the  ranks  about  one-sixth  of  the  whole  are  those  who  abandoned 
the  allopathic  and  allied  hosts  to  combat  the  ills  of  life  under  the  standard 
set  up  by  Hahnemann  something  more  than  a  centurv  ago. 

The  old  homoeopathic  profession  in  New  York  did  something  more  thaiT 
organize  societies  for  mutual  benefit  and  protection ;  something  more  tharr 
merely  work  out  the  salvation  and  conversion  of  hundreds  of  medical  practi- 
tioners who  were  dissatisfied  with  the  jharsh  and  arbitrary  requirements  of 
the  allopathic  school,  and  something  more  than  recruit  its  ranks  with  dis- 
sentients from  the  eclectic  school.  The  homoeopathic  profession  through  well 
directed  effort  made  early  and  careful  provision  for  the  thorough  education 
of  its  representatives  in  the  world  of  medicine,  in  the  establishment  of  boards- 
of  examination  to  exercise  censorship  of  the  qualifications  of  practitioners 
and  others  who  aspired  to  the  homoeopathic  ranks.  And  as  soon  as  the  school 
had  become  well  grounded  in  the  state  an  earnest  effort  was  made  to  estab- 
lish an  institution  of  medical  instruction.  In  this  respect,  however.  Pennsvl- 
vania  preceded  New  York  by  several  years,  and  through  the  endeavors  of 
Hering,  Wesselhoeft,  Detwiller  and  others,  founded  ,\llentown  Academy,  the 
first  institution  of  its  kind  in  the  world,  and  which  ended  its  career  after  about 
six  years  of  indifferent  success.  It  was  followed  in  1848  by  the  Homoeopathic 
Medical  College  of  Pennsylvania,  with  a  seat  of  operation  in  Philadelphia. 
However,  in   1846  a  petition  was  presented  to  the  legislature  of  New  Yorlc 



praying  for  an  act  of  incorporation  of  a  homoeopathic  medical  college  to  be 
located  at  Auburn,  but  the  application  was  not  favored  by  the  legislative  com- 
mittee and  the  enterprise  was  compelled  to  be  abandoned.  It  was  not  that 
the  legislature  itself  opposed  the  proposition  to  charter  the  college,  but  the 
influence  of  the  allopathic  profession  was  strong  enough  to  sway  the  legisla- 
tive mind  and  accomplish  the  defeat  of  the  measure.  The  effort  was  renewed 
in  1853  under  the  influence  of  the  state  homoeopathic  medical  society,  and 
while  more  material  progress  was  made  at  that  time  the  project  was  again 
abandoned,  although  provision  was  made  in  another  way  for  the  education 
of  those  who  sought  to  practice  homoeopathic  medicine.  The  first  perma- 
nent school  of  homoeopathic  medical  instruction  in  this  state  was  founded  in 

i860,  and  from  that  time  has  been  an 
active  factor  in  the  history  of  the  pro- 
fession not  only  in  New  York,  but 
throughout  America. 

Such  is  a  mere  glance  at  homoeop- 
athy in  the  state  since  Gram's  advent 
into  its  history  in  1825.  The  retro- 
spect has  been  brief,  and  little  attention 
has  been  given  to  the  lives  and  works 
of  the  pioneers  or  those  who  followed 
him  in  the  profession,  that  branch  of 
the  subject  being  reserved  for  detailed 
mention  in  later  pages. 

In  the  early  history  of  homoeop- 
athy in  the  state  its  votaries  were  fre- 
quently subjected  to  indignity  and  in- 
sult at  the  hands  of  their  inconsiderate 
brethren  of  the  allopathic  school,  and 
as  the  right  to  license  physicians  was 
vested  in  that  school  through  its  socie- 
ties and  officers,  the  latter  were  never 
slow  in  showing  proper  appreciation 
of  duty  by  refusing  homoeopathic  ap- 
plicants license  to  practice,  and  if  any 
attempted  so  to  do  without  the  re- 
quired authority,  the  offenders  were 
promptly  brought  to  bar  under 
charges  of  malpractice  or  any  other  "  trumped-up  "  complaints  that  would 
best  serve  ihe  ]iur]x)se  of  the  dominant  school  and  keep  the  homoeopath  out 
of  the  professional  field. 

As  a  matter  of  fact  the  first  practitioners  of  homoeopathy  in  New  York 
city  were  subjected  to  persecution  as  well  as  prosecution  by  the  opposing 
school  but  the  first  open  act  of  mean  hostility  was  displayed  in  1843,  when 
Drs.  Hull  and  Wells  applied  for  membership  in  the  Kings  County  Medical 
Society.  The  applications  had  been  made  in  due  form,  all  the  requirements 
had  been  complied  with,  their  qualifications  were  unquestioned,  for  they  were 
thoroughly  educated  phvsicians,  but  thev  were  rejected  because  they  were 
houKcopatlis,  and  for  no  other  reason.  Wells  accepted  his  rejection,  but  Hull, 
of  more  determined  character,  brought  the  matter  into  court,  and  after  the 
suit  had  been  dragged  along  through  sixteen  years  of  tedious  routine,  it  was 

Hans  Burch  Gram,  M.  D. 


finally  decided  in  his  favor.  Then  the  society  with  much  condescension  offered 
him  a  seat  in  its  councils,  but  with  his  characteristic  determination  he  coldly 
declined  the  honor. 

These  incidents  of  persecution  and  petty  annoyance  of  homceopathic 
practitioners  by  the  narrow  partisans  of  allopathy  are  only  a  few  of  the  hun- 
dreds of  similar  proceedings  indulged  in ;  and  while  they  served  the  purpose 
of  a  temporary  expedient,  they  accomplished  no  good  results  for  their  own 
profession,  and  only  served  to  draw  more  closely  together  those  who  were  the 
victims  of  their  venomous  attacks,  and  at  the  same  time  aroused  public  sen- 
timent in  sympathy  with  the  persecuted  school. 

As  the  law  stood  in  1844  all  physicians  not  members  of  the  county  so- 
ciety, or  who  had  not  the  diploma  of  an  incorporated  medical  college,  were 
presumed  to  be  practicing  without  license,  and  therefore  liable  to  prosecu- 
tion and  punishment ;  and  under  the  provisions  of  the  law  then  on  the  statute 
books  the  allopaths  enjoyed  a  rich  harvest*  of  persecution  by  refusing  mem- 
bership to  homoeopathic  applicants  and  then  prosecuting  them  for  unlawfully 
practicing  medicine.  This  period  of  oppression  continued  until  along  about 
1855,  when  the  legislature  first  showed  a  disposition  to  recognize  the  right  of 
the  homoeopath  to  live  and  move  and  have  his  being.  During  the  next  year 
an  act  passed  the  senate  to  authorize  the  incorporation  of  homoeopathic  so- 
cieties, but  for  some  reason  the  bill  "hung  fire"  in  the  lower  house  and  failed 
to  pass.  In  the  next  year,  however,  the  act  was  revived,  passed  both  branches 
of  the  legislature,  and  was  approved  by  the  governor,  April  13.  1857. 

This  act  always  has  been  referred  to  as  that  "legalizing"  homoeopathy 
in  the  state  of  New  York,  which  is  a  misnomer,  and  presupposes  at  some 
time  in  the  history  of  homoeopathy  in  the  state  that  its  practice  was  illegal, 
which  never  was  the  case.  However  this  may  have  been,  the  legalizing  act 
was  secured  largely  through  the  influence  of  the  Homoeopathic  Medical  So- 
ciety of  Northern  New  York.  Since  that  time  the  state  has  given  reasonably 
fair  treatment  to  the  claims  of  the  homoeopathic  school,  although  no  favors 
ever  have  been  asked,  and  under  the  laws  now  in  force  the  regents  of  the 
university  have  supervision  of  the  regulations  and  requirements  of  admission 
to  practice  medicine ;  and  under  established  provisions  homoeopathy  stands  on 
just  the  same  footing  as  the  allopathic  school,  with  an  equal  standard  of 
efficiency  and  proficiency  in  its  disciples. 

But  notwithstanding  the  so-called  legalizing  act  of  1857,  homoeopathy 
was  frequentlv  afterward  the  target  for  allopathic  shafts,  and  the  spirit  of 
venom  and  malice  was  not  at  any  time  more  strikingly  shown  than  just  be- 
fore and  during  the  war  of  1861-1865.  In  treating  of  the  incidents  of  this 
period  free  use  is  made  of  the  writings  of  contemporary  historians.  Says  one 
of  them:  In  1861  Dr.  T.  D.  Stow  endeavored  to  procure  a  surgeoncy  in  a 
regiment  of  volunteers.  He  made  application  in  due  form  and  fvilfilled  all 
the  requirements  of  the  law,  but  was  rejected  because  he  was  a  homoeopath. 

At  the  beginning  of  the  war  the  homoeopaths  made  strenuous  efforts  to 
he  admitted  as  army  surgeons  and  to  the  army  hospitals ;  many  of  the  men 
in  the  regiments  preferred  homoeopathic  treatment,  but  were  denied  it.  Much 
was  published  at  the  time  on  the  subject,  and  detailed  accounts  are  to  be  found 
"in  the  "Transactions"  of  the  New  York  State  Homoeopathic  Medical  Society. 

This  society  took  a  decided  stand  for  the  introduction  of  homoeopathy  in 
tlie  army,  claiming  it  as  a  right,  but  that  right  was  challenged  and  refused 
b}'  the  allopathic  authorities  who  were  in  power.     But  the  most  conspicuous 


attempt  to  crush  homceopathy,  and  which  excited  the  indignation  of  the  entire 
country,  was  the  contemptible  action  of  Van  Arman,  an  official  of  the  pensions 
department,  who  made  the  wonderful  discovery  in  1870  that  Dr.  Spooner,  a 
homoeopathic  physician  at  Oneida,  New  York,  was  also  pension  surgeon  and 
examiner;  and  for  this  offense  against  the  allopathic  sense  of  fitness  Spooner 
was  deposed.  But  homceopathy  refused  to  submit  tamely  to  this  gratuitous 
insult  and  promptly  applied  itself  at  the  doors  of  the  proper  authorities  in 
Washington,  and  with  such  vigor  and  energy  that  the  over-hasty  official  was 
given  an  opportunity  to  resign.  Soon  afterward  both  houses  of  congress 
passed  an  act  providing  that  all  appointments  to  medical  service  under  the 
government  should  be  open  to  all  graduates  of  legally  chartered  institutions, 
W'ithout  reference  to  preferred  theories  of  treatment. 


The  first  gathering  of  physicians  for  the  purpose  of  forming  a  homoe- 
opathic medical  society  in  New  York  state  was  held  at  the  common  council 
room  in  the  city  hall  in  Albany,  ]\Iay  15,  1850.  The  organization  then  per- 
fected was  called  Academy  of  ]\Iedicine  of  the  State  of  New  York.  At  the- 
first  annual  meeting  held  in  Albany,  February  19,  1851,  the  name  was  changed 
to  Homoeopathic  Medical  Societv  of  the  State  of  New  York.  It  was  com- 
posed of  individual  members  and  was  not  a  representative  body.  The  meet- 
ing was  called  to  order  by  Dr.  John  F.  Gray  of  New  York  city.  Dr.  D.  Chase 
of  Palmyra  was. chosen  president,  and  Dr.  H.  D.  Paine  of  Albany,  secretary. 
The  following  regular  officers  were  then  elected :  President,  J.  M.  Ward, 
Albany ;  vice-presidents,  D.  Chase,  Palmyra,  R.  S.  Bryan,  Troy,  A.  S.  Ball,. 
New  York ;  secretary,  H.  D.  Paine,  Albany.  The  society  held  annual  meet- 
ings at  different  places  until  1859.  after  which  for  two  years  there  were  no 
meetings.  A  general  feeling  existed  among  the  homoeopathic  physicians  of 
the  state  that  a  new  society  should  be  organized  as  a  thoroughly  representa- 
tive bod)%  consisting  of  delegates  from  the  various  county  and  other  societies 
in  the  state,  and  pursuant  to  a  call  by  the  members  of  the  Homoeopathic  Medi- 
cal Society  of  Oneida  County,  a  meeting  was  held  at  Albany,  February  28, 
1861,  composed  mostly  of  such  delegates.  Dr.  H.  D.  Paine,  who  was  still 
secretary  of  the  old  society,  called  the  meeting  to  order.  Dr.  L.  B.  Wells 
was  chosen  chairman,  and  H.  M.  Smith  and  H.  M.  Paine,  secretaries.  The 
following  officers  were  then  elected  :  President,  A.  E.  Potter,  Oswego ;  vice- 
presidents,  S.  A.  Cook,  Troy,  A.  R.  Wright,  Buffalo,  C.  Ormes,  Panama ; 
secretary,  H.  M.  Paine,  Clinton ;  treasurer,  J.  W.  Cox,  Albany ;  censors,  from 
eight  districts,  Drs.  T.  Franklin  Smith,  H.  Beaklev,  W.  S.  Searle,  B.  F.  Cor- 
nell, W.  H.  Watson,  J.  R.  White,  C.  W.  Boyce  and  A.  S.  Couch.  An  act  of 
incorporation  was  procured  April  17,  1862,  and  at  a  meeting  held  in  Albany, 
May  6,  1862,  it  w-as  decided  to  proceed  as  if  the  society  had  not  before  existed. 
At  this  meeting  the  following  officers  were ' elected  :  President,  Jacob  Beak- 
ley.  New  York ;  vice-presidents,  A.  R.  Wright,  Buffalo,  F.  A.  Munger,  Wa- 
terville,  W.  S.  Searle,  Troy;  secretary,  H.  M.  Paine,  Clinton;  treasurer,  L.  B. 
Wells,  Utica.  This  society  is  still  in  active  existence,  and  meets  annually 
in  February  at  Albany,  and  semi-annually  in  various  cities  in  September. 
Members  in  1903,  494.  It  lias  published  transactions,  addresses,  etc.,  from  the 
time  of  organization.  The  volumes  from  1863  (Vol.  I.)  have  been  issued  at 
the  expense  of  the  state.  Yo\s.  I  to  XI  are  large  octavo  of  from  200  to  i.2CK> 
pages.     From    1874  the  volumes  have  been  bound   in   iiaper.     The   series  of 


transactions  were  largely  compiled  by  Dr.  H.  M.  Paine,  who  has  been  called 
the  '•Homoeopathic  Organizer."  They  are  rich  in  history,  biography  and  sta- 
tistics of  the  growth  of  American  homoeopathy.  The  fiftieth  anniversary  ol 
the  society  was  celebrated  in  Brooklyn,  October  3-5,  1900. 

The  Homoeopathic  Society  of  Central  New  York,  a  branch  of  the  Ameri- 
can Institute  of  Ilomoeopath}',  had  its  origin  in  an  informal  meeting  held  in- 
Syracuse,  September  13,  1849.  ^^^  the  purpose  of  promoting  the  interests  of 
homoeopathy.  Dr.  A.  L.  Kellogg  of  Bridgewater  was  appointed  chairman,, 
and  Dr.  Augustus  Pool  of  Oswego,  secretary.  The  following  committee  of 
correspondence  Was  appointed  to  perfect  a  plan  of  organization:  S.  W.  Stew- 
art and  Fred  Humphreys  of  Utica,  and  E.  A.  Munger  of  Waterville.  This 
committee  called  a  meeting  at  the  National  hotel  in  Utica,  January  16,  1850, 
at  which  time  the  society  was  regularly  organized  and  the  following  officers 
were  chosen :  President,  A.  L.  Kellogg,  Bridgewater ;  vice-president,  L.  B. 
Wells,  Pompey ;  corresponding  secretary,  Fred  Humphreys,  Utica :  record- 
ing secretary,  E.  A.  Munger,  Waterville :  censors,  S.  W.  Stewart,  F.  Hum- 
phreys, H.  R.  Foote,  Leveritt  Bishop,  J.  C.  Raymond,  yiet  semi-annually  and 
annually  in  January.  The  society  was  continued  but  a  few  years.  The  "^lin- 
utes"  were  published  in  1850.  The  society  made  an  exhaustive  proving  of 
the  apis  mellific?..  which  was  published  in  pamphlet  form. 

The  Central  New  York  Homoeopathic  Medical  Society  was  the  out- 
growth of  a  convention  of  homoeopathic  physicians  of  the  counties  of  Broome,. 
Cayuga,  Cortland,  Jefferson,  Madison,  Ontario,  Oneida,  Onondaga,  Oswego,. 
Seneca  and  Wayne,  held  at  Syracuse  May  i,  1866.  Officers  elected:  Presi- 
dent, Lyman  Clary,  Syracuse ;  vice-president,  E.  A.  Potter,  Oswego ;  secre- 
tary, E.  R.  Heath,  Palmyra.  It  is  still  in  active  existence.  At  first  it  met 
quarterly  in  September,  December  and  March,  the  annual  meeting  being  irr 
June.  It  still  meets  in  Rochester  and  Syracuse,  but  the  annual  meeting  is 
held  in  September  in  the  latter  city.  Members  in  1903,  40.  Transactions 
have  been  published  irregularly. 

The  Flomoeopathic  Medical  Academy  of  the  State  of  New  York,  includes 
in  its  membership  physicians  of  Yates,  Ontario  and  Steuben  and  neighboring 
counties.  It  was  organized  at  Penn  Yan,  January  i,  1853,  under  the  law  of 
1848.  First  officers:  President,  Geo.  W.  Malin.  Jerusalem:  vice-president, 
Richard  Huson,  Dundee:  secretary,  Samuel  K.  Huson,  Dundee:  treasurer,  O. 
W.  Noble,  Penn  Yan.  The  academy  met  quarterlv  in  April,  July  and  Octo-- 
ber  at  different  places.     The  annual  meeting  was  held  in  January. 

The  Homoeopathic  Medical  Societv  of  Northern  New  York  was  organ- 
ized at  Fort  Ann,  Washington  county,  October  16,  1852.  Seven  homoeopathic 
physicians  residing  in  \\'ashington  and  Saratoga  counties  had  formed  an  as- 
sociation called  the  Homoeopathic  Medical  Society  of  the  Counties  of  A\'ashing- 
ton  and  Saratoga,  of  which  the  society  here  considered  is  the  outgrowth.  The 
follow^ing  officers  were  chosen  at  that  meeting :  President,  B.  F.  Cornell, 
Mcreau  Station ;  vice-president,  E.  B.  Cole,  Easton :  secretarv,  S.  G.  Perkins, 
Waterford :  treasurer,  W.  G.  Walcott,  Whitehall :  censors,  Z.  Clements,  Vic- 
tory Mills,  D.  J.  Easton,  Saratoea  Springs,  W.  G.  Walcott,  Whitehall.  Met 
semi-annually.  Migratorv.  Additions  from  the  counties  of  Rensselaer. 
Schenectady  and  Warren  greatlv  enlarged  the  society,  and  it  was  decided  to 
call  it  the  Homoeopathic  ^ledical  Society  of  Northern  New  York.  It  was  in- 
corporated in  1857.  To  this  society  belongs  the  honor  of  orip-inating  the 
movement  to  secure  legal  rights  for  the  homoeopathic  societies  of  New  York 


state.  At  a  meeting  in  1856  a  committee  was  appointed  to  memorialize  the  leg- 
islature to  that  effect,  and  a  bill  was  passed  April  13,  1857.  In  July,  1859,  ^ 
committee  of  correspondence  was  appointed  to  urge  the  organization  of  county 
medical  societies  and  to  elect  delegates  to  the  meeting  of  the  state  society.  A 
circular  was  to  have  been  issued,  but  in  the  meantime  the  Oneida  County 
Homoeopathic  Society  had  issued  such  a  document  without  knowledge  of  the 
action  of  the  northern  society.  Although  the  Oneida  county  members  took 
the  active  part  at  a  meeting  of  the  state  society  on  February  10,  1863,  due 
credit  was  given  to  the  initiative  work  of  the  northern  society.  It  met  an- 
nually in  January,  and  was  discontinued  some  years  ago. 

The  Southern  Tier  Homoeopathic  Medical  Society  was  organized  at  El- 
mira.  January  20.  1874.  First  ofificers :  President,  Henry  Sayles,  Elmira; 
A'ice-president,  W.  S.  Purdy,  Corning ;  secretary  and  treasurer,  W.  J.  Bryan, 
Corning;  incorporated  April  16,  1878;  published  for  a  short  time  a  journal 
"The  Regular-  Physician,"  Dr.  A.  P.  Hollett,  editor;  no  transactions;  stilly 
existent.  The  annual  meeting  is  held  at  Corning  in  January ;  quarterly  meet- 
ings in  April,  July  and  October  in  different  places.     Members  in  1903,  21. 

The  Western  New  York  Homoeopathic  Society  was  organized  at  Water- 
loo, Seneca  county,  in  1845,  '^"d  meetings  were  provided  to  be  held  at  the  call 
of  the  secretary.  The  first  officers  were  C.  D.  Williams  of  Geneva,  president; 
H.  H.  Cator  of  Syracuse,  vice-president ;  A.  Chiids  of  Waterloo,  secretary. 
The  society  published  its  proceedings  in  1852,  at  which  time,  and  indeed  from 
the  year  of  its  organization,  it  occupied  a  position  of  prominence  in  homoe- 
opathic medical  circles  in  Western  New  York  and  enjoyed  the  honor  of  hav- 
ing taken  the  first  steps  toward  the  establishment  of  a  homoeopathic  medi- 
cal college  in  New  York  state.  The  undertaking  failed  of  success,  however, 
but  the  amJjition  of  its  promoters  is  worthy  of  commendation  and  special  men- 
tion. The  society  became  decadent  in  the  course  of  a  few  years,  but  was  re-~ 
vived  at  a  meeting  held  in  Buffalo,  February  28,  1852,  and  then  took  the  name 
of  "Flomoeopathic  Association  of  Western  New  York  and  Branch  of  the  Ameri- 
can Institute  of  Homoeopathy."  The  first  officers  after  the  reorganization 
were  A.  W.  Grav,  president ;  I.  J.  ]\leacham,  D.  A.  Baldwin,  C.  C.  Crossfield, 
L.  N.  Kenyon,  f .  C.  Schell,  S.  Z.  Haven,  F.  Ehrman,  W.  H.  Bell,  A.  Chiids 
and  C.  Parker,  vice-presidents ;  J.  L.  Gage,  secretary ;  J.  F.  Baker,  treasurer. 
The  society  continued  in  existence  only  a  few  years  after  the  reorganization, 
but  during  its  brief  career  was  an  instrument  of  much  good  in  the  homoe- 
opathic profession  in  Western  New  York. 

The  Western  New  York  Homoeopathic  Medical  Society  was  organized 
at  the  Tifft  house,  Buffalo,  April  10,  1885.  First  officers:  President,  L.  M. 
Kenyon,  Buffalo;  vice-presidents,  J.  F.  Baker,  Batavia,  W.  B.  Gifford,  At- 
tica ;  recording  secretary,  jos.  T.  Cook,  Buffalo ;  treasurer,  E.  P.  Hussev,  Buf- 
falo;  censors, \'\.  R.  Wright,  V.  D.  ( )rmes,  S.  W.  Hurd,  J.  D.  Zwetsch.' A.  M. 
Curtis.  Quarterly  meetings  are  held  in  dift'erent  places  in  July,  October  and 
January.  The  annual  meeting  is  held  in  April  in  Buffalo  and  Rochester, 
alternately.  Members  in  it)03,  \(yo.  The  society  celebrated  its  first  anniver- 
sarv  with  a  banquet  on  Hahnemann's  birthda>',  in  union  with  the  Monroe 
County  Homoeopathic  Medical  Society. 

The  INTedico-Chirurgical  Society  of  Central  New  York  was  organized  in 
1896,  and  is  not  incorporated.  It  m.eets  annually  in  Syracuse  in  June,  and 
semi-annually  in  different  ])laces  in  December.     Membership  in  1903,  y2. 



The  Hudson  River  Homoeopathic  Medical  Society  was  organized  at 
Poughkeepsie  in   1874. 

The  count}'  medical  societies  of  the  state,  with  year  of  organization,  are 
as  follows:  Albany  county,  January,  i860;  Allegheny,  July  10,  1883; 
Broome,  1863;  Cayuga,  February  16,  i860;  Chautauqua  and  Cattaraugas, 
1863;  Chenuing.  including  Steuben  and  Schuyler,  February  5,  1861  ;  Chenango, 
September  27,  1871  ;  Columbia  and  Greene,  October  i,  1861  ;  Dutchess,  No- 
vember 27,  1861  ;  Erie,  December  14,  1859;  Kings,  November  12,  1857;  Liv- 
ingston, December  i,  1857;  Madison,  January  4,  1865;  Monroe,  January  2, 
1866;  Montgomery  (including  Fulton),  February  4,  1869;  New  York,  Aug- 
ust 13,  1857;  Niagara  and  Orleans,  October  3,  1871  ;  Oneida.  October  20, 
1857;  Onondaga,  1862;  Ontario  and  Yates,  1862;  Orange,  February  28,  1852; 
Oswego,  January  23,  1S61  ;  Otsego,  June  20.  i860;  Queens,  June,  1873; 
Rensselaer,  June  9,  1859;  Saratoga,  1863:  Schuyler,  1850;  Seneca,  Septem- 
ber 26,  1872;  Steuben,  May  25,  1867;  St.  Lawrence,  October  4,  1871 ;  Tioga, 

-Mam    Entrance    ]\Iiddleto\vn    State   liomceopathic   Hospital. 

July  29,  1870;  Tompkins.  Cortland -and  Tioga,  September  25,  1874;  Ulster, 
May  10,  1865;  Washington  and  Warren,  October  16,  1852;  Wayne,  February 
9,  1864;  Westchester,  February  i,  1865. 

In  the  establishment  of  institutions  of  charitable  and  benevolent  charac- 
ter homoeopathy  secured  an  early  foothold  and  worked  with  commendable 
zeal  until  the  school  became  well  represented  in  all  the  larger  municipalities 
of  the  state ;  but  among  the  several  early  endeavors  at  founding  institutions 
that  which  led  to  the  ultimate  establishment  of  a  state  hospital  for  insane 
patients  is  of  first  importance. 


This  institution  was  originally  founded  in  pursuance  of  an  act  of  the 
legislature  passed  April  28,  1870,  establishing  at  Middletown,  in  Orange 
county, ^  a  state  lunatic  asylum  for  "the  care  and  treatment  of  the  insane  and 
the  inebriate  upon  the  principles  of  medicine  known  as  homoeopathic."  The 
movement,  however,  which  led  to  the  ultimate  establishment  of  the  hospital 
had  its  inception  in  the  address  of  John  Stanton  Gould  before  the  State  Homoe- 


opathic  Medical  Society  at  its  session  in  Albany  in  February,  1866.  The  sub- 
ject of  the  orator's  discourse  was  "The  Relation  of  Insanity  to  Bodily  Dis- 
ease," and  in  the  course  of  his  remarks  attention  was  called  to  the  necessity 
of  a  riiCW  state  asylum  for  lunatics  in  the  southern  tier  counties  of  the  state, 
and  claimed  as  a  matter  of  justice  that  when  organized  the  institution  should 
be  placed  under  the  homoeopathic  school  of  medicine. 

This  seems  to  have  been  the  crystallizing  point  of  the  earnest  desire  of 
the  homoeopathic  profession  throughout  the  state,  for  at  the  next  meeting 
of  the  state  society  in  February,  1867,  a  resolution  was  offered  by  Dr.  Paine 
of  Albany  to  the  effect  that  "Whereas,  a  bill  authorizing  the  erection  of  a  new 
lunatic  asylum  is  now  pending  before  the  legislature,"  therefore  a  committee 
should  be  appointed  to  prepare  a  memorial  asking  "for  such  action  as  shall 
place  said  institution  under  the  care  of  the  homoeopathic  school." 

But  notwithstanding  the  laudable  efforts  of  the  advocates  of  the  enter- 
prise and  their  apparent  zeal  for  its  consummation,  nothing  was  accomplished 
until  some  years  afterward.  In  the  meantime,  however,  Dr.  Hilon  Doty  had 
come  forward  with  a  proposition  to  turn  over  his  private  asylum,  "Margaretts- 
ville  Retreat  for  the  Insane,"  to  a  board  of  trustees  or  managers  of  an  incor- 
porated institution  under  homoeopathic  control,  and  while  an  act  of  incorpora- 
tion was  secured  in  1869  through  the  influence  of  the  state  medical  society, 
nothing  was  done  until  December  of  that  year,  when  Dr.  George  E.  Foote  of 
Middletown  presented  to  the  homoeopathic  profession  a  plan  to  establish  an 
insane  asylum,  founded  by  subscription  and  endowment,  and  organized  as  a 
close  corporation.  This  proposition  met  Avith  favor,  and  sufficient  subscrip- 
tions were  received  to  insure  success,  but  it  soon  became  necessary  to  give 
the  institution  a  more  public  character  and  to  enlist  state  support.  Accord- 
ingly, it  was  planned  to  make  it  a  state  asylum ;  the  time  was  deemed  ripe 
for  such  a  movement,  and  the  governor  in  his  last  message  had  pointed  out 
the  need  of  better  and  more  accommodations  for  the  insane  charges  upon 
the  public  bounty.  The  friends  of  the  movement  were  quick  to  see  their 
opportunity  and  threw  themselves  earnestly  into  the  work,  leaving  no  stone- 
unturned  until  their  desires  were  gratified  in  the  passage  of  an  act,  April  28, 
1870,  establishing  a  state  lunatic  asylum  at  Middletown  under  homoeopathic 
management.  It  was  not  the  first  homoeopathic  asylum  in  the  world,  as  has 
been  asserted,  but  was  the  first  of  its  kind  in  America  under  purely  homoe- 
opathic management.  It  was  formally  opened  for  patients.  April  20,  1874. 
The  name  was  changed  in  conformity  to  the  provisions  of  an  act  of  the  legis- 
lature, and  then  became  known  as  Middletown  State  Homoeopathic  Hospital. 

The  Gowanda  State  Homoeopathic  Hospital  had  its  ince|)tion  in  a  reso- 
lution of  the  board  of  supervisors  of  Erie  county,  passed  in  t888  in  pursuance 
of  an  act  of  the  legislature  authorizing  the  erection  and  maintenance  of  a 
county  homoeopathic  insane  asylum.  Under  the  original  authorization  the 
necessary  preliminary  steps  were  taken,  but  after  a  few  years  the  question 
of  state  ownership  and  support  was  discussed  with  much  earnestness,  with 
result  in  1894  of  such  action  on  the  part  of  the  state  as  vested  the  ownership 
of  the  institution  and  its  property  in  the  commonwealth,  and  created  what 
then  was  known  as  the  Collins  State  Homoeopathic  Hospital. 

This  result,  however,  was  not  accomplished  without  determined  action  on 
the  part  of  the  homoeopathic  profession  ?nd  particularly  of  its  state  and 
Western  New  York  medical  societies.  The  first  trustees,  now  designated' 
as  managers,  comprised  Dr.  William  Tod  Hclmuth.  president;  Fred  J.  Black- 


man,  secretary;  and  Dr.  Asa  S.  Couch.  This  board  was  continued  until  1897, 
when  it  was  increased  to  seven  members,  constituted  as  follows :  William 
Tod  Helmuth  of  New  York  city,  president ;  Dr.  Asa  S.  Couch,  of  Fredonia, 
secretary;  Fred  J.  Blackman  of  Gowanda,  treasurer;  Dr.  Sidney  F.  Wilcox 
•of  New  York  city ;  G.  W.  Seymour  of  Westfield ;  F.  D.  Ormes  of  Jamestown ; 
and  Dr.  E.  H.  Walcott  of  Rochester.  In  1899,  by  an  act  of  the  legislature, 
the  name  was  changed  to  Gowanda  State  Homoeopathic  Hospital.  The  insti- 
tution was  opened  for  patients  August  i,  1898.  The  present  managers  are 
Dr.  Eugene  H.  Porter  of  New  York  city,  Fred  J.  Blackman  of  Gowanda, 
Frank  W.  Crandall  of  Westfield,.  Edwin  H.  Walcott  of  Rochester,  and  Erwin 
C.   Fisher  of  Gowanda.     Superintendent,  Dr.  D.  H.  Arthur. 

The  Brooklyn  Homoeopathic  Hospital  resulted  from  the  enlargement  and 
modification  of  the  old  Brooklyn  Homoeopathic  Dispensary,  which  was  in- 
corporated in  December,  1852,  and  opened  for  patients  in  January  of  the  fol- 
lowing year.  This  splendid  charity  was  founded  by  Edward  Dunham,  father 
■of  Dr.  Carroll  Dunham,  and  was  organized  with  seven  trustees.     In   1871   a 

Main  Building  IMiddletown  State  Homoeopathic    Hospital. 

special  act  of  the  legislature  changed  the  name  to  the  Brooklyn  Homoeopathic 
Hospital,  and  authorized  its  trustees  to  buy,  sell,  lease  or  encumber  real 
estate  for  the  purposes  of  the  corporation  in  estabhshing  and  maintaining  the 
hospital.  At  the  time  the  state  appropriated  $10,000  for  the  hospital,  and 
a  charity  ball  held  at  the  Academy  of  Music  in  Brooklyn  netted  the  trustees 
.$3,000  more.  In  December,  1871,  the  trustees  purchased  the  premises  and 
building  formerly  the  property  of  the  Brooklyn  Orphan  Asylum,  made  sev- 
eral important  alterations,  and  formally  opened  it  as  their  own  hospital  home 
on  February  13,  1873;  but  such  additions  have  been  made  in  later  years  that 
the  building  bears  little  resemblance  to  its  original  self.  The  nurses'  school 
in  connection  with  the  hospital  was  opened  in  1878.  In  1901  the  hospital  and 
property  passed  under  the  ownership  of  the  citv  of  New  York. 

The  Children's  Hospital  of  the  Five  Points  House  of  Industr}^  was  estab- 
lished under  that  name  in  1886,  yet  its  history  dates  to  the  year  1861,  when 
old  Dr.  Joslin,  of  honored  memory,  was  asked  to  give  homoeopathic  treatment 
to  the  sick  children  of  the  old  house  of  industry.     The  hospital  was  the  natural 


and  gradual  outgrowth  of  the  older  institution  and  the  building  for  its  occu- 
pancy was  erected  in  1886,  the  corrier  stone  being  laid  in  August  of  that  year, 
while  the  formal  opening  was  held  in  April,  1887.  Since  Dr.  Joslin's  time  this 
institution  has  been  conducted  under  homcEopathic  management. 

The  Woman's  Infirmary  Association  of  Washington  Heights  was  organ- 
ized mainly  thrdugh  the  efforts  of  the  late  Dr.  J.  W.  Mitchell.  It  was  incor- 
porated in  October,  1863,  opened  May  19,  1864,  and  in  1868  was  removed  from 
its  former  location  to  the  comer  of  Sixth  avenue  and  West  Forty-eighth 
street.  In  1869  this  charity  was  merged  in  the  woman's  department  of  Hahne- 
mann Hospital. 

The  Albany  City  Homoeopathic  Hospital  was  incorporated  April  9,  1868, 
as  the  Albany  Homoeopathic  Dispensary,  although  a  previous  organization 
had  been  in  existence  since  1867.  A  new  incorporation  was  effected  October 
30,  1872,  at  which  time  the  institution  took  its  present  name.  The  first  meet- 
ing of  trustees  was  held  November  6,  1872.  The  dispensary  and  hospital 
occupied  the  same  building  and  were  under  the  same  management,  although 
in  a  sense  distinct  organizations,  but  in  May,  1875,  they  were  imited  by  act 
of  the  legislature  under  the  name  of  Albany  City  Hospital  and  Dispensary. 
The  institution  always  has  been  under  homoeopathic  control,  and  is  supported 
bv  citv  appropriations,  individual  contributions  and  revenues  derived  from 
private  patients. 

Hahnemann  Hospital,  New  Y''ork  city,  is  one  of  the  noblest  institutions 
of  homoeopath}^  in  America,  and  also  is  one  of  the  most  extensive  of  its  kind 
in  the  world.  The  original  hospital  association  was  formed  September  7, 
1869,  and  on  the  evening  of  December  14  following  a  large  meeting  was  held 
in  the  Union  League  Club  theatre  to  inaugurate  a  movement  to  establish  a 
homoeopathic  hospital  in  the  city.  Dr.  John  F.  Gray,  one  of  the  oldest  and 
best  representatives  of  his  school  in  the  city,  was  chairman  of  the  meeting, 
and  under  his  inspiration  much  enthusiasm  was  shown  in  the  proceedings,  and 
the  movement  w'hich  before  had  been  one  of  discussion  only  at  once  took 
more  definite  form.  A  building  was  secured  at  307  East  Fifty-fifth  street, 
and  a  hospital  capable  of  accommodating  fifteen  patients  was  opened  in  Jan- 
uary, 1870,  there  being  one  ward  for  men  and  one  for  women.  Dr.  F.  Seeger 
was  the  first  medical  director. 

The  Ladies'  Aid  Society  of  the  Hahnemann  Hospital  was  organized  in 
December,  1869,  and  at  once  took  measures  to  raise  funds  for  the  hospital. 
The  state,  through  the  legislature,  gave  material  aid  to  the  association  in  the 
way  of  property  rights  to  the  value  of  from  $70,000  to  $80,000,  and  also  gave 
through  the  charity  appropriation  bill  $20,000 ;  the  city  of  New  York  appro- 
priated $10,000.  In  1871  the  trustees  of  the  New  York  Homoeopathic  Medi- 
cal College  dispensary  held  a  meeting  to  establish  in  connection  with  the  col- 
lege a  surgical  hospital  for  clinical  purposes.  In  this  project,  too,  the  ladies 
became  interested  and  undertook  to  raise  funds  for  a  building  by  a  fair  held 
in  the  spring  of  1872,  from  which  enterprise  they  realized  the  net  sum  of  $35>- 
000.  With  this  fund  the  trustees  purchased  the  property  at  26  Gramercr 
park,  but  owing  to  opposition  from  adjoining  owners  the  site  was  abandoned 
for  another  at  Thirty-seventh  street  and  Lexington  avenue. 

At  this  time  there  existed  in  New  York  three  distinct  hospital  organiza- 
tions, all  under  the  patronage  of  homoeopathv  and  its'  friends.  These  were  the 
Hahnemann  Hospital,  the  New  York  Homoeopathic  Surijical  Hospital  and 
the  New  Y'ork  Homoeopathic  Hospital  for  Women  and  Children.     After  con- 



siderablc  discussion  these  institutions  were  mer.qed  and  consolidated  under 
one  organization  in  pursuance  of  an  act  of  tlie  legislature  passed  March  20, 
1875.  ^'1^  "<-'^\'  corporation  at  once  set  vigorously  about  the  task  of  provid- 
ing a  hospital  liome ;  the  ladies  association  held  another  fair,  and  presented 
the  trustees  the  neat  sum  of  $25,000;  the  sum  of  $3,000  was  acquired  from 
other  sources,  and  $15,000  was  alread\-  in  the  treasury;  the  city  gave  the 
land  at  Fourth  avenue  and  67th  and  68th  streets,  and  on  that  site  the  erec- 
tion of  a  hospital  was  begun,  the  corner  stone  being  laid  (  )ctober  25,  1876. 
The  hospital  was  formally  opened  October  31,  1878,  and  since  that  time  has 
been  one  of  the  most  useful  charities  of  the  cit\. 

The  Brooklyn  Maternity  Hospital  was  organized  under  charter  of  lan- 
uary  24,  1871,  as  the  Brooklyn  Homoeopathic  Lying-in  Asvlum,  and  its  ob- 
ject was  to  furnish  patients  exclusive  honKeopathic  treatment  and  care  dur- 
ing confinement.  In  March,  1873.  a  children's  nursery  was  established  in 
connection  with  the  hospital,  and  in  October  of  the  same  year  a  training  school 

.Metroi)()liian    Hospital,     Blackwell's  Island. 

for  nurses  was  organized,  being  tlie  first  school  for  the  exclusive  and  thor- 
ough training  of  nurses  in  this  coimtry.  It  was  then  known  as  the  New  York 
State  School  for  Training  Nurses.  In  1873  '^'1*-'  nanK'  of  the  hospital  was 
changed  from  Brooklyn  Homceopathic  Lying-in  Asvlum  to  Brooklyn  Mater- 
nity Hospital,  as  since  and  now  known. 

The  Brooklyn  Nursery  and  Infant's  Hospital  was  incorporated  and  organ- 
ized August  7,  1871,  as  the  Flatbush  Industrial  School  and  Nurserv.  The 
present  name  was  adopted  Februarv  15.  1872.  The  institution  is  managed 
under  houKieopathic  supervision,  and  is  supported  by  city  appropriations  and 
donations  from  private  sources. 

The  rUiftalo  Homceopathic  Hospital  dates  its  historv  from  the  year  1872, 
when  a])plication  was  made  to  the  trustees  of  the  Buffalo  General  Hospital 
for  a  ward  to  be  set  a])art  for  such  patients  as  preferred  homoeopathic  treat- 
ment;  and  while  it  was  proposed  from  the  outset  that  the  expense  of  the 
separate  ward   should  bo  borne  b>-   friends  and   j^atrons   of  homoeopathy,   the 


application  was  refused  on  the  ground  that  the  charter  of  the  institution  pro- 
hibited practice  there  of  any  other  than  representatives  of  the  allopathic 
school.  This  refusal  may  have  been  justifiable  under  the  strict  construction 
of  the  terms  of  the  charter,  but  it  had  the  effect  to  stimulate  action  on  the 
part  of  friends  of  homoeopathy  in  the  matter  of  establishing  in  the  city  a  hos- 
pital which  should  be  entirely  imder  homoeopathic  control.  For  that  purpose 
an  organization  was  perfected  in  August,  1872,  in  pursuance  of  an  act  of 
incorporation  passed  June  25  previously.  Lands  were  at  once  secured,  funds 
Avere  raised,  and  in  October  of  the  same  year  the  first  homoeopathic  hospital 
in  Buffalo  was  formally  opened.  After  two  years  the  original  property  was 
sold  and  a  new  and  more  desirable  site  was  secured.  The  nurses'  home  and 
nurses'  school  were  established  in  1887.  The  hospital  with  its  auxiliary  build- 
ings and  associations  is  one  of  the  most  praiseworthy  charitable  institutions  of 
the  city,  and  in  the  public  estimation  occupies  a  position  of  importance.  It 
has  been  the  beneficiary  of  several  notable  donations,  and  the  entertainments 
in  its  behalf  have  always  attracted  the  favor  of  the  substantial  element  of  the 

The  Metroi:iolitan  Hospital  on  Blackwell's  Island  dates  its  history  from 
the  year  1894,  and  is  the  outgrowth  of  the  older  institution  known  in  history 
as  the  New  York  Charity  Hospital  on  Ward's  Island.  The  latter  institution 
was  the  result  of  a  movement  which  originated  as  far  back  as  1857,  when 
the  homoeopathic  profession  in  New  York  was  making  an  earnest  and  honest 
endeavor  to  introduce  its  treatment  in  some  of  the  great  charities  of  the  city. 
The  efforts  then  made  were  well  directed  but  the  petition  presented  to  the 
authorities  seems  to  have  fallen  into  the  hands  of  the  old  allopathic  enemy, 
as  the  majority  report  of  a  select  committee  declared  "that  it  would  be  both 
imwise  and  inexpedient  to  change  the  medical  government  of  Bellevue  Hos- 
pital, or  place  any  portion  of  it  in  charge  of  a  board  of  homoeopathic  practi- 
tioners for  the  purpose  of  experimenting  with  that  system  of  practice  upon 
its  inmates."  The  minority  member  of  the  same  committee  also  made  a  re- 
port, but  liis  declarations  availed  nothing  against  those  of  the  majority. 
Allhough  the  adverse  report  of  the  commissioners  had  not  a  disheartening  ef- 
fect upon  the  hopes  of  the  homoeopathic  profession  and  its  friends  in  the  city, 
there  was  no  further  well  organized  attempt  to  introduce  homoeopathy  into 
the  public  charitable  institutions  until  the  winter  of  1874-5,  when  the  sub- 
ject of  homoeopathic  success  in  general  was  being  discussed  in  one  of  the 
leading  clubs  by  several  men  of  prominence  in  professional  and  official  circles. 
A  narrative  of  the  events  of  the  occasion  are  not  deemed  important  here,  but 
the  consensus  of  opinion  inclined  to  the  belief  that  the  homoeopathic  profes- 
sion was  entitled  to  representation  in  the  great  charitable  institutions  of  the 
city ;  and  out  of  the  opinions  then  well  voiced  there  grew  a  petition  which  was 
so  strongly  reinforced  with  names  of  representative  men  that  the  commis- 
sioners of  charities  could  not  turn  a  deaf  ear  to  its  presentations,  for  it  asked 
only  the  recognition  of  a  right,  and  not  a  favor.  The  county  homoeopathic 
society  also  took  an  active  part  in  the  movement,  and  as  its  result,  on  August 
7.  T875.  the  commissioners  agreed  that  a  part  of  the  old  inebriate  asylum 
on  \\'ard's  Island  should  be  set  apart  for  a  hospital  to  be  under  the  charge 
of  homoeopathic  physicians,  subject  to  such  rules  as  the  charities  department 
might  establish.  A  homoeopathic  medical  board  was  created  and  held  its  first 
meeting  September  4,  1875,  at  the  residence  of  Dr.  W.  H.  White,  electing 
at  that  time  these  officers :     Dr.  Egbert  Guernsey,  president ;   W.    Hanford 

JIIS'I()RV  OF  IK  ).M(T:0]\\TTIY  57 

White,  vice-president ;  A.  K.  Hills,  secretary.  Dr.  Selden  H.  Talcott  was 
appointed  chief-of-staff  of  the  new  hospital,  and  the  first  house  staff  comprised 
Drs.  Duncan,  Macfarlan,  Madden,  Sullivan  and  Nichols.  On  September  21 
the  New  York  State  Homoeopathic  Medical  Society  visited  the  hospital,  and 
on  October  15  the  institution  was  formally  opened  for  the  reception  of  patients. 

On  March  26,  1894,  the  Homceopathic  Hospital  on  Ward's  Island  ceased 
to  exist,  and  on  that  date  the  patients  from  the  homoeopathic  hospital  were 
transferred  to  Blackwell's  Island,  where  the  Metropolitan  Hospital  was  estab- 
hshed.  Like  its  predecessor,  it  is  under  the  care  of  the  board  of  charities,  but 
is  in  charge  of  homoeopathic  practitioners,  and  one  of  the  most  useful  aux- 
iliaries of  the  medical  colleges  of  the  greater  city. 

The  New  York  Homoeopathic  Surgical  Hospital  was  one  of  the  three 
institutions  that  eventually  merged  to  form  the  Hahnemann  Hospital.  It 
Avas  opened  at  Fifty-fourth  street  and  Broadway  under  the  auspices  of  the 
Ladies'  Aid  Society,  June  4,  1875;  the  first  patient  was  received  June  18,  1875. 

The  Memorial  Hospital  for  Women  and  Children  was  incorporated  and 
organized  in  1883  as  the  Brooklyn  Women's  Homoeopathic  Hospital  and  Dis- 
pensary, but  later  on  the  name  was  changed  to  that  which  heads  this  brief 
sketch.  This  is  one  of  the  splendid  charities  for  which  the  city  of  Brooklyn 
is  famous.  It  is  supported  by  private  contributions,  private  patients,  and  the 
earnings  of  the  nurses'  departlnent.  The  institution  in  all  its  departments  is 
managed  by  women  alone. 

The  Isabella  Helmuth  HosjMtal  for  the  care  and  treatment  of  chronic 
invalids  was  founded  in  New  York  city  in  1889. 

The  Laura  Franklin  Free  Hospital  for  Children,  for  several  years  one 
of  the  notable  charities  of  New  York  city,  was  founded  largely  through  the 
personal  influence  of  the  late  Dr.  Timothy  Field  Allen,  the  great  homoe- 
opathic organizer  and  builder  up  of  institutions.  The  hospital,  however,  was 
built  by  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Franklin  Delano  as  a  memorial  of  their  daughter.  It 
was  opened  under  homoeopathic- supervision,  November  9.  1886.  and  is  located 
on  One  Hundred  and  Eleventh  street  between  Fifth  and  Madison  avenues. 

The  House  of  the  Good  Samaritan  Deaconesses  at  Thirty-eighth  street 
and  Seventh  avenue.  New  York  city,  an  institution  of  the  ^Methodist  Episcopal 
church,  and  under  homoeopathic  medical  supervision,  was  opened  January  3, 
1887.  as  an  adjunct  of  the  western  dispensary.  In  1889  it  was  united  with 
Hahnemann  Hospital. 

The  Rochester  Homoeopathic  Hospital,  one  of  the  best  institutions  of  its 
character  in  the  state,  is  the  outgrowth  of  a  meeting  of  the  Monroe  County 
Homoeopathic  Medical  Society  held  at  Rochester  in  the  spring  of  1886.  At 
that  time  the  desirability  of  establishing  a  homceopathic  hospital  was  discussed, 
and  a  committee  was  appointed  to  select  a  site  for  a  hospital  building  and 
arrange  for  its  erection.  The  members  of  the  committee  were  Drs.  Sumner, 
Adams,  Ruell,  Wolcott,  Carr.  Fowler,  Dayfoot,  Spencer  and  Lee.  However, 
nothing  definite  was  accomplished  until  May  of  the  next  year,  when  thirteen 
interested  persons  were  incorporated  as  trustees  of  the  Rochester  Homoeopathic 
Hospital.  The  first  meeting  of  the  board  was  held  December  4,  1888.  A  lot 
was  soon  afterward  secured,  buildings  were  erected  and  on  the  opening  of  the 
institution,  September  18,  1889,  visitors  were  greeted  with  a  view  of  four 
splendid  buildings — hospital,  nurses  house,  dispensary  and  laundry.  The 
nurse's  school  was  opened  December  i,  1889.  In  1890  donations  were  re- 
ceived from  Don  Alnnzo  Watson  and  ^Ir.  and  Mrs.  Hiram  Siblev.  amounting 


in  the  aggregate  to  the  sum  of  $30,000,  which  enabled  the  hospital  corporation 
to  free  itself  of  debt.  In  1892  the  trustees  secured  additional  lands,  a  desir- 
able tract  of  eight  acres,  and  at  once  set  about  the  erection  of  a  series  of  mod- 
ern hospital  buildings,  adopting-  the  then  new  but  now  popular  cottage  plan 
of  construction.  The  work  was  completed  and  the  new  buildings  opened  No- 
vember 21,  1894,  and  comprised  a  series  of  comfortable  structures  known  re-' 
spectively  as  the  administration  building,  Watson  pavilion,  Sibley  pavilion, 
Watson  surgical  pavilion,  Hollister  building.  Brothers  cottage,  the  morgue, 
and  the  kitchen  building.  The  department  of  bacteriology  was  established  in 
1896,  and  the  new  maternity  ward  was  built  in  1899.  Thus  the  trustees  of 
the  Rochester  Homoeopathic  Hospital  have  become  possessed  of  one  of  the 
most  complete  institutions  of  its  kind  in  the  country,  and  one  in  which  the 
people  of  Rochester  feel  pardonable  pride.  It  is  indeed  the  popular  hospital 
of  the  city,  and  its  corporation  has  at  various  times  been  made  the  recipient 
of  generous  benefactions. 

The  Florence  Hospital  of  New  York  city  was  established  and  incorporated 
in  1889,  and  was  opened  for  patients  in  the  following  year.  It  was  founded 
largely  through  the  influence  of  the  late  Dr.  William  Tod  Helmuth  and  the 
generosity  of  other  friends  of  homoeopathy  in  the  city. 

The  Hargous  Memorial  Hahnemann  Hospital  of  Rochester  dates  its  his- 
torv  from  the  year  1888,  when  certain  homoeopathic  physicians  of  the  city 
became  satisfied  that  the  practice  of  medicine  as  approved  by  the  majority  of 
members  of  the  Monroe  County  HomcEopathic  Medical  Society  was  not  in 
accord  with  the  strict  teachings  of  Hahnemann,  and  they  therefore  withdrew 
their  membership  in  that  organization  and  formed  the  Rochester  Hahneman- 
nian  Society  and  issued  a  circular  advocating  the  founding  of  a  hospital  agree- 
able to  the  strict  principles  laid  down  by  the  founder— Hahnemann — in  the 
Organon.  The  physicians  most  directly  connected  with  the  move- 
ment and  who  were  chiefly  instrumental  in  founding  the  hospital  were  Drs. 
Biegler,  Schmitt,  Johnson,  Rrownell.  Carr,  Grant,  Hoard.  Hermance  and  Nor- 
man. Several  meetings  were  held,  which  were  attended  bv  both  physicians 
and  laymen,  an'cl  resulted  in  the  organization  of  a  hospital  board.  An  incor- 
poration was  efifected  April  4.  1889.  but  even  before  the  act  was  passed  Dr. 
Biegler  had  secured  an  option  on  the  Judge  Selden  property  on  Oakland  street, 
comprising  three  acres  of  land  on  an  eminence  commanding  a  view  of  the  city. 
On  February  5,  1889.  the  premises  were  leased,  with  the  privilege  to  ])urchase 
at  a  later  date.  The  Selden  residence  was  at  once  refitted  for  its  intended 
new  occupancy ;  an  association  of  lady  managers  was  formed  in  I<\'l:)ruary, 
1889,  and  on  April  10  following  (Hahnemann's  birthday)  the  institution  was 
formallv  opened,  the  orator  of  the  occasion  being  Dr.  Clarence  Willard  Butler 
of  Montclair,  New  Jersey,  and  the  subject  of  his  address  "An  Appeal  for 
Hahnemann's  Homoeopathy."  When  the  trustees  and  managers  desired  to 
raise  funds  for  the  i)urchase  of  hospital  property  and  the  establishment  of 
endowed  beds,  the  nniltitude  of  friends  of  homoeopathy  came  to  the  relief  of 
the  corporation  with  generous  donations.  In  August,  1890.  INIrs.  Appleton  of 
Boston,  daughter  of  Louis  Stanislaus  Hargous,  gave  the  trustees  the  sum  of 
$35,000  as  a  memorial  of  the  professional  services  of  Dr.  Biegler  to  her  family, 
and  also  as  a  means  of  expressing  her  gratitude  to  him  and  to  homceopathy. 
A  gift  also  of  $10,000  bv  Susan  Jeanette  and  Louis  Stanislaus  Hargous  en- 
dowed free  beds  in  the  hospital,  and  as  an  appreciation  of  these  benefactions 
the  hosjiital  was  given  the  name  Hargous  Memorial  Hahnemann  Hospital  of 


Rochester.  A  new  building  was  erected  in  1902,  and  since  that  time  the  insti- 
tution has  occupied  a  new  and  advanced  position  amonfy  the  charities  of  the 
city.  , 

The  Bufifalo  Honi(eoi)athic  Hospital  was  founded  and  opened  in  1892  for 
the  especial  purpose  of  furnishinii^  dispensary  treatment  to  patients  who  are 
unable  to  pay  the  ordinary  physician's  charges.  The  institution  was  founded 
through  the  generosity  of  several  men  of  means,  who  were  interested  in  phil- 
anthropic work.     Its  doors  were  opened  for  patients  June  i.  1892. 

The  Utica  Homoeopathic  Hospital  at  Utica.  New  York,  was  founded  in 
1895,  ^"*^^  ^^'^s  opened  for  patients  September  28  of  that  year.  Among  those 
diiectly  concerned  in  the  enterprise  in  its  early  history,  and  who  also  were 
its  officers,  were  Dr.  William  H.  Watson,  president ;  Dr.  F.  F.  Laird,  medical 
director ;  and  Dr.  M.  O.  Terry,  surgeon-in-chief.  A  nurses'  training  school 
is  conducted  in  connection  wdth  this  hospital. 

The  Syracuse  Homoeopathic  Hospital  was  founded  in  1896.     An  organi- 

Utica  Homreopathic  Hospital. 

zation  w'as  effected  in  the  earl\-  part  of  that  year,  and  at  a  meeting  of  the 
Onondaga  County  Homoeopathic  Medical  Society  held  in  May  a  comitiittee 
of  the  hospital  trustees  announced  to  the  society  that  they  had  resolved  upon 
the  purchase  of  a  site  for  a  hospital  building.  An  original  hospital  incorpora- 
tion had  been  effected  in  1895.  ^""^^  J^^^*^  o"^  y^^^  afterward  the  institution  was 
ready  for  patients.  The  affairs  of  the  association  prospered  for  a  time,  then 
seemed  to  become  decadent  and  in  a  bad  way  financially  until  the  generous 
offer  of  a  new  site  for  a  hospital  building  by  John  Lyman  and  wdfe  awakened 
new  and  lively  interest  in  its  welfare.  Air.  Lyman's  deed  of  gift  of  the  Salina 
street  property  bears  date  January   i,   1903. 

The  Harlem  Homoeopathic  Hospital  and  Dispensary.  Xew  York  city,  was 
founded  and  opened  in  March.  1896.  The  Yonkers  Homoeopathic  Hospital 
and  Maternity  Home  was  estal)lished  in  1896.  The  Mt.  A'ernon  Homoeopathic 
Hospital  was  incorporated  and  organized  in  1897. 



The  stor\-  of  the  origin  and  marvellons  growth  of  homoeopathy  in  the 
United  States  had  its  beginning  in  the  year  1825  in  the  city  of  New  York, 
when  Dr.  Hans  Burch  Gram,  a  brilHant  surgeon,  physician  and  scholar,  visited 
that  city,  wliere  his  l^rother,  Neils  B.  Gram,  resided.  Dr.  Gram,  an  American 
by  birth,  had  recently  come  from  Copenhagen  in  Denmark,  where  he  had  been 
educated  and  where  he  had  become  a  believer  in  the  medical  doctrines  promul- 
gated by  Hahnemann  the  founder.  Thus,  in  America  Gram  was  the  first 
exemplar  to  teach  and  to  practice  medicine  according  to  the  law  of  homoe- 

Hans  Burch  Gram  was  the  son  of  Hans  Gram,  whose  father  was  a  wealthy 
sea  captain  of  Copenhagen.  Hans  Gram  when  a  young  man.  was  private  secre- 
tary to  the  governor  of  the  Danish  island  of  Santa  Cruz.  While  travelling  in 
the  United  States  in  1782  or  1783  he  became  interested  in  a  Miss  Burdick,  the 
daughter  of  a  hotel  keeper  in  Boston,  where  Gram  was  then  living.  He  mar- 
ried her  and  for  his  action  his  father  disinherited  him,  but  relenting  on  his 
deathbed,  left  him  his  fortune.  Mr.  Gram  settled  permanently  in  Boston  after 
his  marriage,  but  the  records  of  his  life  are  meagre.  At  one  time  he  was  liv- 
ing in  Cambridge  and  was  an  organist.  He  afterward  lived  on  Common 
street,  where  he  died  in  1803.  Mr.  Gram  on  hearing  of  the  death  of  his  father 
prepared  to  leave  Boston  and  return  to  his  native  land  and  receive  his  patri- 
mony, but  the  night  before  he  was  to  have  sailed  for  Denmark  he  was  taken 
sick  aiid  died  in  a  few  hours.  His  widow  survived  him  but  two  years,  dying 
in  1805. 

Hans  Burch  Gram,  the  son,  a  year  later,  in  1806,  at  the  age  of  eighteen 
years,  went  to  Copenhagen  to  claim  the  fortune  left  by  his  grandfather.  He 
obtained  a  portion  of  it  and  was  successful  in  finding  friends  and  relatives 
willing  to  aid  him.  Prof.  Fenger,  physician-in-ordinary  to  the  king,  was  his 
imcle,  and  through  his  favor  Gram  received  a  superior  education.  He  was 
placed  in  the  Royal  Medical  and  Surgical  Institution,  and  Dr.  Fenger  gave 
liim  every  advantage  of  the  other  schools  and  later  of  the  hospitals  of  Northern 
Europe.  Within  a  year  after  his  arrival  in  Copenhagen  he  was  appointed  by 
the  king  assistant  surgeon  to  a  large  military  hospital.  This  appointment 
was  preceded  by  a  rigorous  examination  in  Latin,  Greek,  philosophy,  anatomy 
and  minor  surgery.  He  was  ofificially  connected  with  the  hospital  as  surgeon 
during  the  last  seven  years  of  the  Napoleonic  wars,  residing  therein  much  of 
the  time.  In  18 14  he  resigned  his  position,  having  been  advanced  to  the  rank 
of  surgeon,  and  won  the  highest  grade  of  merit  in  the  Royal  Academy  of 
Surgery,  with  the  degree  of  C.  M.  L.,  the  highest  of  three  degrees.  He  then 
devoted  himself  to  general  practice  in  Copenhagen,  and  so  successfully  that 
at  the  age  of  forty  years  he  had  acquired  a  competence  for  himself  and  also 
was  enabled  to  assist  the  members  of  his  family,  all  of  whom  had  remained 
in  the  United  States. 

During  the  years  1823  and  1824,  (iram  had  become  acc|uainted  with  the 
principles  of  homoeopathy  and  had  tested  the  new  system  very  carefullv  on  his 
own  person  and  in  his  extensive  practice,  and  had  become  convinced  of  the 
truth  of  the  doctrines  propounded  by  Hahnemann.  But  he  longed  to  see  his 
family  in  America,  and  therefore  returned  to  the  land  of  his  birth.  He  sailed 
from  Stockholm  in  the  ship  "Vv'illiam  Penn,"  Captain  William  Thompson,  and 
landed  with  him  at  Mount  Desert,  Maine,  where  he  lived  for  some  time  as  a 


guest  of  Dr.  Kendall  Kittridge,  the  first  doctor  ever  settled  on  the  island. 
Gram  afterward  took  passage  with  Captain  Thompson  for  New  York,  where 
he  landed  some  time  in  1825  and  where  his  brother,  Neils  B.  Gram,  was  estab- 
lished in  business.  He  lost  his  fortune  by  endorsing  notes  for  this  brother, 
who  seems  to  have  been  unfortunate,  and  was  obliged  to  resume  the  practice 
of  medicine. 

It  is  probable  that  Gram  was  induced  to  return  to  America  more  because 
he  believed  he  could  disseminate  the  doctrines  of  homoeopathy  than  with  any 
thought  of  entering  into  active  practice.  He  was  a  ripe  scholar  and  in  Europe 
had  been  the  associate  of  many  learned  men.  However,  he  opened  an  office 
in  New  York,  though  on  account  of  his  modesty  it  was  several  years  before 
he  became  well  acquainted  with  his  brothers  in  the  profession.  Gray  says  of 
him  :  "He  was  too  modest  by  far  in  his  intercourse  with  his  fellow  men.  He 
was  not  diffident  nor  timid,  for  no  surgeon  knew  better  how  to  decide  when 
or  how  any  operation  of  the  art  should  be  performed,  and  very  few,  indeed, 
could  operate  with  his  skill  and  adroitness;  but  in  conversing  with  a  fellow- 
practitioner  he  very  much  preferred  hearing  the  sentiments  and  opinions  of 
others  to  delivering  his  own.  He  made  it  a  rule  never  to  express  his  opinions 
on  scientific  matters  until  they  were  sought  for  in  detail.  Yet  Gram  was  apt 
and  willing  to  converse  and  to  teach."  It  is  thought  that  he  must  have  been 
a  homoeopathist  in  Copenhagen  for  ten  or  twelve  years  previous  to  his  depar- 
ture, and  he  claimed  to  have  been  one  of  the  earliest  of  the  European  believ- 
ers. Desiring  to  call  the  attention  of  the  medical  profession  of  New  York  to 
the  subject  of  homoeopathy,  a  few  months  after  his  settlement  he  made  a 
translation  of  Hahnemann's  "  Geist  der  homoeopathischen  Heil-lehre  ""  and  pub- 
lished it  in  a  small  pamphlet  of  twenty-four  octavo  pages,  with  the  title  *'  The 
Character  of  Homoeopathy."  This  work  was  dedicated  to  Dr.  David  Hosack, 
at  that  time  president  of  the  New  York  College  of  Physicians  and  Surgeons 
and  professor  of  theory  and  practice  in  that  institution.  This  essay  was  first 
published  in  a  German  newspaper  of  March,  1813,  and  afterward  in  a  volume 
of  the  second  edition  of  the  "  Materia  Medica  Pura."'  It  was  printed  in  the 
form  of  a  letter  to  Hosack,  and  was  gratuitously  distributed  among  the  lead- 
ing members  of  the  medical  profession,  and  especially  to  the  medical  schools. 

Gram  had  long  been  away  from  the  country  and  his  English  was  bad. 
His  twenty  years  in  Denmark  gave  this  little  missionary  tract  such  a  Danish- 
German-English  grotesqueness  and  such  complicated  grammatical  construc- 
tion that  it  was  difficult  to'  read  understandingly.  Gray  doubted  whether  any 
one  to  whom  it  was  sent  ever  did  read  it.  Hosack  said  he  had  not  done  so. 
Gram  was  greatly  disappointed  that  the  truth  he  so  firmly  believed  in  should 
be  so  coldly  received,  and  with  the  exception  of  certain  manuscripts  afterward 
loaned  to  Folger,  and  lost  by  him,  nothing  further  was  written  bv  him.  This 
pamphlet  was  the  first  ever  published  in  the  United  States  on  the  subject  of 
homoeopathy.  Only  one  copy  is  known  to  exist,  and  that  was  presented  by 
Mrs.  Wilsey  to  Dr.  Henry  ]M.  Smith  and  by  him  donated  to  the  New  York 

A  powerful  factor  in  the  introduction  of  Gram  to  his  fellows  in  Ne\v 
York  was  that  he  was  an  enthusiastic  royal  arch  mason,  and  it  was  through 
the  influence  of  the  lodge  room  that  he  formed  several  close  friendships  with 
influential  persons ;  he  met  Folger  at  a  masonic  meeting.  It  is  said  that  he 
was  an  officer  in  Jerusalem  chapter  No.  8.  and  took  part  in  the  exaltation  of 
Folo-er  at  an  extra  meeting  on  ^lav  2^  1826.     After  the  ceremony  Gram  intro- 



duced  himself  to  Folger  and  thus   formed  an  acquaintance  that  lasted  until 
the  latter  left  the  city,  in  1828. 

Robert  B.  Folger,  born  in  Hudson,  N.  Y.,  in  1803,  commenced  the  prac- 
tice of  allopathic  medicine  in  New  York  in  1824.  For  some  time  after  he  met 
Gram  he  ridiculed  the  new  method  of  small  doses,  but  in  August,  1826,  Gram, 
at  P'olger's  request,  treated  successfully  several  cases  that  the  latter  had  deemed 
incurable.  He  then  became  interested  and  began  the  study  of  German  under 
Gram's  tuition,  reading  with  him  the  Organon  and  the  "  Materia  Medica  Pura." 
Folger  began  the  practice  of  homoeopathy  in  1827,  but  having  no  confidence  in 
his  own  knowledge  of  the  system.  Gram  accompanied  him  when  he  visited  his 
patients.     In  1828,  on  account  of  ill  health,  he  was  obliged  to  visit  the  south, 

Surg.  Gen.  S.  N.  Y. 

and  Gram  bade  him  goodbye  at  the  vessel  when  he  sailed.  During  this  time 
Folger  was  Gram's  only  student  and  assistant.  After  Folger  went  south  his 
connection  with  Gram  ceased  and  he  did  not  again  practice  medicine.  He  re- 
turned to  New  York  in  1835  and  gave  his  attention  to  mercantile  pursuits. 
During  the  first  week  of  their  acc|uaintance.  Gram  introduced  the  subject  of 
homoeopathy,  presented  him  with  his  pamphlet  and  with  a  manuscript  article 
on  the  pharmacodynamic  properties  of  drugs.  While  Folger  was  in  North 
Carolina  Gram  determined  to  go  there,  and  was  to  have  joined  him  in  Char- 
lotte in  1828,  but  reverses  in  l)usiness  on  T^olger's  part  caused  the  project  to 
be  abandoned. 

In  November,  1827,  Gram  was  proposed  for  membership  in  the  ^Medical 
and  Philoso])hical  Society  of  New  York,  and  was  elected  the  following  Feb- 


ruary,  initiated  in  June,  1828,  and  at  the  general  meeting  the  next  month  was 
elected  corresponding  secretary.  In  July,  1830,  he  was  elected  president.  He 
had  taken  a  prominent  part  in  all  the  proceedings  of  the  society  and  in  Janu- 
ary, 1829,  proposed  a  plan  of  correspondence  with  the  fellows,  soliciting  their 
co-operation  in  collecting  facts,  especially  respecting  diseases  and  remedies, 
whereby  much  knowledge  could  be  obtained,  erroneous  opinions  corrected, 
and  sound  doctrines  become  better  known  and  appreciated. 

In  September,  1826,  Folger  introduced  Gram  to  Ferdinand  Little  W'ilsey, 
a  merchant,  who  also  was  a  prominent  mason  and  master  of  a  lodge,  in  order 
that  Gram  might  instruct  him  on  certain  important  masonic  points.  Mr.  Wil- 
sey  was  born  in  57  Reade  street,  New  York,  June  23,  1797.  A  friendship  was 
at  once  established  between  the  successful  merchant  and  the  physician,  and 
the  former  often  entertained  Gram  at  his  house.  \Mlsey  was  a  sufferer  from 
dyspepsia  and  his  own  physician,  Dr.  John  F.  Gray,  having  failed  to  relieve 
him,  he  was  induced  to  place  himself  in  his  friend's  care,  and  thus  became  the 
first  patient  who  was  treated  with  homoeopathic  remedies  in  the  United  States. 
The  success  of  the  treatment  was  such  that  Wilsey,  who  for  some  time  had 
inclined  toward  the  healing  art,  began  the  study  of  medicine  under  Gram,  at 
the  same  time  attending  lectures  at  the  College  of  Physicians  and  Surgeons. 
He  began  practice  in  private,  acquiring  the  title  of  doctor  and  quite  a  reputa- 
tion among  his  friends,  with  whom  his  medical  services  were  entirely  gratui- 
tous. The  panic  of  1837  caused  him  to  give  up  mercantile  pursuits  and.  being 
somewhat  reduced  in  fortune,  his  friends  procured  for  him  a  situation  in  the 
custom  house,  which  he  accepted,  still  continuing  his  private  practice.  Dr. 
Wilsey  received  the  medical  degree  from  the  College  of  Physicians  in  1844. 
In  1845  he  joined  a  company  for  mining  copper  in  Cuba,  and  sailed  for  that* 
island  to  superintend  operations.  The  project  was  a  failure,  his  health  became 
poor,  and  returning  to  New  York,  he  at  once  opened  an  office  and  commenced 
for  the  first  time  the  public  practice  of  medicine.  His  efforts  were  successful 
and  he  amassed  a  considerable  fortune.  A  few  years  previous  to  his  death 
ill  health  caused  him  to  give  up  practice  and  remove  to  Bergen,  N.  J.,  where 
he  died  May  11,  j86o.  He  was  devotedly  attached  to  Gram  and  remained  so 
during  his  life ;  was  his  companion  in  his  last  illness,  and  the  last  at  his  final 
resting  place.  He  was  the  first  convert  to  the  doctrines  of  homoeopathy  in 
the  United  States,  and  also  the  first  American  who  made  any  pretension  to 
practice  the  same.  Wilsey  had  frequently  urged  his  old  family  physician.  Dr. 
John  Franklin  Gray,  to  be  introduced  to  Gram,  but  Gray  considered  him  a 
quack  and  refused  to  meet  him  until  in  1827,  when  in  Wilsey's  store  thev  be- 
came acquainted.  Gray  soon  became  interested  in  the  new  theorv  of  cure 
and  permitted  himself  to  discuss  it  with  Gram.  It  was  with  reluctance,  how- 
ever, that  he  consented  to  Wilsey's  placing  himself  under  Gram's  treatment 
for  his  dyspepsia. 

Dr.  Gray  thus  told  the  story  of  Wilsey's  conversion  to  homoeopathv :  "I 
had  treated  Wilsey  for  dvspepsia  for  a  long  time  with  such  poor  success  that 
at  his  request  I  consented  with  much  reluctance  and  almost  boorishlv  to  place 
him  under  Dr.  Gram's  care,  to  test  the  value  of  the  improved  practice.  Under 
his  treatment  the  patient  experienced  early  and  marked  benefits.  At  that  time 
I  ascribed  the  change  to  his  improved  diet.  But  as  I  could  not  answer  Gram's 
arguments  in  support  of  the  new  method,  and  as  my  training,  reading  and  ex- 
perience, which  had  been  unusually  extensive  for  so  young  a  man,  had  failed 
to  inspire  me  with  confidence  in  any  past  or  existing  plan  of  therapeutics.  I 


was  soon  ready  to  put  the  method  of  Hahnemann  to  the  test  of  a  fair  and 
rigorous  observation.  Moreover,  Gram's  inimitable  modesty  in  debate,  and 
his  earnest  zeal  for  the  good  and  the  true  in  all  ways  and  directions,  and  his 
vast  culture  in  science  and  art,  in  history  and  philosophy,  greatly  surpassing 
in  these  respects  any  of  the  academic  or  medical  professors  I  had  known, 
very  much  shortened  mv  dialectic  opposition  to  the  new  system.  I  selected 
three  cases  for  the  trial,  the  first,  hemoptysis  in  a  scrofulous  girl,  complicated 
with  amenorrhoea ;  the  second,  mania  puerperalis.  of  three  months'  standing ; 
and  the  last,  anasarca  and  ascites  in  an  habitual  drunkard.  Following  Gram's 
instructions,  I  furnished  the  proper  registry  of  the  symptoms  in  each  case. 
He  patiently  and  faithfully  waded  through  the  six  volumes  of  Hahnemann's 
"Materia  Medica"  (luckily  we  had  no  manuals  then)  and  prescribed  a  single 
remedy  in  each  case.  The  first  and  third  cases  were  promptly  cured  by  a 
single  dose  of  the  remedy  prescribed,  and  the  conditions  as  to  diet  and  moral 
impressions  were  so  arranged  by  me  (Gram  did  not  see  either  of  the  patients) 
that,  greatly  to  my  surprise  and  joy,  very  little  room  was  le-ft  for  a  doubt  as 
to  the  efficacy  of  the  specifics  applied.  The  case  of  mania  was  perhaps  the 
stronger  testimony  of  the  two.  The  patient  was  placed  under  the  rule  of  diet 
for  fourteen  days  previous  to  the  administration  of  the  remedy  chosen  by 
Gram.  Not  the  slightest  mitigation  of  the  maniacal  suft'ering  occurred  in  that 
time.  At  the  time  of  the  giving  of  the  remedy,  which  was  a  single  drop  of 
very  dilute  tincture  of  nux  vomica  in  a  drink  of  sweetened  water,  the  patient 
was  more  furious  than  usual,  tearing  her  clothing  ofif,  and  angrily  resisting  all 
attempts  to  soothe  her.  She  finally  recovered  h€r  reason  within  half  an  hour 
after  taking  the  nux  vomica  and  never  lost  it  afterward.  I  was  determined 
the  patient  should  not  have  the  advantage  of  imagination,  so  I  gave  her  a 
junk  bottle  full  of  molasses  and  water  during  the  fourteen  days  and  made  her 
take  a  tablespoonful  every  two  hours,  put  the  nux  vomica  in  molasses  and 
water,  so  that  she  did  not  know  that  we  had  made  any  change  of  remedies. 
The  husband  came  for  me  after  she  had  taken  the  nux  vomica  and  said  his 
wife  was  dying;  she  had  recovered  her  reason  and  begged  me  to  go  and  see 
her.  I  saw  the  lady  and  she  thanked  me  for  her  restoration ;  she  was  perfect- 
ly well.  I  was  her  physician  for  a  number  of  years  afterward.  A  fourth  case 
was  soon  treated  with  success,  which  had  a  worse  prognosis,  if  possible,  than 
either  of  the  others.  It  was  one  of  traumatic  tetanus.  During  the  first  year 
of  my  acciuaintance  with  Gram  I  subjected  only  my  incurables  and  the  least 
promising  instance  of  the  curables  to  Dr.  Gram's  experiments ;  but  this  was 
simply  because  I  could  not  read  the  language  of  the  materia  medica,  and  it 
was  impossible  to  do  any  more  without  a  knowledge  of  the  German.  'During 
that  time  I  surmounted  this  difficulty  and  became  a  competent  prescriber  and 
a  full  convert  to  homoeopathy." 

The  year  1839  witnessed  the  first  break  in  the  circle  of  faithful  enthusiasts 
who  had  dared  and  suffered  so  much  for  the  cause  of  homoeopathy.  Gram, 
who  had  been  the  guide,  the  teacher,  the  counsellor,  grave,  wise  and  afifec- 
tionate,  was  suddenly  stricken  with  apoplexy.  Gray  says :  "Gram  failed  in 
health  completely  just  as  the  new  period  began  to  dawn  upon  us.  Broken  in 
heart  by  the  misfortunes,  insanity  and  death  of  his  only  brother,  upon  whom 
he  had  lavished  all  the  estate  he  brought  with  him  from  Furope,  he  was  at- 
tacked with  apoplexy  in  May,  1839,  from  which  he  awoke  with  hemiplegia; 
after  many  months  of  sufl^ering  he  passed  away  on  February  13.  1840.  Wilson 
and  I  tenderlv  cared  for  him,  and  Curtis  watched  him  as  a  faithful  son  would 


a  beloved  father.  He  was  an  earnest  Qiristian  of  the  Swedenborgian  faith, 
and  a  man  of  the  most  scrupulously  pure  and  charitable  life  I  have  ever  known. 
In  the  presence  of  want,  sorrow  and  disease,  secluded  from  all  observation  of 
the  world,  he  ministered  with  angelic  patience  and  with  divine  earnestness." 
Dr.  Gram  was  buried  in  St.  Mark's  burial  ground,  New  York,  but  on 
September  4,  1862,  his  old-time  friend  and  pupil,  Dr.  Gray,  removed  the  re- 
mains to  his  own  lot  in  Greenwood  cemetery.  In  the  October  number  of  the 
"American  Homoeopathic  Review"  is  a  long  article  by  Dr.  S.  B.  Barlow,  and 
another  by  Dr.  H.  M.  Smith,  on  Gram.  Dr.  Barlow  writes :  "Hans  B.  Gram, 
M.  D.,  died  February  13,  1840.  aged  fifty-four  years.  So  reads  a  marble  tomb- 
stone erected  over  his  grave  in  St.  Mark's  burial  ground  between  Eleventh 
and  Twelfth  streets,  on  the  east  side  of  Second  avenue,  in  the  citv  of  Xew 

John  F.  Gray,  IM.  D. 

York.  On  the  fourth  day  of  September,  1862,  the  grave  of  Dr.  Gram  was 
opened  and  the  remains  taken  up  for  removal  to  the  private  ground  of  Dr. 
John  F.  Gray  in  Greenwood  cemetery,  where  in  a  lovely  spot  his  remains  have 
reached  a  permanent  resting  place.  I  had  requested  to  be  present  at  the  ex- 
humation, which  request  was  readily  and  kindly  granted.  I  estimated  his 
height  to  have  been  five  feet  ten  inches.  Gram's  skull-  was  of  medium  size, 
with  good  breadth  of  forehead  showing  that  he  had  possessed  a  great  amount 
of  volume  of  the  perceptive  and  reflective  faculties."  Dr.  Barlow  describes  at 
length  in  this  article  the  characteristics  of  Gram  from  the  phrenological  exam- 
ination of  his  skull  at  this  time,  thus :  "Veneration,  conscientiousness,  benev- 
olence,  combativeness,   cautiousness,   firmness,   attachment   to   friends,   and   to 


•whatever  was  good,  true,  just  and  humane,  were  all  characteristics  of  Gram 
and  the  active  operations  of  those  sentiments  could  not  but  render  their  pos- 
sessor a  pleasant  companion,  a  good  man,  a  kindly  physician,  the  central  lum- 
inary of  whatever  circle  he  was  placed  in,  not  assuming,  dictatorial  or  ar- 
rogant in  manner.  Whatever  feelings  of  superiority  he  may  have  felt  toward 
those  by  whom  he  was  surrounded,  he  could  not  hut  endear  himself  strongly 
to  his  friends  and  pupils,  creating  ties,  the  severing  of  which  at  his  departure 
must  have  been  painful  indeed.  ,  Hence  1  find  every  person  who  knew  him 
well  still  speaking  in  terms  of  the  most  endearing  tenderness  of  him  as  a  luost 
estimable  friend.  Naturally  he  was,  doubtless,  a  brilliant,  cheerful  and  happy 
man;  but  opposition,  detraction  and  persecution  had  rendered  him  somewhat 
morose,  taciturn,  suspicious  and  distrustful — even  of  his  best  friends,  embit- 
tering the  evening  of  his  days,  producing  infirmities  which  brought  a  gloomy 
obscuration  over  his  faculties  and  sentiments  and  throwing  clouds  of  disap- 
pointment and  unhappiness  over  his  fastest  friends. 

"Future  generations  of  physicians  will  do  honor  to  the  memory  of  Hans 
B.  Gram.  The  plate  of  his  coffin  bore  the  following  inscription,  portions  of 
which  were  difiicult  to  decipher,  but  I  am  sure  it  was  all  finally  made  out  in 
perfection :  Hans  B.  Gram,  M.  D.,  a  Knight  of  the  Order  of  St.  John,  died 
Feb.  13,  1840,  aged  53  years."  (There  is  a  discrepancy  of  one  year  in  his  age 
as  given  upon  the  coffin  ])late  and  that  inscribed  on  his  tombstone.) 

At  a  meetmg  on  Hahnemann's  birthday.  April  10,  1863,  the  meeting  at 
which  Gray  gave  his  address  on  "The  Early  Annals  of  Homoeopathy  in  New 
York,"  after  the  banquet  there  were  various  toasts,  and  the  talk  turned  on  the 
early  times  of  homoeopathy  in  New  York  city.  Dr.  Barlow  was  asked  to  give 
his  opinion  of  the  character  of  Gram,  and  he  said :  "  The  impressions  I 
received  from  viewing  the  craniology  of  Dr.  Gram  were,  first,  the  massiveness 
of  his  mind  or  brain,  of  his  ability  to  grapple  with  whatever  subject  he  under- 
took. Secondly,  I  was  impressed  with  the  idea  of  his  courage.  I  do  not 
mean  brute  courage,  exactly,  but  courage  for  all  good  purposes,  courage  for 
auNthing  except  for  evil.  A  man  whose  skull  gave  me  the  impression  of  a 
man  who  knew  no  fear  except  the  fear  of  doing  evil,  doing  wrong.  I  was 
impressed  with  his  ability  for  general  scholarship.  His  organ  of  languages 
was  very  good,  his  head  could  be  called  well  balanced." 

This  story  is  told  by  Dr.  Mofiatt  of  New  York,  illustrating  the  fearless- 
ness of  Gram :  'T  heard  it  from  his  own  lips.  When  he  lived  in  Copenhagen 
and  was  a  physician  or  surgeon  in  the  National  Military  and  Naval  Hospital,  a 
menagerie  of  wild  beasts  was  there  exhibited,  among  the  animals  being  a  full 
grown  lion.  The  keeper  entered  the  cage  of  the  lion,  intoxicated,  which  enraged 
the  lion  and  he  attacked  the  man  and  escaped  from  the  cage.  Gram  was  talking 
with  a  friend,  and  picking  a  nut  with  a  nut-picker,  when  there  was  a  sudden 
cry  and  the  people  ran  out  shrieking.  Looking,  he  saw  that  the  lion  had 
escaped.  Everybody  fled  but  himself  and  he  stood  in  a  defiant  attitude,  front- 
ing the  beast,  which  came  so  close  that  he  felt  the  heat  of  his  breath,  and 
Gram's  purpose  at  the  time  WaS  to  plunge  his  hand  with  the  instrument  into 
the  beast's  mouth  as  the  only  means  of  staving  the  destruction  that  would  fol- 
low should  he  attempt  to  escape  with  those  behind  him.  As  the  creature 
crouched  to  spring,  he  felt  his  hot  breath.  While  he  stood  fronting  him  in 
that  attitude  the  attendants  came  with  rods  and  cords  and  secured  him.  When 
it  was  over  Gram  fainted.     He  did  not  tret  over  the  effect  for  six  months." 

The  only  portrait  of  Dr.  Gram  in  existence  is  a  i:)encil  sketch  by  Dr.  Cur- 


tis,  which  was  Hthographed  and  published  in  the  "United  States  Medical  and 
Surgical  Journal"  for  July,  1867,  and  is  that  from  which  is  produced  the  por- 
trait in  this  work.  Gray  said  the  original  was  wonderfully  accurate.  At  the 
1863  meeting  Gray  mentioned  that  a  cast  was  taken  of  Gram's  head,  but  did 
not  know  if  it  was  then  in  existence.  At  the  meeting  Gray,  Wilson  and  Ball 
were  appointed  a  committee  to  arrange  for  erecting  a  monument  over  the 
grave  in  Greenwood,  but  nothing  seems  to  have  been  done  at  that  time.  In 
1869  the  New  York  State  Homceopathic  Medical  Society  inaugurated  a  move- 
ment to  invite  dollar  subscriptions  for  a  monument  to  Gram.  At  a  meeting 
held  September  14,  1869,  at  Cooper  Institute,  the  following  committee  was 
appointed :  Drs.  John  F.  Grav,  L.  Hallock,  S.  B.  Barlow,  B,  F.  Bowers,  Car- 
roll Dunham.  H.  D.  Paine,  of  New  York ;  R.  C.  Moffatt,  of  Brooklyn  ;  I.  T. 
Talbot,  of  Boston ;  Walter  Williamson,  of  Philadelphia ;  G.  E.  Shipman,  of 
Chicago,  and  Wm.  H.  Holcombe,  of  New  Orleans.  Circulars  were  issued  and 
some  subscriptions  were  raised,  but  the  matter  was  allowed  to  drop. 

Dr.  Gray's  open  adoption  and  profession  of  homoeopathy  dated  from  1828. 
He  was  born  in  Sherburne,  Chenango  county.  New  York,  September  24,  1804, 
and  was  the  fourth  of  five  sons  of  John  Gray,  first  judge  of  Chenango  county. 
When  sixteen  years  of  age  his  parents  removed  to  Jamestown,  Chautauqua 
county.  Thrown  on  his  own  resources,  he  devoted  himself  to  obtaining  an 
education  and  a  profession.  After  working  for  a  time  at  a  mechanical  employ- 
ment as  a  means  of  supporting  himself,  he  obtained  a  situation  as  assistant 
and  student  with  Peter  B.  Havens  of  Hamilton,  Madison  county,  where  there 
was  an  academy,  and  where  he  gave  his  services  for  his  board  and  the  oppor- 
tunity for  study  and  instruction.  After  two  years  he  found  a  position  as  teach- 
er in  a  neighboring  district  school.  With  money  thus  earned  he  was  able  to 
A'isit  his  home,  and  the  journey  of  two  hundred  and  fifty  miles  he  accomplished 
on  foot.  While  teaching  and  studying  he  fitted  himself  for  a  medical  school. 
He  was  for  a  time  under  the  tuition  of  Dr.  Ezra  Williams  of  Dunkirk.  He 
Avent  to  New  York  in  1824,  provided  with  letters  to  members  of  the  college 
faculty.  One  from  Governor  Clinton  to  Dr.  Hosack  brought  him  to  the  favor- 
able notice  of  that  leading  physician,  who  soon  became  attached  to  him,  ad- 
mitting him  to  his  private  classes  and  otherwise  aiding  him.  In  1825  he  passed 
an  examination  for  a  license  before  the  county  medical  society  with  a  view  of 
taking  the  position  of  assistant  surgeon  in  the  navy,  but  which,  by  the  advice 
of  friends,  he  declined.  He  received  his  medical  degree  from  the  College  of 
Physicians  and  Surgeons  in  1826. 

Dr.  Hosack  through  his  own  influence  and  that  of  DeWitt  Clinton  and 
Thomas  Eddy,  two  of  the  governors,  secured  for  Gray  a  position  in  the  New 
York  Hospital  as  assistant  physician.  His  appointment  had  been  opposed  by 
many  who  were  unfriendly  to  Hosack.  and  was  coupled  with  the  condition  that 
he  should  undergo  examination  by  the  men  who  opposed  him.  Dr.  Watts, 
"vvho  had  been  a  strong  opponent,  became  as  earnest  a  friend,  and  advised  him 
to  open  an  office  in  the  more  thinly  settled  but  rapidly  growing  parts  of  the 
city.  He  -liad  now  formed  an  attachment  with  the  lady  who  afterward  became 
his  wife,  the  daughter  of  Dr.  Amos  G.  Hull,  a  well  known  surgeon  of  New 
Y^ork.  and  father  of  Dr.  A.  Gerald  Hull.  He  opened  an  office  in  Charlton 
street  and  soon  gained  considerable  practice.  At  this  time  he  was  regarded 
hy  his  professional  brethren  as  a  young  man  of  unusual  promise  and  ability. 
And  now.  with  everything  favorable  to  him  in  a  professional  wav,  because  of 
honest  conviction  he  became  a  devoted  adherent  to  the  medical  svstem  which 


when  spoken  of  at  all,  was  considered  as  tlie  latest  medical  absurdity,  not 
worthy  of  serious  attention.  With  his  full  adoption  of  homoeopathy  in  1828, 
the  immediate  effect  was  to  alienate  his  patrons  and  diminish  the  number  of 
his  families.  Even  those  who  had  been  cured,  without  knowing  it  was  with 
homoeopathic  medicines,  declined  longer  to  trust  themselves  in  his  hands.  His 
carriage  which  for  some  time  had  been  a  necessity  was  given  up  as  a  useless 

At  a  meeting  of  the  Homoeopathic  Medical  Society  of  the  County  of  New 
York  on  April  10,  1863,  to  celebrate  the  birthday  of  Hahnemann,  Dr.  Gray,, 
the  president,  addressed  the  society  on  "The  Early  Annals  of  Homoeopathy  in 
New  York."  Several  toasts  were  given  and  the  talk,  turning  to  the  trials  of  the 
pioneers  of  homoeopathy,  the  following  remarks  were  made,  and  are  here 
quoted  to  show  something  of  the  trials  which  beset  the  pathway  of  the  early 
homoeopathic  practitioners : 

Dr.  Phineas  P.  Wells  said :  "The  gentleman  said  he  wished  he  had  known 
the  happiness  of  witnessing  the  birth  of  homoeopathy  in  this  country.  I  wish 
to  say  to  him  that  there  are  but  three  gentlemen  in  this  room  who  knew  the 
facts  personally.  In  those  days  when  it  was  known  that  a  physician  had 
adopted  this  view  his  friends  forsook  him  like  a  leper,  and  he  became  the  ob- 
ject of  scorn  and  calumny.  Now  it  is  all  changed.  You  will  never  forget 
it,  sir  (turning  to  Dr.  Gray)  and  I  shall  never  forget  what  we  have  suffered. 
You  never  can  have  any  conception  of  it.  So  much  the  better  because  you 
have  not  the  load  to  carry  which  your  predecessors  bore.  You  have  only  to 
take  up  the  great  work  freed  from  shackles,  from  obloquy,  and  to  carry  it  to 
perfection  in  these  times  which  God  has  made  your  happy  days." 

Dr.  Smith  said :  "I  would  rather  be  Dr.  Gray  having  passed  through 
this  than  any  other  man  in  the  United  States.  The  warrior  has  no  happiness 
when  at  the  cannon's  mouth,  or  when  he  is  pierced  by  a  bullet,  but  his  happi- 
ness comes  when  he  has  achieved  the  victory  in  fighting  for  his  suffering 
country'.  So  in  the  light  of  present  enjoyment  I  would  be  willing  to  go 
through  with  that  bitter  experience  for  the  sake  of  the  pleasure  and  satisfac- 
tion and  the  unmistakable  intelligence  that  writes  itself  on  the  front  part  of 
the  brain  in  letters  in  fire — in  letters  of  Hre — to  remain  while  life  lasts,  as 
though  thcv  were  written  upon  the  blue  arch  of  heaven  with  pencil  of  living 

Dr.  Gray  said :  "What  Dr.  Wells  says  is  more  true  than  I  like  to  recall. 
I  went  through  eight  years  of  persecution  before  the  second  epoch  began.  I 
had  many  friends  but  none  nearer  than  Dr.  Hering,  a  magnanimous  man.  full 
of  sense  and  learning.  He  has  been  very  kind  to  me.  In  an  interview  with 
my  old  preceptor  he  said  to  me:  'I  had  some  hopes  of  you.  I  expected  you 
to  be  one  of  those  who  would  hold  high  the  standard  that  I  left.  Now  I 
give  you  up.  You  have  taken  up  with  that  crazy  Gram  and  that  contemptible 
medical  nonsense  of  Hahnemann,  and  I  excommunicate  you.'  And  he  spoke 
with  great  feeling.  Then  my  own  father  in  medicine  and  most  intimate  friend 
at  college  (probably  Hosack)  and  in  the  profession,  ait  me  in  the  street  as 
though  I  had  been  a  horse  thief  or  some  horrible,  outcast.  It  stuck  to  me  like 
thistles  and  thorns,  everywhere.  My  mind  is  sensitive.  But  better  it  is 
that  a  man  should  lie  so  persecuted  if  it  bring  him  forward  in  the  great  path 
of  human  progress ;  his  soul  will  blossom  unless  tainted  with  vice,  and  he  will 
gain  all  the  more  power,  all  the  more  magnanimity  toward  those  who  differ 
from  him.    As  brother  Wells   so   feelingly   suggested,   though  on    account   of 



some  sensitiveness  of  organization  I  have  not  had  the  very  greatest  pleasure 
of  that  sort,  yet  now  I  look  back  with  unmixed  deUght  to  the  hour  when  the 
world  was  turned  against  me  both  in  my  profession  and  friendships,  God 
bless  those  days !  God  bless  the  man  who  led  me,  and  the  men  who  were 
with  me !  There  were  some,  however,  although  they  did  not  accept  homoe- 
opathy, whose  faces  never  changed  toward  me.  Some  who  went  through  the 
college  course  with  me,  notwithstanding  our  difference  of  opinion,  have  nev- 
er changed.  Never  has  the  cord  of  friendship  that  bound  us  together  as  boys, 
nearly  fort}  years  ago,  sutit'ered  the  slightest  break.  And  there  are  other  con- 
solations. So  that  the  man  who  will  preserve  his  justice  of  character,  his 
truth,  and  his  devotion  to  what  is  right,  as  I  have  endeavored  to  do,  will  al- 
ways have  friends,  even  under  the  most  oppressive  and  depressing  circum- 

A.  Ccrald  Hull.  A.  M.,  M.  D. 

Stances.  But  the  best  friend  after  all  lies  in  the  depths  of  the  soul.  Whoso- 
ever communes  with  truth  within  him,  whosoever  sacrifices  for  truth  within, 
shall^  be  paid,  as  the  Man  of  Nazareth  said,  in  this  life  an  hundred  fold,  and 
infinitely  more  in  that  which  is  to  come."  But  Dr.  Gray  outlived  his  ostracism 
and  for  many  years  upheld  the  new  law  of  cure,  and  it  was  his  pleasure  to 
see  homoeopathy  become  popular  and  powerful  as  a  medical  system. 

In  1829  Gram  and  Gray  were  alone  in  the  practice  of  homoeopathy  in 
New  York  city.  Gray  devoted  himself  to  learning  German  and  soon  was  able 
to  read  Hahnemann's  work  in  the  original.  He  also  mastered  French,  but 
from  1830  to  1838  he  was  poor  and  had  a  struggle  to  support  his  family.  In 
1835  his  father-in-law,  Dr.  Hull,  who  had  been  in  the  truss  business,  died, 


leaving  hini  executor.  Tn  attending  to  the  estate  much  of  his  time  was  taken 
up,  and  from  1835  to  1838  he  had  an  office  in  V'esey  street,  under  the  Astor 
house,  where  he  could  attend  both  to  his  profession  and  to  his  duties  as  exe- 
cutor. In  his  later  years  he  was  very  fond  of  reading  philosophical  and  med- 
ical writings  m  Latin.'  In  187 1  he  received  an  honorary  degree  from  Hamilton 

It  is  said  of  Gray  that  he  received  pupils  without  fee,  and  that  he  always 
was  ready  to  aid  poor  students  of  medicine.  He  died  at  the  Fifth  avenue 
hotel  in  New  York,  June  5,  1882,  after  an  illness  of  three  weeks.  Gray  was 
one  of  the  first  physicians  who  advocated  a  more  extended  and  thorough  sys- 
tem of  medical  education,  and  that  the  state  should  grant  the  license  to  prac- 
tice. At  a  discussion  in  1832  before  the  Philosophical  Society  he  offered  a 
resolution  that  but  one  medical  school  should  exist  in  a  state  ;  that  rival  schools' 
ought  not  to  be  approved ;  that  every  physician  in  the  state  should  be  a  teacher 
in  such  school,  and  that  there  should  be  one  board  in  each  state  that  should 
have  the  sole  power  of  recommending  candidates  for  license  or  degree.  In 
November,  1832,  he  delivered  a  lecture  on  the  policy  of  chartering  medical 
colleges,  the  same  being  introductor}'  to  the  course  on  theory  and  practice  in 
the  New  York  School  of  Medicine. 

The  next  to  join  the  homceopathic  ranks  was  Dr.  Abraham  Duryea  Wil- 
son. Gray  and  Wilson  had  been  medical  friends.  In  fact  the  coterie  of  bril- 
liant voung  physicians,  students  and  associates  of  Hosack,  who  one  by  one 
accepted  the  truth  of  homoeopathy,  were  intimates,  members  of  the  Philosophi- 
cal Society,  and  it  can  readily  be  understood  how  they  became  acquainted  with 
Gram.  Wilson,  who  had  been  in  practice  in  New  York  since  his  graduation 
in  1822,  was  introduced  to  Gram  by  Gray.  At  first  Wilson  was  incredulous, 
deeming,  like  his  brethren,  the  new  doctrine  simply  humbug,  but  the  argu- 
ments of  Gram  and  the  surprising  cures  accomplished  induced  Wilson  to  make 
further  experiments.  These  tests  resulted  in  his  conviction  of  the  truth  of  the 
homoeopathic  law,  and  in  1829  he  publicly  adopted  that  method  in  his  practice. 

Dr.  Wilson  was  born  in  Columbia  College,  New  York  city,  September 
20,  1801.  His  father,  Peter  Wilson,  was  professor  of  languages  and  Greek 
and  Roman  literature  in  that  institution.  He  was  educated  in  the  college, 
graduating  in  1818,  when  but  seventeen  years  of  age;  but  he  did  not  receive 
his  diploma  until  of  legal  age,  in  1822.  After  graduation  he  at  once  com- 
menced the  study  of  medicine  under  Drs.  Hosack  and  Francis,  receiving  the 
degree  from  the  College  of  Physicians  and  Surgeons  in  1821.  He  at  once 
settled  in  practice,  locating  on  Walker  street.  New  York  city.  In  1824  he- 
married  Fliza  Holmes.  He  died  of  pulmonary  apoplexy,  January  20,  1864; 
aged  sixty-three  years. 

On  Hahnemann's  birthday  anniversary.  April  10,  1865,  Dr.  Grav  deliv- 
ered a  eulogy  on  the  life  of  the  founder,  and  spoke  of  the  period  of  \\'ilson's 
adoption  of  homieopathy  as  follows :  "Wilson  was  already  a  conspicuous 
practitioner  of  mccHcinc  when  he  adopted  homoeopathy.  This  change  took 
place  in  1829,  the  eighth  year  after  his  graduation  from  the  College  of  Physi- 
cians and  Surgeons,  and  the  twelfth  after  receiving  his  baccalaureate  in  Co- 
lumbia College.  His  social  status  and  professional  standing  were  such  as  to 
make  a  strong  sensation  respecting  the  new  practice  in  a  wide  circle  of  the 
community  at  the  time.  His  father,  an  eminent  Scottish  scholar,  was  profes- 
sor of  the  Greek  and  Latin  languages  at  the  time  of  his  son's  birth,  and  for 
many    years    after.      His   brother,   the   late    George    Wilson,    an    accomplished 

HIS  r(  )\<\  ()!•    lI()M(K()PATin'  71 

counsellor  at  law  in  the  city,  who  was  twenty  years  his  senior,  and  therefore 
able  to  aid  him  socially,  took  unwearied  pains  in  his  behalf.  Moreover,  this 
brother,  as  Wilson  told  me,  earnestly  interested  himself  after  the  venerable 
father's  departure,  in  his  culture  in  ancient  and  modern  literature  and  phi- 
losophy. Whatsoever  the  elder  brother  could  accomplish  for  him  in  society 
and  in  aid  of  his  professional  career  was  certainly  etifected  with  stratifying 
success.  Pr.  Wilson  had  also  the  great  advantages  in  that  day  resulting  from 
the  personal  friendship  and  patronage  of  his  illustrious  preceptor  in  medicine, 
'the  late  Dr.  David  Hosack^  in  whose  private  classes  he  was  a  diligent  pupil. 
Hosack  had  received  classical  training  from  Wilson's  father,  to  whose  mem- 
ory he  was  gratefully  attached ;  and  thus  it  can  be  imagined  how  readily  this 
young  man's  studious  qualities  were  appreciated  and  his  aspirations  in  the 
outset  of  life  fostered  by  his  powerful  preceptor.  And  that  Wilson  was  a 
keen  and  prompt  student  under  Hosack,  accepting  and  using  all  the  advantages 
afforded  by  his  great  master's  private  and  public  lectures  and  by  the  great 
clinique  of  the  New  York  hospital  in  which  Hosack  took  the  leading  position, 
was  abundantly  demonstrated  by  him  when,  in  the  capacity  of  a  censor  in  the 
county  medical  society,  he  officiated  as  examiner  of  candidates  for  the  diploma 
of  that  body.  Wilson  made  the  acquaintance  of  Gram  and  myself  and  encoun- 
tered the  great  new  problem  of  his  life  work,  homcEopathy.  After  a  patient 
study  of  its  principles  and  a  protracted  trial  of  its  art-maxims  at  the  bedside, 
during  all  of  which  study  and  trial  he  refrained  from  expressing  a  judgment, 
he  decided  the  question  firmly  and  fully  for  himself  and  for  all  his  future  pa- 
tients, in  the  affirmative ;  and  thenceforward  he  openly  avowed  his  adherence 
to  the  doctrine  and  discipline  of  Hahnemann.  Wilson  came  into  our  circle 
with  all  his  stores  of  sound  culture  and  with  all  his  indomitable  courage  in 
defence  of  the  right  and  true.  I  have  said  that  the  avowal  of  his  change  of 
practice  ensued  upon  a  very  mature  and  thorough  examination  of  the  ques- 
tions involved  in  the  change ;  and  I  may  add  that  this  was  his  method  in  all 
other  philosophical  and  administrative  problems.  His  powers  of  analysis 
were  never  embarrassed  by  the  perturbations  of  his  emotional  nature.  Though 
generous,  even  to  a  decided  fault  on  some  occasions,  and  full  of  sympathy  at 
all  times  and  in  every  fibre  of  his  being,  yet  he  could  at  all  times  set  his  reason 
to  work  in  the  precision  and  cool  steadiness  of  mathematical  logic  :  and  thus 
it  was  his  want  so  to  apply  his  happily  dormant  rational  power  to  the  largest 
questions  of  faith  and  of  practice  in  ethics  and  theosophy,  as  well  as  in  ours 
of  medicine.  His  characteristic  lay  in  this  rare  peculiarity  of  constitution,  one 
which  belonged  to  the  old  time  philosophers,  that  he  could  apply  his  conscious- 
ly rational  test  processes  over  all  the  lines  sketched  by  his  intuitions;  and  his 
merit  as  a  man  consisted  in  the  ever  rare  quality  that  he  openly  avowed  and 
sustained  whatsoever  he  found  to  be  true  by  this  his  double  process  of  inves- 
tigation, pocolepsis.  and  demonstration.  Wilson  took  this  great  step,  homoe- 
opathy, with  a  deliberation  and  courage  consonant  with  his  training-  in  letters 
and  science  and  with  his  constitution  as  a  man.  He  was  no  adventurer  in 
the  community,  with  nothing  to  lose  by  the  change,  and  perhaps  a  gain  to 
make  by  heralding  a  novelty  in  medicine.  Nor  was  he  bv  any  view  of  his 
constitution,  an  eager  innovator,  a  reformer  of  popular  mistakes ;  but  rather 
from  his  harmonic  tendencies  (he  loved  music)  and  his  cordial,  social  rapport 
vyith  all  oood  meanino:  ])eople  of  his  place  and  time,  he  was  a  conservative  ; 
was  indulgent  to  harmless  errors  and  indisposed  to  violent  uprootings.     X^ev- 


ertheless  he  went  with  his  conviction  of  truth  whensoever  these  were  fully 
ripe  in  his  soul.  ' 

"Bitter  were  the  pangs  and  sore  the  costs  of  this  bold  change  for  the 
accomplished  and  successful  young  Wilson.  In  less  than  two  years  after  the 
adoption  of  the  new  method,  that  is  to  say  in  183 1,  when  the  birth  of  the  last 
of  his  children  had  rendered  the  demands  of  family  support  strongest  upon 
him,  his  change  had  deprived  him  of  all  his  family  practice  save  one ;  of  that 
g'oodly  broad  basis  founded  by  his  familiar  associates  among  the  Masons  in 
the  Dutch  church,  of  which  he  was  a  cherished  member,  and  from  among  his 
family  adherents,  including  those  of  his  brother,  the  Counsellor  Wilson,  only 
one  stood  by  him,  Mr.  Thomas  Dugan,  sexton  of  St.  George,  who  happened 
to  be  the  mutual  friend  of  Wilson  and  myself." 

Wilson  did  not  study  German,  therefore  could  not  determine  the  remedy 
for  himself,  and  as  he  was  ever  anxious  to  do  his  utmost  for  his  patients,  he 
was  in  the  habit  of  taking  them  to  Gram  for  advice ;  and  Wilson  and  Channing 
held  daily  consultations  with  Gram.  But  long  before  his  professional  reputa- 
tion was  re-established,  Wilson's  careful  methods  and  cures  greatly  advanced 
the  system  in  the  community. 

The  next  in  order  to  be  mentioned  is  Amos  Gerald  Hull,  who  was  the 
first  native  American  to  take  up  the  study  of  medicine  as  a  student  of  homoe- 
opathy. He  was  born  in  New  Hartford,  New  York,  in  1810,  and  was  edu- 
cated at  Union  College,  Schenectady.  Dr.  John  F.  Gray  writes :  "Mr.  Hull 
took  his  degree  in  the  arts  at  Union  College,  with  distinguished  rank,  in  1828. 
He  remained  there  some  months  pursuing  a  post-graduate  course  of  studies 
in  chemistry  and  anatomy  under  our  late  and  justly  revered  colleague.  Dr. 
Joslin,  at  that  time  and  for  many  years  after  a  professor  at  Union.  Dr.  Joslin 
and  I  had  studied  medicine  together,  graduating  in  the  same  class,  in  the  Col- 
lege of  Physicians  and  Surgeons,  and  I  suggested  the  course  taken  by  Hull, 
well  knowing  the  unusual  advantages  he  could  reap  from  Joslin's  exact  and 
•  full  attainments  in  the  natural  sciences.  On  his  coming  to  the  city  Hull  en- 
tered Rutger's  Medical  College.  Hosack,  Mott,  Macneven,  Francis  and  the 
great  Irish  surgeon,  Bushe,  were  the  professors.  With  Francis  and  Bushe  he 
also  studied  in  extra  college  courses  of  lectures  as  a  private  pupil.  But  best 
of  all  the  assistance  he  enjoyed,  in  my  estimation,  was  the  daily  guidance  and 
conversation  of  the  good  pioneer  Gram.  In  the  summer  time  Gram  taught 
him  botany,  master  and  pupil  making  frequent  foot  excursions  for  the  pur- 
pose, in  the  neighborhood  of  the  city,  analyzing  the  wayside  and  wood  flow- 
ers as  they  wandered  through  the  rich  floral  regions  of  our  coast.  Wilson 
and  1  sometimes  joined  this  party,  and  also  made  some  advances  in  botany 
under  Gram.  In  the  winter  evenings  Gram  reviewed  descriptive  anatomy 
with  Hull,  in  a  methodic  course  of  dictation  in  the  Latin  language,  which  the 
pupil  was  required  to  record  in  writing  as  it  fell  from  the  master's  lips;  a 
task  probably  no  public  teacher  in  any  of  our  American  colleges  could  have 
executed,  and  I  am  quite  sure  no  other  pupil  could  have  performed  his  share 
of  the  exercise  better  than  did  young  Hull.  *  *  *  j„  ^jj  HxxW  spent  four 
years  in  professional  studies,  after  his  full  terms  and  graduation  at  Union,  in 
this  way." 

The  Medical  Society  of  the  County  of  New  York  had  just  established  a 
public  and  recorded  exaniination  of  all  applicants  for  a  license  to  practice,  and 
Dr.  Hull  w^as  the  first  to  undergo  the  ordeal.  He  graduated  in  medicine  in 
1832  and  commenced  practice  in   1833.     After  practicing  for  some  years  he 


removed  to  Newburgh,  remaining  a  few  years,  but  returned  to  New  York, 
where  he  practiced  until  his  death.  He  joined  the  Medical  and  Philosophical 
Society  in  1828,  and  was  a  member  of  the  New  York  County  Medical  Soci- 
ety and  a  censor  in  1835.  At  the  time  he  joined  membership  was  obligatory 
upon  every  physician  by  the  law  of  the  state.  Hull  visited  Hahnemann  in 
Paris  in  1836-37,  of  which  visit  he  wrote  a  very  interesting  account  for  the 
"Homceppathic  Examiner"  in  1841,  and  which  was  also  published  as  a  pam- 
phlet.    He  died  in  New  York,  April  25,  1859,  aged  forty-nine  years. 

Gray  had  married  Hull's  sister,  and  the  brothers-in-law  went  into  practice 
together.  In  1835  they  were  joint  editors  of  the  "American  Journal  of  Homce- 
opathia,"  and  in  1840  of  the  "Homoeopathic  Examiner."  Hull  edited  an  edi- 
tion of  Everest's  "Popular  View  of  Homoeopathy,"  originally  published  in 
England,  and  several  editions  of  Laurie's  "Domestic  Practice."  He  also  edited 
several  editions  of  Jahr's  "Manual  of  Homoeopathic  ]\Iedicine,"  and  was  co- 
editor  of  the  translation  of  that  great  symptomatology,  Jahr's  "Symptomen 

Gray  places  Hull  after  Wilson  in  the  order  of  precedence,  probably  be- 
cause the  latter  was  a  student  as  early  as  1828,  but  the  man  who  entered  into 
homoeopathic  practice  next  after  Wilson  was  Daniel  Edward  Stearns.  He 
was  born  in  1801  at  Hinesburgh,  Vermont,  where  he  received  his  early  edu- 
cation. His  medical  studies  were  with  Dr.  David  Deming.  He  attended  the 
University  of  Vermont,  at  Burlington,  where  he  graduated  in  1828.  Dr. 
Stearns,  like  many  of  the  students  of  his  day,  w^as  obliged  to  gain  an  educa- 
tion under  difficulties.  With  little  money  and  poorly  clad  he  earned  by  teach- 
ing in  the  winter  and  by  working  in  the  summer  the  means  to  enable  him  to 
attend  the  two  courses  of  medical  lectures  then  required  by  law.  In  the  fall 
of  1826,  while  attending  his  first  course  of  lectures  at  Burlington,  he  was 
offered  a  situation  in  a  drug  store  in  New  York  city.  This  he  declined,  but 
being  offered  the  same  place  in  1827,  and  as  he  had  attended  his  full  course 
of  lectures,  he  accepted  and  went  to  New  York.  He  remained  in  this  posi- 
tion until  September,  1828,  when  he  returned  to  Vermont  to  receive  his  diplo- 
ma. Undecided  what  next  to  do,  he  received  from  New  York  a  letter  advising 
him  not  to  allow  the  want  of  money  to  hinder  his  return  to  the  city.  If  he 
should  pay  for  his  diploma,  his  funds  would  be  exhausted.  If  he  returned 
to  New  York  he  could  not  take  with  him  the  coveted  evidence  of  graduation. 
The  means  were  provided,  however,  and  he  returned  to  New  York.  In  a 
letter  written  in  1870.  Stearns  himself  said:  "I  came  into  the  city  in  the  fall 
of  1827.  I  had  attended  my  two  courses  of  lectures  at  our  University  of  Ver- 
mont at  Burlmgton  and  read  nw  three  years  as  the  law  required.  In  Septem- 
ber, 1828,  I  left  for  Vermont,  then  and  there  received  my  diploma;  returned 
the  same  fall  to  New  York  city,  had  an  introduction  to  John  F.  Gray,  M.  D., 
spent  a  part  of  the  winter  in  his  office,  and  at  that  time  became  acquainted 
with  H.  B.  Gram,  M.  D.,  and  A.  D.  Wilson.  M.  D.,  Dr.  Channing  and  Dr. 
Joseph  T.  Curtis,  who  then  was  a  student  of  Dr.  Gram.  And  now  I  sav  these 
were,  with  myself,  the  only  gentlemen  who  had  the  boldness  and  courage  to 
rally  in  the  ranks  of  homoeopathy."  In  the  winter  of  1827  Stearns  attended 
lectures  at  the  College  of  Physicians  and  Surgeons  and  visited  the  hospital. 

Thus,  in  company  with  these  enthusiasts.  Gray  and  Gram  and  Wilson, 
Stearns  soon  became  convinced  of  the  truth  and  certainty  of  the  homoeopathic 
law  of  healing.  In  the  spring  of  1829  he  commenced  the  practice  of  homoe- 
opathy in  New  York,  continuing  there  until  in  1852  or  1853.  when  he  removed 


to  Tremont  station,  Westchester  county,  a  suburb  of  New  York.  For  two 
years  he  practiced  in  the  city,  but  the  increase  of  his  Tremont  practice  obhged 
him  to  devote  to  it  all  his  time.  In  1856  by  accident  he  became  disabled  for 
active  practice.     In  1872  he  was  still  living  at  Tremont. 

A  notable  convert  to  the  teachings  of  Gram,  was  William  Channing,  of 
whom  Gray  writes:  "Dr.  William  Channing  was  a  man  of  large  culture  in 
letters  and  very  thoroughly  educated  in  medicine.  He  was  in  the  mid-prime 
of  life  at  the  time  of  his  conversion  to  homoeopathy,  which  occurred  in  1832, 
during  the  first  appearance  of  the  Asiatic  cholera  in  this  country.  He  had 
joined  Gram's  party  in  the  County  Medical  Society  for  the  establishment  of 
the  public  and  recorded  examination  of  candidates,  and  having  been  elected 
in  that  body  to  the  ofifice  of  censor,  with  Gram  and  Wilson  for  colleagues,  he 
was  frequently  in  our  little  circle,  and  often,  of  course,  the  new  practice  was 
discussed  with  him." 

Thus  Channing  became  familiar  with  the  doctrines  of  homoeopathy,  in- 
terested in  Ihcm.  and  was  liberal  enough  to  be  willing  to  test  their  truth. 
When  in  1832  the  cholera  appeared  in  New  York,  he  tendered  his  services  to 
the  hospitals.  This  gave  liim  a  chance  to  make  a  test  of  the  new  system, 
and  as  Hahnemann  had  just  ]niblished  his  advice  about  the  use  of  camphor, 
veratrum  and  cuprum  in  cholera,  Channing  made  a  public  trial  of  these  rem- 
edies on  the  victims.  So  great  was  his  success  that  he  published  the  results 
over  his  own  signature  in  the  "Commercial  Advertiser,"  and  soon  after  de- 
clared himself  tO'  be  a  believer  in  homoeopathy.  Channing  was  a  brilliant  man, 
of  large  culture  in  letters,  and  thoroughly  educated  in  medicine.  Gray  says 
"Channing's  was  an  eminently  logical  mind,  attending  with  full  earnestness  to 
all  topics  of  a  philosophical  character  till  he  arrived  at  definite  conclusions,  and 
when  he  reached  these  he  was  firm  and  decided  in  their  maintenance.  He  was 
not  of  the  skej^tical  class  on  any  subject.  ''^  *  *  W^ith  Channing's  conver- 
sion came  the  first  divergence  of  practice  among  the  homoeopaths  in  this  coun- 
try He  was  a  thorough  Hahncmannian  in  all  his  views  and  practice,  which 
neither  of  his  predecessors  were.  Gram,  Wilson  and  myself  held  from  first 
to  last  that  these  expedients  of  the  old  practice  which  had  attained  such  a 
solid  basis  of  empirical  certainty  as  to  good  results  in  given  and  well  defined 
cases  of  disease,  ought  not  to  be  laid  aside.  When  Gram  arrived,  the  founder 
of  the  school  had  not  adopted  the  later  j)ractice  of  attenuating  the  remedies, 
and  our  method  was,  in  1833.  to  administer  doses  equivalent  to  the  first  and 
second  centesimal  dilutions.  Channing  went  up  promptly  with  Hahnemann  in 
his  doses,  fully  believing  in  the  potentizing  process  and  faith  of  the  master, 
and  even  after  the  death  of  Hahnemann,  going  out  of  the  very  roof  of  all 
scientific  observation  with  the  enthusiastic  Jenichen  of  Hanover."  In  1838- 
Clianning  delivered  an  essay  on  the  "Reformation  of  Medical  Science  De- 
manded by  Inductive  Philosophy  "  before  the  New  York  Physician's  Society.. 
The  society  published  it,  and  a  second  edition  was  published  l)y  the  homoe- 
opaths in  1 85 1. 

William  Channing  was  born  in  Massachusetts  about  1800.  His  father 
was  a  Congregational  minister.  He  was  educated  at  Phillip's  Academv,  at 
Exeter,  New  Hampshire,  and  graduated  in  medicine  at  Rutger's  College, 
New  P>runswick.  New  Jersey,  in  April,  1830.  He  was  a  cousin  of  William 
Ellery  Channing  of  Boston.  Dr.  H.  M.  Smith  writes  of  him:  "He  differed 
from  some  of  the  other  physicians,  who  adhered  to  tlie  (.'nipiric  use  of  the 
remedies  of  the  old  school  and  believed  with    Hahnemann   that   such  practice- 

HisTMin'  ( )!•"  IK  )M(]:()iv\'rin'  75. 

was  unjustifiable.  He  accepted  hoiiKecjpathy  as  a  priiicijjle,  was  satisfied  with 
it,  saw  in  it  an  all-sufficient  jj^uide  for  the  administration  of  remedies  for  dis- 
eases, and  believed  that  a  failure  to  cure  a  curable  case  did  not  disprove  the 
universal  applicability  of  the  law,  but  want  of  knowledge  on  the  part  of  the 
prescriber.  The  accession  of  Channing  marks  an  era  in  the  history  of  homce- 
opathy.  The  profession  had  paid  little  attention  to  this  subject,  considering 
it  one  of  Gram's  vageries,  but  the  success  of  the  treatment  in  cholera  brought 
the  practice  into  notice,  awakened  an  opposition  which  was  increased  as  the 
system  gained  in  public  favor,  and  the  loss  of  patients  affected  the  pockets 
of  the  old  school  physicians.  Highly  esteemed  by  all  who  came  in  contact 
with  him.  and  having  many  friends,  Dr.  Channing  was  so  reticent  that  few 
knew  about  his  family  or  social  affairs.  He  took  a  prominent  part  in  the 
meetings  of  physicians.  He  failed  in  health  in  1844.  There  was  a  gradual 
breaking  down  of  his  mental  powers,  and  after  many  years  of  disease  he  died' 
at  Harrisburg.  Pennsylvania.   February   ii,   1855. 




The  Cholera  Epidemic  of  1832 — Hahnemann  an  Honorary  Member  of  the  New  York 
Medical  Society — The  Pioneer  Homoeopathic  Medical  Society — Reminiscences  of 
Early  Homoeopathic  Practitioners — Curtis — Kirby — Vanderburgh — Paine — Dutcher — 
Wright — Ball — Freeman — Cook  —  Bowers  —  Harris  —  Palmer — McVickar — Joslin — 
Belcher — Stewart — Hallock — Quin — Wells — ^A    Chapter  of  Reminiscences. 

-  At  the  outbreak  of  the  epidemic  of  cholera  in  1832  the  physicians  whose 
names  are  mentioned  in  the  preceding-  chapter  constituted  the  entire  homoe- 
opathic force  in  New  York.  Though  they  were  few  in  number  and  with  no  hos- 
pitals under  their  administration,  the  comparative  results  of  the  allopathic  and 
the  homceopathic  methods  of  treatment  of  that  disease  produced  a  powerful 
reaction  in  favor  of  homoeopathic  school  among  the  people,  and  a  new  impetus 
was  given  to  the  examination  of  its  claims  by  physicians.  This  inquiry  was 
facilitated  by  the  fact  that  Hahnemann's  Organon  and  the  Materia  Medica 
Pura  were  now  printed  in  French.  Ernest  G.  de  Brunnow  had  translated  the 
Organon  into  French  and  Arnold  had  published  it  in  Dresden  in  1824,  issuing 
a  second  edition  in  1832.  A.  J.  L.  Jourdan  had  made  a  translation  of  the 
fourth  edition  into  French,  which  was  published  in  Paris  by  Bailliere  in  1832. 
Charles  H.  Devriant,  a  lawyer  of  Dublin,  had  translated  the  fourth  edition  into 
Englisli,  with  notes  by  Dr.  Samuel  Stratton,  and  it  had  been  published  in 
Dublin  and  London.  In  1828  Bigel  had  rendered  the  Materia  Medica  Pura 
into  French,  and  in  1834  Jourdan  also  had  made  a  translation  of  the  same. 
So  it  became  possible  to  investigate  homoeopathy  without  first  devoting  very 
m-uch  time  to  the  study  of  German. 

Gray  writes  of  this  epoch :  "About  the  time  of  Channing's  coming-  over 
to  homoeopathy,  namely,  in  1832  and  183^,  Dr.  Jourdan  of  Paris  translated  the 
Materia  Medica  Pura  and  Jahr's  Manual  into  the  French  langtiage,  and  these 
works  very  soon  made  their  way  into  this  cotmtry.  This  event  marks  an  im- 
portant epoch  in  the  extension  of  homoeopathy,  the  world  over.  Prior  to  it 
no  physician  could  test  the  practice  or  study  its  principles  with  any  approach 
to  success,  without  first  making  a  fair  conquest  of  the  German  language ; 
and  very  few  men  in  middle  life,  especially  physicians  engaged  in  the  cease- 
less cares  and  toils  of  their  profession,  could  surmount  this  barrier.  Hull. 
Curtis  and  I  had  done  so.  at  the  instigation  of  Gram,  and  doubtless  Channing 
would  have  accomplished  this  arduous  task  had  not  the  labors  of  Jourdan 
rendered  it  far  less  important.  This  difficulty  fully  explains  the  slowness  of 
the  expansion  of  our  system  during  the  first  eight  years  of  its  practical  exis- 
tence here  in  New  York.  Moreover,  it  readily  suggests  the  reason  whv  the 
earlv  converts  here,  did  not  press  the  stibject  on  the  attention  of  their  medical 
brethren  in  their  private  intercourse.  We  enjoved  a  wide  circle  of  profession- 
al acquaintance,  and  had  frequent  meetings  with  them  in  the  medical  society. 
and  in  large  private  consultations  during  the  two  years  we  were  agitatincr 
the  rhedical  reform,  but  with  very  few  exceptions  the  topic  nearest  our  hearts 



was  treated  of  sparingly  in  all  this  intercourse.     It  was  treated  with  still  great- 
er  reticence   among  our  patients   for  the   same   reason ;   and   it  was   wholly 
impossible,  except  among  the  few  educated  Germans  then  in  New  York,  tO' 
speak   of   the   new   practice   among   the   people   generally,   without   incurring, 
however   incorrectly,   the   odium   of   quackery.      When   occasionally   we    were 
asked  by  medical  men,  who  saw  in  the  European  journals  the  angry  diatribes- 
which  now  and  then  appeared  against  Hahnemann,  whether  we  too  were  his 
disciples,  we  answered  truly,  'yes,  and  that  for  good  reasons,'  but  we  shunned! 
debate  with  them  and  avoided  all  explanations  to  the  laity,  as  being  alike  use- 
less and  uncongenial  to  our  tastes  and  sense  of  duty,  under  the  circumstances." 
Regarding  the  discretion  and  reticence  in  speech  that  was  undoubtedly 
enjoined   upon   his   disciples  by   Gram,   its   failure  on   the  part   of   Channing 
caused  a  great  breach  between  these  two  friends.     Dr.  Barlow  thus  comments 
upon  it:     "Possessing  firmness  in  a  large  degree  in  conjunction  with  large 
combativeness  and  cautiousness,  made  him  persistent  in  his   resentments,  arr 
instance  of  which  may  be  still  well  remembered  by  many  of  his  friends — his- 
resentment  toward  Dr.  Qianning.  a  most  es- 
timable and  friendly  man,  for  having  incau- 
tiously given  airing  to  the  fact  of  his  (Gram )  '         ~~^  1 
being  a  homoeopathist.    Dr.  Gram  never  for-  i 
gave  his  friend  for  this  indiscretion,  for  that 
was  the  first  step  toward  Gram's  fall  in  the 
estimation  of  the  faculty  in  New  York,  where 
such  men  as  Hosack,  Post,  McNeven,  ]\Iott, 
Rogers.  Stevens  and  a  host  of  other  eminent 
names  who  up  to  that  time  had  been  his  ad- 
mirers and  had  considered  him   one  of  the 
most  talented,  learned  and  skillful  men  in  this 
country,  at  once  became  his  bitter,  persistent, 
unrelenting    and  unscrupulous  enemies    and 
persecutors,  and  so  remained  until  he  died, 
when  the  mantle  of  obloquy  and  wrath  de- 
scended with  no  gossamer  lightness  and  gen- 
tleness upon  the  heads  of  his  surviving  con- 

"But  we  were  not  idle;  we  worked  for  the  future  in  mutual  education' 
and  preparation ;  and  when  the  translations  were  effected  into  all  the  spoken 
languages  of  Europe,  as  they  were  in  1837  and  in  1838,  we  re-established  our 
journal  of  homoeopathy  and  our  distinct  public  homceopathic  societv.  The 
hour  of  manly  open  combat  arrived  at  last,  and  it  found  us,  after  so  manv 
years  of  patient  waiting,  harnessed  for  the  fight." 

It  is  to  be  remembered  that  the  phvsicians  of  New  York  were  all  mem- 
bers of  the  New  York  County  ^ledical  Societv,  and  that  it  was  necessarv  be- 
tore  a  person  was  allowed  to  practice  that  he  have  a  license  from  that  societv  • 
and  thus  at  its  meetings  the  members  of  the  Httle  homceopathic  familv  of  New 
•  o  "'^S\'''*TT  r/  P^'ofessional  brethren.  A  curious  circumstance  happened 
in  i«32^  Dr.  H.  M.  Smith  thus  relates  it:  "At  a  meeting  held  September  10, 
1832.  Dr.  Gray  proposed  Hahnemann  for  honorarv  membership.  Before  do- 
ing so  he  had  lent  a  copy  of  his  Tragmenta  de  viribus  Medicamentorum'  to 
the  president  ot  the  society  who  was  a  Latin  scholar.  Dr  Bernheisel  ob- 
jected on   the   ground   that   Hahnemann    was   a   quack,   and    \va.    immediatel\r 

Dr.   S.  R.    Kir 


-called  to  order  ])v  the  chairman,  who  said  that  no  one  should  so  stigmatize 
a  man  who  had  written  such  a  hook  as  the  work  of  Hahnemann  in  the  Latin 
tongue.  This  effectually  silenced  all  the  opposition.  Many  of  the  members 
indeed  had  probably  never  heard  of  homoeopathy.  At  a  subsec[uent  meeting, 
November  12,  Hahnemann  was  elected.  In  filling  out  the  diploma  it  was 
customary  to  state  why  the  honor  was  conferred  and  the  president  asked  Dr. 
Gray  how  he  should  make  out  Hahnemann's  diploma.  'Why,'  answered  Dr. 
Gray,  'you  can  say  The  Founder  of  Homoeopathy,'  and  so  it  was  filled  out. 
At  this  date  there  had  been  but  little  opposition.  Eleven  years  after,  how- 
ever, at  a  meeting  held  July  10,  1843,  it  was  'Resolved,  that  the  resolution  of 
this  society  of  November  12,  1832,  conferring  honorary  membership  in  this 
society  on  Samuel  F.  Hahnemann  of  Germany  be  and  the  same  is  hereby  re- 
scinded.' Hahnemann,  however,  had  not  been  admitted  by  resolution  but  had 
been  elected  by,  ballot.  He  had  died  at  Paris  eight  days  previous  to  this  vote, 
in  the  88th  year  of  his  age.  He  had  been  sixty-two  years  a  doctor  of  medi- 
cine, more  years  than  many  of  the  members  of  the  medical  society  had 
breathed,  had  written  two  hundred  dissertations  on  medicine,  more  medical 
works  than  probably  the  majority  had  read,  and  as  the  discoverer  of  a  system 
of  therapeutics  left  a  name  to  be  revered." 

Among  the  early  students  of  Gram  was  Louis  Folk  Van  Beuren,  who  was 
with  him  in  1832.  He  graduated  and  for  a  number  of  years  practiced  in  New 
York.     In   1865  he  was  practicing  in  Louisville,  Kentucky. 

The  second  student  of  Gram  was  Joseph  Thomas  Curtis.  He  was  born 
at  Danbury,  Connecticut,  January  29,  181 5.  Giving  promise  of  talent  at  an 
•early  age,  his  parents  gave  him  a  thorough  English  and  classical  education. 
At  the  age  of  eighteen,  in  1833,  he  became  a  student  in  Gram's  office.  He 
passed  one  of  the  most  brilliant  public  and  recorded  examinations  ever  held 
in  New  York,  receiving  his  license  to  practice  March  23.  1836.  He  at  once 
began  the  practice  of  homoeopathy  with  Gram.  In  1852  he  was  elected  presi- 
dent of  the  Hahnemann  Academy  of  Medicine,  and  delivered  an  inaugural 
essay  on  the  "  Relation  of  Homoeopathy  to  Giemistry."  In  1843  h^  edited, 
with  Dr.  James  Lillie,  an  "  Epitome  of  Homoeopathic  Practice."  This  was 
compiled  from  Jahr,  Reuckery,  Boenninghausen  and  others.  His  practice  was 
large  and  successful  during  the  ten  years  in  which  he  could  work,  but  his 
health  became  poor.  His  sight  failing,  he  went  to  Europe  for  a  cure,  but 
with  only  partial  success.  He  afterwards  tried  the  West  Indies,  but  did  not 
remain  there.  He  tried  other  means  without  success  and  resumed  his  prac- 
tice shortlv  before  his  death,  which  took  place  November  13,  1857.  Smith 
says  of  him :  '~  He  possessed  great  power  of  analysis  and  comparison,  and 
being  profoundly  versed  in  anatomy,  physiology  and  materia  medica,  it  was 
a  great  delight  after  carefully  preparing  his  record  to  select  the  remedy  from 
the  scantv  resources  at  his  command.  His  confreres  soon  learned  where  to 
go  for  assistance  in  their  daily  practice.  He  was  regarded  as  one  of  the  most 
learned  of  practitioners,  esteemed  by  his  colleagues  as  well  as  his  patients, 
but  lacking  the  arts  and  blandishments  bv  which  many  commend  themselves 
to  their  patients,  he  obtained  neither  wealth  nor  fame."  Dr.  Valentine  Mott 
said  of  him :  "  Dr.  Curtis  is  a  medical  scholar  of  rare  attainments,  and  a 
gentleman  of  s])otless  character.  '  Dr.  Willard  Parker  said  :  "  He  possesses 
a  superior  and  highly  cultivated  intellect  which  be  has  most  ardently  devoted 
to  the  science  of  medicine  and  its  collnterals." 

Another  of  the  early   friends  of  (Irani  wds   Dr.   Steiiben    ixevnolds  Kirhy. 


In  the  summer  of  1830  he  was  one  of  the  coterie  ^yho  met  at  Gram's  house 
for  instruction  in  homoeopathy.  He  was  born  at  Middle  Patent,  town  of 
Bedford,  Westchester  county,  New  York,  May  21,  1801,  and  came  to  New 
York  at  the  age  of  fifteen.  Later  on  he  taught  school.  He  was  principal  of 
public  school  No.  7  when  it  opened  on  Chrystie  street,  in  1827,  and  then 
began  the  study  of  medicine.  He  was  a  temperance  advocate  and  president 
of  the  New  York  society';  was  a  member  of  the  New  York  volunteer  fire 
department,  and  an  active  member  of  the  Methodist  Episcopal  church.  He 
died  in  New  York,  March  6,  1876.  Dr.  Kirby  in  1864  delivered  an  address 
on  "  The  Introduction  and  Progress  of  Homoeopathy  in  the  United  States  " 
before  the  New  York  County  Homoeopathic  Medical  Society,  in  which  he 
mentioned  that  in  the  summer  of  1832  Gram,  Wilson,  Channing  and  himself 
were  the  only  ones  who  treated  cholera  chiefly  with  camphor,  and  that  the 
practice  was  ridiculed  and  termed  the  "  small  dose  camphor  treatment."  He 
did  not  learn  German,  and  it  is  stated  that  he  practiced  with  indifferent  success 
until  after  the  publication  of  the  Organon  and  Materia  Medica  Pura,  and 
that  he  hesitated  to  declare  himself  a  homoeopathic  physician.  He  was  well 
known  as  the  editor  of  the  "  American  Journal  of  Homoeopathy,"  which  was 
issued  in  nine  volumes  from  1848  to  1857,  and  vyas  the  principal  homoeopathic 
journal  of  those  important  years.  He  was  one  of  the  original  organizers  of 
the  American  Institute  of  Homoeopathy,  and  its  first  treasurer.  He  was 
president,  while  still  treasurer,  in  1846.  He  also  was  a  member  of  various 
other  New  York  homoeopathic  societies.  With  Dr.  Phineas  P.  Wells  and 
James  M.  Quin,  he  opened  in  October,  1845,  ^^^^  ^^^^  homoeopathic  dispensary 
in-  the  United  States.  He  was  also  a  member  of  the  faculty  of  the  New  York 
Homoeopathic  Medical  College  and  professor  of  materia  medica  in  the  New 
York  Aledical  College  and  Hospital  for  Women. 

An  important  personage  among  the  associates  of  Gram  w^as  Federal  Van- 
derburgh. In  a  letter  to  Dr.  Henry  M.  Smith,  dated  February  i,  1867,  Dr. 
A^anderburgh  wrote :  '*  I  w^as  attending  Mr.  M.  in  Pearl  street,  one  of  whose 
toes  was  set  at  right  angles  with  his  foot  by  a  contraction  of  its  tendon.  I 
advised  him  to  have  it  divided.  '  Not  without  Mott's  approbation,'  he  replied. 
The  next  day  Dr.  Paine  and  I  met  at  his  house  and  he  dismissed  us  both. 
Th'rty  days  afterwards  I  met  him  walking  the  street  with  his  toe  adjusted. 
I  asked  him  how  it  was  done  and  he  said  that  Dr.  Gram  had  given  him  some 
sugar  pellets  of  the  size  of  a  mustard  seed,  which  straightened  his  toe.  As 
I  picked  up  the  gems  from  all  classes  and  having  no  prejudice  to  encounter, 
I  straightway  introduced  myself  to  Dr.  Gram.  I  found  him  working  a  gigan- 
tic intellect  with  the  simplicity  of  a  child,  and  entirely  unconscious  of  its 

Vanderburgh  thus  tells  of  his  first  trial  of  the  great  skill  of  Gram :  "  A 
lady  of  36  came  to  consult  me ;  she  had  been  four  years  ill  with  what  she  called 
black  jaundice.  I  had  lost  a  sister  with  the  same  disease.  I  took  a  careful 
record  of  the  case  and  on  my  return  I  met  Gram  at  the  door  and  asked  him 
to  read  the  record.  He  said  she  had  been  poisoned  wath  bark  (quinine)  and 
that  chamomilla  would  cure  her ;  that  in  three  days  after  the  chamomilla  was 
given  the  old  chill  of  four  years  ago  would  re-appear,  but  so  feebly  that  she 
would  recover  without  another.     His  prophecy  proved   true." 

Just  when  Vanderburgh  embraced  homoeopathv  is  not  known,  but  it 
must  have  been  previous  to  1834.  as  he  then  was  corresponding  secretary  of 
the  New  York  Homoeopathic  Society. 


Federal  \'anderburgh  was  born  at  Beekman,  Dutchess  county,  New 
York,  May  ii,  1788.  He  was  the  seventeenth  child  in  a  family  of  nineteen 
(his  father  having  been  twice  married)  and  of  Dutch  descent.  He  received 
the  meagre  common  school  education  of  that  day,  but  by  self-education  and 
strict  application  he  was  able  to  learn  enough  Latin  to  afterward  pursue  his 
medical  studies  with  facility.  At  the  age  of  seventeen  he  entered  himself  as 
a  student  of  medicine  with  Dr.  Wright,  a  physician  of  New  Milford,  Connecti- 
cut. Dr.  Hall,  an  old  student  of  Vanderburgh,  thinks  he  was  licensed  to 
practice  about  that  time  by  the  medical  faculty  of  Litchfield  county.  At  the 
age  of  nineteen  he  went  to  New  York  to  enjoy  the  advantages  of  the  hos- 
pitals and  medical  lectures.  There  he  entered  the  office  of  Dr.  Stephen  Smith,. 
a  leading  physician.  After  attending  two  courses  of  lectures  he  graduated, 
before  he  was  twenty-one.  His  manly  appearance,  for  he  was  six  feet  in 
height,  and  finely  proportioned,  never  suggested  to  the  professors  a  doubt  as 
to  his  age.  During  his  student  life  he  was  subject  to  attacks  of  pulmonary 
hemorrhage  that  threatened  his  life.  By  some  they  were  thought  to  be  o£ 
cardiac  origin  and  by  others  of  a  tuberculous  character.  But  he  never  allowed 
this  illness  to  depress  his  spirit. 

Vanderburgh  must  have  graduated  in  1808.  but  biographical  accounts 
dififer  as  to  his  residence  immediately  afterward.  Dr.  J.  F.  Merritt,  wha 
wrote  his  obituary  for  the  "  American  Homceopathic  Observer,"  says  that  he 
went  to  Geneva  in  1812  or  1813,  remained  there  for  twenty  years  and  returned 
to  New  York  about  1830.  Smith  says  that  he  practiced  in  New  York  until 
181 1,  when  on  account  of  failing  health  he  went  to  Geneva,  New  York,  where 
he  practiced  ten  years.  He  then  gave  up  practice  there  to  Dr.  Martyn  Paine, 
and  returned  to  New  York,  which  dates  his  return  to  the  city  about  1821. 
A  report  in  the  transactions  of  the  American  Institute  of  Homoeopathy  for 
1871  says  that  he  located  in  his  native  town  and  after  a  few  years  removed 
to  Hudson,  Columbia  county,  remaining  there  until  181 5,  when  he  w^ent  to 
Geneva,  where  he  practiced  until  he  removed  to  New  York  in  1823  or  1824. 
Soon  after  he  began  practice  he  married  Hester  Orinda  Boardman,  of  New 
Milford,  Connecticut.  The  climate  of  Geneva  agreed  so  well  with  him  that 
he  became  robust  and  until  old  age  was  a  model  of  muscular  development, 
and  maintained  an  erect  stature  even  when  very  old.  Just  when  he  embraced' 
homceopathy  does  not  seem  to  be  known,  but  there  is  no  doubt  that  he  prob- 
ably had  an  early  acquaintance  with  Gram.  In  a  letter  written  October  18,. 
1867.  during  his  last  illness,  to  Dr.  George  E.  Shipman,  he  said :  "  You  ask 
me  for  my  photograph  and  its  biographical  appendage.  ]\Iy  photograph  I 
send  you.  My  homceopathic  appendage  began  with  Dr.  Gram.  When  he 
arrived  in  New  York  Gram  was  a  friendless  stranger  and  when  he  opened 
his  little  manuscript  no  faith  was  found  in  his  statements.  The  city  was 
then  under  the  spell  of  Post.  Hosack  and  Mott ;  the  schools  were  animated' 
with  their  errors,  and  there  was  no  time  for  them  to  look  at  atoms  when  the 
masses  were  before  them.  Gram  was  grave  and  thoughtful,  and  gained  his- 
ascendency  over  his  little  circle  by  the  interest  he  manifested  in  his  future  min- 
istry ;  and  when  unheard  of  doctrines — such  as  little  doses — came  forth,  one- 
by  one.  they  were  tested  on  the  sick,  the  results  of  infinitesimal  doses  were 
recorded,  and  W^ilson,  Gray  and  Curtis  saw  the  light  with  its  guiding  star 
before  them.  These  three  scholars,  with  one  teacher,  lit  the  lamp  whose 
cruse  of  oil  will  never  empty  until  the  educated  errors  of  our  ancient  brethren' 
are  buried  beneath  their  own  monuments.     At  this  time,  it    T   remember,  the- 


sale  of  my  medical  errors  had  reached  $10,000  a  year  in  the  higher  circles  of 
society  before  my  acquaintance  with  Gram,  and  my  introduction  to  him 
enabled  me  to  plant  the  reformation  of  medical  science  on  that  circle  to  great 
advantage.  I  then  drew  to  my  aid  the  lamented  Curtis,  the  brightest  star  in 
homoeopathy,  expanding  so  rapidly  under  Gram's  tuition  that  he  (Gram) 
once  said  to  me,  '  I  should  not  care  to  go  to  Heaven  if  I  could  not  meet  with 
Curtis  there.'  I  made  it  his  interest  to  be  my  preceptor ;  and  with  his  guidance 
many  time-honored  errors  were  consigned  to  oblivion,  and  many  hoary  preju- 
dices were  marched  off  the  stage." 

Dr.  Smith  says  that  his  name  Federal  was  thus  acquired :  "  \Vhen  he 
was  born,  the  adoption  of  the  federal  constitution  being  the  grand  political- 
event  of  the  time,  Chancellor  Kent,  then  a  young  lawyer,  suggested  that  the 

Federal    Vanderburgh,    M.   D. 

infant  Vanderburgh  be  named  Federal  Constitution,  but  his  mother  objected 
to  the  'Constitution,'  and  that  word  was  omitted." 

Vanderburgh  remained  in  active  practice  in  New  York  until  1840,  when 
he  purchased  Linwood  hills  in  Rhinebeck,  and  resided  there  until  his  death. 
About  one  year  before  his  death  he  contracted  severe  pleuro-pneumonia,  in- 
duced by  exposure  to  inclement  weather  in  connection  with  professional  duties, 
which  produced  an  attack  of  dyspnoea.  He  graduallv  failed  until,  without 
suftering.  he  expired  January  23.  1868.  Vanderburgh's  practice  was  verv 
largely  among  the  wealthy  class,  and  he  was  often  summoned  to  attend  pa- 
tients at  some  distance  from  home.  He  practiced -medicine  because  he  loved 
it.     It  is  related  that  at  the  age  of  seventy-seven,  when  traveling  with  a  patient. 


the  latter  said  to  the  doctor  after  he  had  reached  his  destination,  "  Well, 
doctor,  you  will  stay  with  us  a  few  days  and  rest  yourself."  "  No,"  said  Dr. 
Vanderburgh,  "  I  must  return  to-morrow."'  "  So  soon,"  replied  the  host, 
"well,  what  can  I  do  to  entertain  you?"  "Oh,  show  me  some  sick  folks." 
A  physician  who  knew  him  writes :  "  Dr.  Vanderburgh's  mind  was  peculiar ; 
his  conclusions  were  so  often  the  result  of  intuition.  This  ran  through  a 
large  portion  of  the  writings  of  his  later  years.  He  practiced  medicine  from 
a  love  of  his  profession.  He  became  absorbed  in  his  cases.  In  speaking  of 
his  patients  he  rarely  called  them  by  name.  He  usually  designated  them  as 
'  the  cardiac  case  with  the  valvular  disease,'  or  '  the  man  with  diabetes,'  etc. 
He  was  kind  to  the  poor,  as  thousands  could  testify.  His  advice  was  sought 
at  his  home,  on  the  highway,  in  the  railroad  station,  on  the  railroad  car,  on 
the  steamer,  at  his  dinner,  at  the  hotel  in  the  city,  in  bed  and  out  of  bed.  He 
never  turned  a  deaf  ear  to  a  case.  He  was  proverbial  for  punctuality  in  his 
appointments,  and  woe  betide  the  man  who  kept  him  waiting  in  the  consulta- 
tion room.     A  homily  was  the  certain  penalty." 

The  ten  years  from  Gram's  arrival  in  1825  to  the  establishment  of  the 
first  homoeopathic  magazine  in  183s.  may  be  called  the  first  epoch  in  the  his- 
tory of  American  homoeopathy.  There  was  this  little  company  of  believers 
in  New  York  city  who  had  been  timid  in  advancing  the  claims  of  the  new 
medical  system,  for  they  were  all  men  of  trained  intellect,  men  who  did  iiot 
decide  hastily,  but  cjuietly  were  following  the  precept — prove  all  things  and 
hold  fast  to  that  which  is  good.  Over  in  Pennsylvania  also  there  were  cer- 
tain earnest  and  cultured  men  who  had  become  convinced  of  the  truth  of 
homoeopathy  and  were  about  to  found  a  college  for  its  proper  teaching ;  so 
that  in  two  distinct  centers  in  the  United  States  in  this  first  epoch  of  its  Amer- 
ican existence,  the  law  of  healing  of  the  German  doctor  had  gained  a  firm 
footing.  The  New  York  men  now  had  become  so  confident  that  the  time 
seemed  proper  to  assume  a  more  public  attitude  and  to  establish  a  homoeopathic 

Previous  to  the  year  1834,  the  only  society  which  the  little  band  of  homoe- 
opathists  attended  was  the  New  York  Medical  Society,  numbering  as  its  mem- 
bers all  the  physicians  in  regular  practice  in  New  York.  But  now  the  friends 
determined  that  it  was  time  to  form  some  union  exclusively  for  the  believers 
in  homoeopathy,  therefore  the  New  York  Homoeopathic  Society  was  organized 
September  23,  1834.  The  following  preamble  was  published  to  the  consti- 
tution : 

"  Whereas  a  great  share  of  the  reformation  which  is  now  taking  place 
in  the  art  of  education,  in  criminal  jurisprudence,  in  political  science,  and  in 
the  science  of  medicine,  is  to  be  attributed  to  the  increased  attention  with 
which  the  studious  and  humane  have  investigated  the  natural  history  of  man, 
and  the  influence  which  physical  and  moral  agents  exert  upon  his  growth, 
health,  morals  and  happiness ;  and  whereas  there  exists  in  the  archives  of 
homoeopathia  an  extensive  fund  of  testimony  (as  yet  unknown  to  English 
readers)  which  is  believed  to  be  very  essential  to  the  right  understanding  of 
the  subjects  above  named — 

"  Therefore,  the  subscribers,  holding  the  advancement  of  the  public  wel- 
fare by  the  diffusion  of  knowledge  to  be  a  most  sacred  and  noble  duty,  in- 
cumbent upon  all  who  enjov  the  rights  and  means  of  inquiry,  have  resolved 
to  associate,  and,  by  this  instrument,  do  associate,  under  the  style  of  the  'New 
York  Homoeopathic  Society '  for  the  purpose  of  protecting,  enriching  and  dis-' 



seminating  such  of  the  propositions  and  testimonies  of  HomcEopathia  as  upon 
mature  trial  they  shall  find  to  be  sound  and  available,"  etc.  Officers  of  the 
society  for  1834-5 :  President,  John  F.  Gray ;  vice-presidents,  Edward  A. 
.  Strong,  George  Baxter ;  corresponding  secretary.  Federal  Vanderburgh ;  re- 
cording secretary,  Daniel  Seymour ;  treasurer,  F.  A.  Lohse ;  registrar,  A. 
Gerald  Hull :  librarian,  F.  L.  Wilsev ;  finance  committee,  J.  H.  Patterson, 
Oliver  S.  Strong,  L.  M.  H.  Butler,  William  Bock. 

This  society  was  composed  of  physicians  and  laymen.  William  Cullen 
Bryant,  the  poet-editor,  was  a  member.  He  was  an  early  convert  to  homoe- 
opathy and  all  his  life  was  a  strong  supporter  of  its  principles. 

The  year  1835  was  memorable  as  being  the  period  of  the  establishment 
of   the   first   homceopathic   magazine   in   the   United    States,    "  The   American 

E.  E.  Snyder,  :Sl.  D. 

Journal  of  Homoeopath ia."'  It  was  a  small  octavo  of  forty-eight  pages,  edited 
by  Drs.  John  F.  Gray  and  Amos  G.  Hull.  Four  numbers  were  issued — Feb- 
ruary, April,  June  and  August.  In  a  letter  to  Dr.  Geddes  M.  Scott,  published 
in  the  "Homceopathic  Examiner"  for  February,  1841,  Dr.  Hull  says: 
"  Your  course  in  Scotland  is  just  such  as  that  pursued  by  the  late  Dr.  Gram 
and  his  friend.  Dr.  Gray,  the  first  American  confessors  of  homoeopathy.  They 
continued  from  1826  till  1832  to  observe  a  silence  on  the  subject  which  was 
much  blamed  by  the  later  converts.  I  was  during  these  years  an  earnest 
student  and  adherent  of  the  science,  and  approved  their  course  till  the  year 
1834.  when  Dr.  Gray  and  myself  published  the  'American  Journal  of  Homoe- 


opathia.'  *  '"'"  *  Our  publications  ui  1834  were  still  too  early  for  public 
opinion  here,  but  it  occurred  in  1833  (as  it  soon  may  in  your  city  and  king- 
dom) that  imperfectly  educated  and  unscrupulous  physicians  began  to  drive 
a  trade  in  the  new  system  by  a  series  of  mountebank  arts.  This  proceeding 
rendered  it  necessary  to  forestall  the  consequences  of  this  flespicable,  but  cer- 
tainly not  surprising  conduct." 

A  notable  convert  of  this  time  was  Henry  Delavan  Paine,  a  student  of 
Dr.  Hull,  father  of  A.  Gerald  Hull.  Dr.  Paine  was  born  in  Delhi,  Delaware 
county.  New  York,  June  19,  1816,  and  graduated  at  the  College  of  Physicians 
and  Surgeons  in  1838.  While  a  student  in  New  York  he  often  heard  earnest 
discussions  on  homoeopathy  between  Hull,  Gray  and  others,  and  determined 
after  graduation  to  embrace  that  system,  and  for  a  year  devoted  himself  to 
its  study,  adopted  its  principles  and  located  at  Newburgh-on-the-Hudson.  As 
a  junior  student  during  the  cholera  epidemic  of  1834,  he  visited  the  hospitals 
and  assisted  in  the  care  of  the  patients,  and  there  again  had  opportunity  to 
see  the  beneficial  effects  of  homoeopathic  medication  in  that  fatal  disease. 
While  practicing  in  Newburgh  he  applied  for  membership  in  the  Orange 
County  Medical  Society,  but  his  application  was  refused  on  the  ground  "  that 
he  practiced  a  system  of  medicine  disapproved  by  the  members  thereof." 
Thus,  it  became  necessary  for  a  practitioner  to  be  a  member  of  the  county 
society  as  the  course  of  the  Orange  county  organization  was  likely  to  be  fol- 
lowed by  other  societies  throughout  the  state  for  the  purpose  of  checking 
the  progress  of  the  so-called  heresy.  It  was  important  to  ascertain  by  a 
judicial  decision  the  power  of  county  medical  societies  to  determine  the  eligi- 
bility of  any  legally  authorized  practitioner,  and  Dr.  Paine  therefore  applied 
to  the  Supreme  court  of  the  state  for  a  mandamus  requiring  the  Orange 
county  society  to  admit  him  as  a  member,  the  validity  of  his  credentials  having 
been  fully  conceded.  The  case  was  decided  by  Judge  Cowan  in  favor  of  the 
society,  the  application  being  denied.  This  decision  was  really  favorable  to 
the  cause  of  homoeopathy,  as  it  led  to  legislation  which  repealed  many  of  the 
objectionable  laws  and  authorized  the  formation  of  homoeopathic  societies,  with 
ail  the  rights  and  privileges  of  the  allopathic  school ;  and  it  was  largely^ 
through  Dr.  Paine's  efforts  and  influence  that  this  was  accomplished.  In 
1844  Dr.  Vanderburgh  addressed  a  letter  to  Judge  Cowan  protesting  against 
the  decision,  and  entitled  it  "  An  Appeal  for  Homoeopathy."  This  was  pub- 
lished in  a  pamphlet  by  Radde  in  1844.  In  1845  ^^-  Paine  removed  from 
Newburgh  to  Albany,  where  he  lived  and  practiced  until  1865,  when  he  re- 
turned to  New  York.  He  passed  the  years  1884  to  1886  in  Europe  and 
returning  resumed  his  practice,  but  on  account  of  ill  health  gave  it  up  and 
devoted  himself  to  literary  pursuits.  He  was  a  member  of  the  first  conven- 
tion of  the  American  Institute  of  Homoeopathy,  and  held  many  important 
positions  in  societies,  hospitals  and  colleges.  He  was  a  member  of  the  board 
of  Regents  of  the  University  of  the  State  of  New  York,  and  also  of  the  first 
hoard  of  state  medical  examiners.  He  died  at  the  residence  of  his  son-in-law. 
Francis  H.  Delano,  in  New  York  city,  June  ir,  1893.  at  the  age  of  scvcntv- 
seven  years. 

Dr.  Benjamin  C.  Dutcher  cam.e  from  Utica  to  New  York  citv  in  1831. 
In  1834  he  studied  German  in  order  to  more  thoroughly  study  homoeonathv. 
He  practiced  for  four  or  five  years  when  he  became  a  dentist.  lie  died  in 
Newark.  New  Jersey,  October  20.  1889. 

Dr.  Clark  Wright  embraced  homoeopathy  in  1839.     Son  of  Asahel  Wright^ 



lie  was  born  at  Windsor,  Berkshire  county,  Alassacliusetts,  in  1799.  He 
studied  with  his  brother.  Dr.  Grin  Wrip^ht,  at  Pittsfield,  Massachusetts,  at- 
tended lectures  and  graduated  at  the  College  of  Physicians  and  Surgeons  in 
New  York  in  1823.  An  epidemic  of  ophthalmia  had  raged  in  the  Protestant 
Half  Orphan  Asylum  from  1838  to  1842.  and  Dr.  Wright  prescribed  for  four 
cases.  In  a  month  they  were  well,  and  he  was  requested  to  take  charge  of  all 
the  cases  of  the  disease.  He  invited  Drs.  Parker  and  Oilman,  professors  in 
the  College  of  Physicians  and  Surgeons,  to  examine  forty-three  cases,  and 
six  weeks  afterwards  Dr.  Parker,  finding  them  cured,  pronounced  "  the  suc- 
cess of  the  treatment  unprecedented."  Dr.  Wright  was  then  asked  to  take 
charge  of  the  children  having  skin   diseases,   which   he   did  with   such   good 

Walter  C.  Palmer,  M.  D. 

results  that  he  was  invited  to  take  entire  medical  charge.     He  died  in  New 
York  in  March,  1863,  aged  sixty-four  years. 

Dr.  Alonzo  S.  Ball  became  interested  in  homoeopathy  in  1838.  He  was 
born  in  Keene,  New  Hampshire,  February  11,  1800.  When  he  was  two  vears 
old  his  parents  removed  to  Lowville,  New  York,  where  he  was  educated.'  He 
entered  the  office  of  Dr.  Sylvester  Miller  at  Lowville  in  1821,  and  in  1824 
attended  lectures  at  Fairfield  Medical  College.  In  1825  he  went  to  New 
York  to  attend  lectures  at  the  College  of  Phvsicians  and  Surgeons,  but  ill 
Tiealth  mterfered  and  he  took  only  a  partial  course.  He  did  not  receive  a 
diploma,  but  returning  to  Lowville  took  a  license  to  practice  from  the  Lewis 
County  Medical  Society,  and  located  at  Salina  (afterward  a  part  of  Svracuse) 
He  remained  there  ten  years,  returning  to  New  York  in  1835.     Dr.  Ball  thus 


speaks  of  this  time:  "  I  was  a  poor  man  entirely  dependent  on  my  own  ex- 
ertions, with  a  famdy  to  provide  for,  and  I  came  to  this  city  as  a  sort  of 
necessity  of  business.  I  had  some  leisure,  as  you  may  well  understand,  and 
I  had  some  friends.  I  had  a  friend  who  said  to  me,  '  Doctor,  may  there  not 
be  some  truth  in  homoeopathy?'  I  said  to  him.  (he  was  a  clergyman), 
'  Doctor,  it  grieves  me  exceedingly  to  think  that  you  lend  your  name  to  that 
humbug.'  At  the  end  of  three  years  I  came  to  the  conviction  that  there 
might  be  truth  in  homoeopathy."  In  1838,  Dr.  Ball  was  introduced  by 
his  pastor,  Rev.  Dr.  Patton,  to  Dr.  Vanderburgh,  the  minister's  physician. 
His  friend,  Dr.  Cook,  had  given  him  a  book  on  the  new  medical  idea  and  had 
spoken  highly  of  Dr.  Curtis,  Gram's  student.  So  Ball  went  one  evening  to 
visit  Curtis.  Of  this  visit  he  says :  "  I  heard  that  there  was  a  young  man 
in  the  city  by  the  name  of  Curtis,  who  was  with  Gram,  an  enlightened  homoe- 
opathist.  So  I  ventured  one  night,  like  Nicodemus,  to  see  this  young  man 
and  I  was  interested  in  him  exceedingly.  His  very  presence  magnetized  me 
with  the  impression  that  I  was  in  the  presence  of  a  man  of  might ;  and  he 
treated  me  kindly  and  I  just  told  him  my  story  that  I  had  a  patient  that  the 
doctors  could  not  cure.  It  was  a  lady  forty  years  of  age,  with  chronic 
laryngitis."  Dr.  Biall  had  treated  this  lady  for  three  months  without  relief. 
Dr.  Cook,  the  consultant,  said  she  could  not  live  two  months  more  and  thought 
it  was  a  case  that  would  be  a  good  test  of  the  new  system.  Dr.  Curtis  saw 
the  case  with  him  and  that  the  result  was  doubtful,  but  Avas  willing  to  try 
the  new  remedies.  He  prescribed  belladonna  2d,  twelve  pellets  in  one-third 
tumbler  of  water,  a  teaspoonful  at  night  and  one  in  the  morning.  In  speaking 
of  it  Dr.  Ball  said  :  "  On  my  visit  the  next  day  she  remarked  that  she  would 
take  no  more  of  that  medicine  as  it  increased  her  sufferings.  I  told  her  to 
stop  it  and  without  a  word  'of  encouragement  left  the  house ;  indeed  I  had 
been  told  too  often  by  her  that  she  was  worse  to  feel  particularly  encouraged 
by  it.  However,  I  called  the  next  day  but  one,  when  she  met  me  at  the  door 
of  her  room  with  the  astounding  declaration^  '  Why,  doctor,  I  don't  know  but 
that  I  am  cured.  On  the  morning  following  your  last  visit  I  found  mv  throat 
better,  and  from  that  time  it  has  been  improving  steadily  until  it  really  seems 
as  if  1  was  almost  well.'  So  astonished  was  I  at  the  statement,  not  a  little 
provoked  with  myself,  too,  that  three  or  four  pellets  should  have  done  more 
in  a  few  hours  for  my  patient  than  all  my  pills,  boluses  and  blisters  in  six 
months ;  so  astonished  was  I,  that  I  sat  down  beside  her  and  entered  into  a 
careful  examination  of  her  symptoms  which  resulted  in  the  conviction  that 
her  statement  was  true.  The  improvement  continued  and  she  was  discharged 
entirely  cured  by  the  time  Dr.  Cook  had  predicted  her  death."  The  result  of 
this  and  other  trials  soon  made  Ball  an  enthusiastic  homoeopathist.  He  was 
one  of  the  original  members  of  the  institute.  He  died  at  Saratoga.  New 
York,  December  17.  i8()3. 

Dr.  Alfred  Freeman  was  induced  bv  Dr.  Ball  to  investigate  homoeopathy. 
He  was  born  in  Salem,  Washington  county.  New  York,  November  6,  1793, 
and  was  a  son  of  Andrew  .and  Elizabeth  Freeman.  He  studied  medicine  with 
his  uncle.  Dr.  Asa  Fitch.  While  a  student  he  was  called  on  to  bear  arms  at 
the  battle  of  Plattsburg.  He  passed  the  winters  of  1816  and  1817  in  New- 
York  city  attending  medical  lectures,  and  having  graduated  he  returned  to  his 
native  place  where  he  practiced  seventeen  vears.  Tic  removed  to  New  York 
in  1834  and  established  himself  in  a  practice  which  in  a  few  years  became 
large.     He  had  opposed  homoeopathy,  as  did  his  professional  brethren,  but  his 

HISTORY  OF   IK  ).\l(]-:ol'.\'rilV 


friend  Ball  induced  liiin  to  investii^ate,  and  he  became  convinced.  Dr.  Ball, 
telling  the  story,  said:  "  1  started  out  and  made  it  my  business  to  tell  my 
story.  I  told  it  to  some  young  men  whom  I  knew  and  among  them  Dr.  Free- 
man. I  had  great  respect  tor  him  as  a  man  who  delighted  to  listen  to  truth. 
I  had  an  appointment  to  go  to  the  eastern  part  of  the  town,  and  I  called  at 
his  house  and  told  him  my  story.  After  hearing  me  he  looked  at  me  pitifully 
and  said,  '  Doctor,  I  should  as  soon  have  expected  you  to  become  an  author.' 
'Very  like,'  said  1,  'nevertheless,  I  think  you  will  do  well  to  look  at  it/  and 
I  left  him.  And  the  doctor  did  look  at  it  and  as  mui  know,  became  a  convert 
and  went  into  it  with  all  his  heart."  It  was  ])r(il)a'  1\-  about  the  year  1839- 
that  Dr.  Fi-eeman  began  to  investigate  the  new  s\stem.  Hq  died  of  paralvsis 
March  8,  1861. 

A.  AicA'ickar,  :\ 

It  wai-  through  b'reeman  thai  Dr.  Henry  Gale  Dunnell  became  convinced 
of  the  truth  of  homcTeopathy.  He  was  born  in  Albany,  New  York,  September 
17,  1804.  and  graduated  at  the  College  of  Physicians  and  Surgeons  in  1826, 
in  the  class  with  Drs.  Gray,  Hallock,  Joslin  and  Palmer.  While  on  friendly 
terms  with  the  homceopathic  physicians  and  in  favor  of  the  public  and  re- 
corded examination  and  voting  with  them  for  it  in  the  New  York  Medical 
Society,  of  which  they  were  all  members,  he  nevertheless  opposed  their  pe- 
culiar beliefs.  Dunnell  thus  tells  his  own  story :  "  Mv  eves  were  opened,  and 
it  was  in  this  manner:  I  had  a  case  of  puerperal  convulsions  which  came  on 
several  h(jurs  after  a  hard  labor  with  complete  exhaustion.  It  was  an  un- 
usual case:  we  bled  and  blistered  the  patient  and  went  through  all  the  usual 


forms  of  treatment  that  we  usually  used,  and  still  after  forty-eight  hours  had 
elapsed  no  beneficial  results  occurred.  Meanwhile  1  was  called  into  the  coun- 
try, and  just  as  I  was  going  away  the  husband  came  running  after  me  and 
wished  me  to  go  and  see  his  wife,  as  she  had  a  return  of  the  convulsions  and 
more  violent  than  ever.  I  could  not  go  and  was  obliged  to  say  so.  And  when 
I  returned  in  two  or  three  days  I  met  a  woman  I  had  seen  at  that  house  and 
asked  her  as  to  the  result.  .She  said  to  me,  "  Mrs.  S.  is  well,  quite  well. 
When  you  were  unable  to  come  they  called  in  another  doctor,  Dr.  Freeman, 
and  he  gave  her  something  in  some  water  and  she  never  had  another  convul- 
sion.' 1  immediately  slipped  away  to  my  friend,  Dr.  Freeman.  I  knew  him  to 
be  a  man  of  truth.  I  had  had  frequent  intercourse  with  him  and  could  place 
dependence  upon  his  word.  I  asked  Freeman  about  the  matter  and  he  said,  '  I 
tell  you  it  is  true  and  I  advise  you  to  look  into  it.'  '  Do  you  see  proofs  of  its 
truth?'  said  I.  'Yes,'  he  replied.  He  loaned  me  some  books  and  I  went  to 
reading.  I  took  the  matter  up  very  slowly.  I  had  previously  held  some  con- 
versation with  Dr.  Channing,  and  I  had  seen  him  trying  fearlessly  to  cure 
cholera  in  1832  with  his  minute  doses  of  camphor,  and  I  was  more  inclined 
to  trust  my  secret  with  Channing  than  with  my  friend.  Dr.  Gray,  for  fear  he 
would  laugh  at  me.  It  was  some  time  after  that  before  I  became  a  convert. 
Dr.  Freeman  came  to  the  city  in  1835  and  located  on  Hudson  street.  I  was 
just  opposite.  As  we  had  leisure  and  common  sympathies,  our  circumstances 
brought  us  together.  Soon  after  Dr.  Freeman  moved  to  the  east  side,  and 
I  was  converted  to  homoeopathy,  and  then  I  wanted  to  convert  the  whole  pro- 
fession." This  cure  of  Dunnell's  patient  occurred  in  the  early  part  of  1840. 
He  continued  to  practice  in  New  York  city  until  his  death,  which  occurred 
September  4,  1868.  He  was  an  original  member  of  the  American  Institute  of 

Another  of  the  members  of  this  first  union  was  George  W.  Cook,  who 
was  born  at  Hyde  Park,  Dutchess  county,  New  York,  May  21,  1806.  He 
commenced  the  study  of  medicine  with  Dr.  Wingfield  in  Crawford  and  com- 
pleted his  term  with  Dr.  Pomeroy  White  of  Hudson.  He  graduated  at  the 
College  of  Physicians  and  Surgeons  in  New  York  in  1828,  and  commenced 
practice  in  Stockport.  In  1836  he  removed  to  Hudson  and  in  1838  began 
there  the  practice  of  homoeopathy.  In  May,  1844,  he  went  to  New  York  and 
was  in  partnership  with  Dr.  Channing  one  year.  He  then  practiced  alone 
until  1848,  when  he  became  partner  with  Dr.  Jacob  Beakley,  but  in  the  spring 
of  1849,  '^ii  account  of  ill  health,  he  returned  to  his  brother.  Dr.  A.  P.  Cook, 
at  Hudson,  where  he  died  October  i,  1850. 

Samuel  Bancroft  Barlow  adopted  homoeopathy  in  1837.  He  was  born 
in  Granville,  Massachusetts,  April  10.  1798,  After  educating  himself  he 
taught  school  from  1814  to  1817.  meanwhile  studying  history  and  botanic 
medicine.  In  1819  he  entered  the  ofiice  of  Dr.  Vincent  Holcombe,  and  two 
years  later  became  the  student  of  Dr.  Joseph  P.  Jewett  of  (iranby,  Connecti- 
cut, lie  graduated  from  Yale  Medical  School  in  1822.  He  practiced  medi- 
cine iii  New  England  until  1834  or  1835,  when  he  went  to  Florida.  Orange 
county.  New  York.  As  early  as  1837  he  was  openly  practicing  homoeopathy. 
While  he  was  investigating,  when  there  was  doubt  about  a  case,  he  was  ac- 
customed to  write  to  Hull  or  Vanderlnngh  or  Curtis  for  advice.  He  removed 
to  New  York  in  1841.  In  1863  li^  became  professor  of  materia  medica  in 
the  New  York  Homoeopathic  Medical  College,  retaining  that  position  for 
eight  years.     In   1850  he  imported  some  of  the  woorara  poison   from   South 



America,  and  was  successful  in  usin<^  it  in  ])aralytic  cases.  In  July,  1868,  he 
was  sunstruck,  was  sick  for  four  years,  and  then  retired  from  active  practice. 
He  died  February  27,  1876. 

Among  the  physicians  belonging  to  the  second  epoch  of  homoeopathy  who 
were  influential  in  its  growth  in  New  York,  may  be  mentioned  Dr.  Benjamin 
Franklin  Bovvers,  born  in  Billerica,  Mass.,  in  1796;  graduated  at  Yale  in 
1819;  formed  a  partnership  with  Dr.  B.  F.  Joslin  in  New  York  in  1837;  was 
appointed  phxsician  to  the  New  York  Dispensary,  but  in  1839  was  expelled  for 
investigating  homeopath}-.  In  1847  'i^  became  physician  to  the  Half  Orphan 
Asvlum  in  New  York,  retaining  the  position  for  many  years.  A  remarkable 
mental  feat  of  this  man  was  that  when  nearly  eighty  years  old,  at  the  tune 
of  the  appointment  of  a  state  board  of  medical  examiners  by  the  regents  of 
the  tmiversity,  he  voluntarily  entered  upon  a  thorough  review  of  all  the  de- 
partments of  medical  science,  with  a  view  of  presenting  himself  as  a  candidate 
for  a  state  degree.  He  passed  a  rigid  examination,  much  to  the  great  aston- 
ishment and  admiration  of  the  examiners,  and  was  the  first  successful  can- 
didate for  that  distinction.  His  death  occurred 
a  few  weeks  afterwards,  on  February  7,  1875. 

Dr.  Zina  Harris  was  born  in  \'ermont  in 
1792.  About  1840  he  was  homoeop- 
athy  in  New  York  city.  In  1842  he  had  an 
ofifice  in  Canal  street,  near  Laight  street,  and 
Avas  then  a  homoeopathist.  He  was  eccentric 
and  reticent,  and  little  is  known  of  his  birth 
and  education.  He  died  in  Brooklyn,  x'Xpril  30, 
1859.  of  apoplexy,  and  was  buried  in  Green- 
wood cemetery. 

Dr.  Richard  M.  Bollcs  was  born  Septem- 
ber 16,  1797,  at  Hudson,  New  York.  He 
studied  with  Dr.  White  of  Hudson  and  was 
licensed  to  practice  about  1818  by  the  medical 
society  of  Columbia  county.  He  received  a 
diploma  from  the  medical  college  at  Pittsfield, 
Massachusetts,  in  1832.  He  practiced  for  a 
time  with  his  preceptor  and  then  went  to  Delhi. 

New  York.  _  He  returned  to  New  York  city  in  1824  and  in  1832  married  a 
Miss  Hodgkinson.  Dr.  13olles  formed  an  acquaintance  with  Channing  prior  to 
1840.  A  personal  observation  of  Qianning's  successful  treatment  led  him  to 
make  experiments  for  himself  with  homoeopathic  medicines.  In  1841  he  declared 
Iiis  belief  and  ever  afterward  practiced  homoeopathv.  He  studied  the  Materia 
Medica  Pura  in  the  German,  and  used  as  a  constant  handbook  Jahr's  Manual, 
in  French,  lor  which  he  prepared  a  synoptical  index.  He  also  wrote  a  poetic 
description  of  chest  pains  and  their  remedies,  and  a  tabulation  of  Boenning- 
Iiausen's  "  Pocket  Book."     He  died  in  New  York,  August  9.  1865. 

Dr.  Walter  C.  Palmer  was  born  in  New  Jersey,  Februarv  9.  1804.  In 
1826  he  graduated  at  the  College  of  Physicians  and  Surgeons.  In  1827  he  mar- 
ried Phoebe  Wcrrall  and  located  in  New  York  city.  Soon  after  Ball's  con- 
version to  homoeopathy,  he  met  Palmer  at  a  religious  meeting  held  at  the 
house  of  the  latter.  After  the  meeting  they  were  introduced,  when  Ball  men- 
tioned homoeopath}-,  to  which  Palmer  replied  that  when  he  adopted  such  a 
system  his  friends  might  consider  him  a  fit  subject  for  a  lunatic  asvlum.     In 

F.  Jos 

M.  D. 

i>0        .  HISTORY  OF  HOM  GEO  PATH  Y 

1840  Palmer  had  a  case  of  hip  disease  that  baffled  the  skill  of  many  physicians 
and  was  ni>t  improving.  He  then  asked  Ball  for  a  homoeopathic  prescription 
for  the  patient,  and  was  surprised  and  disappointed  that  the  invalid  began  to 
improve  after  the  first  dose.  Thinking  the  case  really  resulted  from  the  effect 
of  the  previous  medicine  and  not  from  the  homoeopathic  prescription,  he  tried 
a  homceopathic  remedy  in  a  case  of  diarrhoea,  expecting  to  prove  its  fallacy, 
but  the  patient  was  cured  and  he  was  compelled  to  acknowledge  the  truth  of 
the  system  of  Hahnemann,  and  practiced  it  for  eighteen  years,  until  1858, 
wdien  he  retired.  He  was  an  institute  member  of  1846.  He  died  ]u\\  20, 

Dr.  John  Augustus  AIcA^ickar  was  born  in  Schenectady,  New  York,  June 
16,  1812,  graduated  at  the  College  of  Physicians  and  Surgeons  in  1833,  and 
was  the  first  professor  of  obstetrics  in  the  medical  department  of  the  New 
York  University.  He  became  interested  in  homoeopathy  in  1841,  through  Dr., 
Zina  Harris,  and  acknowledged  that  it  was  a  principle  in  medicine,  but  not 
an  exclusive  medical  system.     He  died  January  29,  1892. 

Dr.  Benjamin  Franklin  Joslin  was  born  at  Exeter,  Rhode  Island,  Novem- 
ber 25,  1796.  When  a  boy  he  gave  up  his  interest  in  his  patrimony  to  be 
allowed  to  spend  his  time  in  study.  For  several  years  he  taught  and  studied, 
and  graduated  at  Union  College  in  1821  ;  studied  medicine  in  Nev*^  York, 
graduating  from  the  College  of  Physicians  and  Surgeons  in  1826.  He  then 
took  the  professorship  of  chemistry  and  natural  sciences  in  a  polytechnic 
school  at  Chittenango,  where  he  practiced  and  lectured  one  year.  In  January," 
1827,  he  took  the  chair  of  mathematics  and  natural  philosophy  in  Union  Col- 
lege, which  he  held  ten  years.  In  1835  he  removed'  to  New  York  and  gave 
up  part  of  his  college  duties  in  order  to  devote  himself  to  practice.  For  some 
years  he  gave  lectures  on  anatomy  and  physiology  with  dissections.  Dr. 
Bowers,  who  wrote  an  extended  biography  of  Joslin,  published  in  the  "  Trans- 
actions of  the  New  York  State  Homoeopathic  Medical  Society "  for  1863, 
says:  "  In  1837  ^^^  resigned  his  professorship,  formed  a  partnership  with  the 
writer  and  removed  to  New  York.  His  scientific  reputation  had  preceded 
him  and  led  to  his  appointment  in  1838  to  the  chair  of  mathematics  and  nat- 
ural philosophy  in  the  University  of  the  City  of  New  York,  which  he  held 
until  1844.  In  1839  I  was  led  to  examine  and  adopt  homoeopathy.  In  1840 
our  partnership  was  dissolved.  Dr.  Joslin  was  prejudiced  against  homoe- 
opathy, and  was  not  convinced  by  my  experience.  I  assured  him  that  he 
could  soon  be  convinced  of  its  truth,  and  that  the  easiest  way  of  testing  it 
was  to  try  it  on  himself.  A  physician  of  his  acquaintance,  having  published  an 
attack  on  homceopathy,  wrote  to  Dr.  Joslin  for  his  opinion  of  the  system,, 
intending  to  publish  it.  Dr.  Joslin  was  unwilling  to  publish  an  opinion  which 
was  not  founded  on  a  knowledge  of  the  subject  and  determined  to  make 
practical  experiment.  '  I  took,'  he  says,  '  the  third  attenuation  of  a  medicine 
and  avoiding  the  study  of  its  alleged  symptoms  as  recorded  in  books,  I  made 
a  record  of  all  the  new  symptoms  which  I  experienced.  When  this  record 
was  completed  I  examined  a  printed  list  of  symptoms  and  was  surprised  to 
find  a  remarkable  coincidence  betwceen  them  and  those  I  had  experienced."  " 
Dr.  Joslin  tried  other  ex]:)eriments  to  convince  himself  of  the  scientific  cer- 
tainty of  the  homceopathic  provings,  and  was  finally  obliged  to  admit  their 
truth.  This  was  in  1842,  after  sixteen  years  of  allopathic  practice.  Joslin 
for   thirtv    vears    made    dailv    meteorological    observations.     He    wrote    manv 



important  scientific  and  medical  essavs.  He  died  of  paralysis  December  31^ 

Dr.  George  Elislia  Ikdcher  was  born  in  Greenwich,  Connecticut,  Febru- 
ary 7,  1818.  He  graduated  at  the  College  of  Physicians  and  Surgeons  in 
1839,  and  practiced  with  his  father  several  years.  Hearing  casually  of  homce- 
opathy,  he  decided  to  investigate  its  merits.  He  procured  a  copy  of  Hahne- 
mann's Organon  and  the  Allentown  Jahr,  which  he  read,  and  then  experi- 
mented with  homoeopathic  remedies.  The  result  was  that  in  1844  he  em- 
braced homoeopathy.  He  was  a  leading  figure  among  the  homoeopathic  phy- 
sicians of  New  Y'ork  for  many  years.  He  died  of  pleuro  pneumonia  compli- 
cated with  chronic  asthma,  November  i.  1890. 

Dr.  Edward  r>ayard  was  born  in  Wilmington,  Delaware,  March  6,  1806. 

Lewis  Hallock.  ^I.  D. 

He  studied  law  in  Canandaigua.  New  York,  and  was  admitted  to  the  bar. 
He  then  studied  medicine,  graduating  from  the  medical  department  of  New 
York  University  in  1845.  ^^  hile  studying  law  in  Seneca  Falls  he  practiced 
homoeopathy  as  a  layman,  and  introduced  it  in  that  vicinity.  He  died  October 
28,   1889.     For  many  years  he  practiced  in   New  York  city. 

Dr.  Walter  Stewart  was  a  graduate  of  the  College  of  Physicians  and 
Surgeons  of  New  York  in  1848.  He  was  a  pupil  of  Gray  and  also  of  Car- 
nochan  and  was  a  man  of  superior  education,  fine  talents,  and  a  surgeon  of 
rare  ability.  He  practiced  in  New  York  city.  He  died  of  consumption  in 
Natchez.  Mississippi,  in  August,  1863,  aged  about  forty-one  years. 

Dr.  Lewis  Hallock  was  born  in  New  Y'ork,  June  30,  1803.     He  studied 



at  Clinton  University,  commenced  the  study  of  medicine  with  a  relative,  Dr. 
Lewis  Hallock  of  Southhold.  and  a  year  after  returned  to  New  York  and 
•entered  the  office  of  Dr.  John  W.  Francis,  professor  of  obstetrics  in  the  Col- 
lege of  Physicians  and  Surgeons,  where  he  graduated  in  1826.  In  this  class 
were  four  others  v/ho  afterward  became  homoeopathists :  Gray,  Joslin,  Dun- 
iiell  and  Palmer.  Hallock  had  practiced  allopathy  for  fifteen  years  when  he 
was  induced  to  try  homceopathic  remedies  in  a  case,  with  the  result  that  he 
Ijecame  convinced  of  the  truth  of  homoeopathy  and  an  avowed  practitioner  of 
it.  He  joined  the  institute  m  1846.  He  died  March  3,  1897,  in  New  York 
city,  where  he  had  practiced  seventy-five  years,  having  reached  the  great 
age  of  ninety-four. 

Dr.  James  M.  Qum  was  born  m  New  York  in  1806.     He  graduated  with 

P.  P.  Wells,  M.  D. 

honors  from  Columbia  College,  and  afterwards  was  professor  of  Latin  and 
Greek  in  that  institution.  He  studied  medicine  with  Hosack,  but  after  prac- 
ticing allopathy  for  several  years  embraced  the  method  of  Hahnemann.  To 
thoroughly  master  its  principles  he  studied  German  and  French.  He  became 
well  known  as  a  specialist  in  diseases  of  the  throat  and  chest.  He  also  was 
an  accomplished  musician  and  instrumental  in  promoting  musical  progress. 
He  died  March  26,  1868. 

Dr.  John  Taylor  was  born  in  Hallowell  (or  .Augusta),  Maine,  in  March', 
1802,  and  graduated  in  New  York.  He  was  converted  to  homoeopathy  by 
Dr.  Caleb  Ticknor.  He  removed  from  New  York  to  Ann  Arbor,  Michigan, 
and  from  there  went  to  Rochester,  New  York,  succeeding  Dr.  Bieglcr.  He 
began  to  practice  homoeo])athy  in  Ann  Arbor,  probably  in  1844  or  1845.  ^^ 
finally  located  in  New  York,  where  he  died,  April  5.  1850. 


Dr.  Pliineas  Parkhurst  Wells  was  born  in  Hopkinton,  New  Hampshire, 
in  1808,  and  was  the  son  of  Dr.  Thomas  G.  Wells.  In  youth  he  worked  as  a 
printer,  but  decided  to  study  medicine,  working  at  his  "  case  "  during  the 
daytime,  rising  at  four  in  the  morning  and  reading  late  at  night  at  his  medical 
studies.  He  graduated  at  Bowdoin  College  in  1833.  He  began  practice  in  Rox- 
bury,  Massachusetts,  where  he  remained  until  1839.  when,  impaired  in  health, 
he  went  to  Cincinnati,  Ohio.  Afterward  he  located  in  Providence,  Rhode 
Island,  where  he  was  first  interested  in  homoeopathy  through  Dr.  A.  H.  Okie. 
He  studied  German  in  order  to  understand  homoeopathy.  About  this  time  he 
became  acquainted  wath  Dr.  Wesselhoeft,  who  had  recently  removed  to  Boston 
from  Philadelphia,  and  who  gave  him  a  letter  of  introduction  to  Hering.  He 
visited  him,  and  Hering  turned  the  key  of  his  office  door,  refusing  to  see  any 
more  patients  that  day,  and  they  talked  until  the  next  morning  at  four  o'clock. 
Wells  found  the  knowledge  he  sought  in  the  conversation  of  Hering.  In 
December,  1843,  '""^  located  in  Brooklyn,  where  he  practiced  until  his  death, 
November  22,  1891.  He  was  one  of  the  stalwarts  of  Hahnemannian  homoe- 




Outspreading  of  the  Homceopathic  Doctrine  from  New  York  City  Into  the  Several 
Counties  of  the  State — The  Pioneers  and  Their  Trials  and  Triumphs — Reminiscences 
and  Si<etches. 

While  the  doctrine  of  Hahnemann  was  becoming  adopted  by  so  many  of 
the  best  known  physicians  in  New  York  city,  the  progress  of  the  system  was 
also  rapid  in  other  parts  of  the  state,  especially  in  Northern  New  York. 

In  1833  Dr.  Joseph  Birnstill,  who  had  been  converted  to  homoeopathy  in 
Germany  by  Dr.  Griesselich,  came  to  America,  reaching  New  York  in  May. 
He  soon  went  to  Dunkirk,  Chautauqua  county,  and  attempted  to  prac- 
tice the  new  system.  At  that  time  the  name  of  homoeopathy  was  hardly  known 
in  the  county.  Dr.  Birnstill  could  converse  only  in  German  and  hardly  a 
person  in  the  county  could  speak  that  language,  but  notwithstanding  these 
difficulties  he  made  some  cures  in  chronic  cases.  In  about  eight  months  he 
went  to  Westfield,  in  the  same  county.  He  gradually  acquired  a  knowledge 
of  English  and  an  increase  in  practice,  but  meeting  with  little  sympathy  from 
other  physicians  he  went  to  Buffalo.  In  a  few  months  he  returned  to  West- 
field.  When  he  applied  for  membership  in  the  Chautauqua  County  Medical 
Society  with  authentic  evidence  of  having  received  the  degree  of  doctor  of 
medicine,  he  was  rejected  solely  on  account  of  his  medical  practice.  He  was 
so  embarrassed  by  his  ignorance  of  English  and  by  his  foreign  birth,  and  by 
the  ridicule  of  the  physicians,  that  he  finally  went  to  Erie,  Pennsylvania,  in 
1839,  thence  to  Massillon,  Ohio,  and  from  there  to  Worcester,  Massachusetts. 
He  practiced  in  Worcester  three  years  and  in  1847  went  to  Boston,  and  in 
1849  to  Newton  Corners,  where  he  died  in  1867. 

As  early  as  November,  -1837,  Dr.  Augustus  Philip  Biegler  began  practice 
in  Albany.  In  1838  he  was  admitted  to  membership  in  the  medical  society 
of  the  city  and  county  of  New  York.  In  the  spring  of  1840  he  went  to 
Schenectady,  being  the  pioneer  there,  and  in  the  autumn  of  the  same  year 
located  at  Rochester.  Later,  in  1840,  Dr.  Biegler  visited  Hahnemann  in  Paris. 
He  returned  to  Rochester,  where  he  remained  until  his  death  in  1849.  ^^ 
1838  Dr.  Biegler  was  partner  with  Dr.  Rosenstein  in  Albany. 

Dr.  Emanuel  Sieze  opened  ati  office  in  Hudson,  Columbia  county,  pre- 
vious to  1839,  and  during  that  year  went  to  Albany.  It  is  said  he  was  instru- 
mental in  persuading  Dr.  Biegler  to  leave  Germany  for  America,  and  that  they 
journeyed  together.  Dr.  Charles  Frederick  Hoffendahl,  coming  to  this  coun- 
try in  1837,  after  remaining  three  years  in  Philadelphia,  located  at  Albany  in 

As  earlv  as  1835  or  183c)  houKeoiiathy  was  mtrt^duced  into  Dutchess  cntnitv 
by  a  practitioner  who  went  from  Albanv  to  Clinton  to  attend  a  case  of  chronic 
rheumatism.  However,  Dr.  Federal  Vanderburgh  was  the  real  pioneer  in 
this  county,   locating  at  Rhinebeck  in    1843.     Soon   after  he  settled  there  he 


induced  Dr.  A.  Hall  of  Fishkill  to  adopt  the  new  method.     About  this  period 
one  Dr.  Formes  introduced  homoeopathy  in  Poughkeepsie. 

Dr.  Vanderburgh  also  converted  the  Rev.  James  Lillie  to  homoeopathic 
belief.  This  was  in  1840.  Dr.  Lillie  had  studied  in  the  University  of  Edin- 
burgh, a  part  of  the  time  in  the  medical  department,  and  as  he  had  acquired  a 
taste  for  medicine  he  was  easily  induced  to  investigate  homceopathy  and  be- 
came convinced  of  its  truth.  Dr.  Lillie  in  his  pastoral  visits  was  wont  some- 
times to  prescribe,  though  reluctantly,  for  the  temporal  welfare  of  his  flock. 
His  custom  was  to  take  the  Materia  Medica  Pura  (Jourdan's  French  transla- 
tion)  with  him  to  the  bedside.  In  1842  he  went  to  New  York  and  was  regu- 
larly graduated  from  the  College  of  Physicians  and  Surgeons.  He  afterward 
went  to  Toronto,  Canada. 

The  pioneer  in  Chenango  county  was  Dr.  Caspar  Bruchhausen,  who  lo- 
cated in  Green  in  1842.  He  was  born  August  25.  1806,  in  Frankfort-on-the- 
Main,  received  a  classical  education  and  became  a  literary  man.  In  the  spring 
of  1836  he  came  to  America  and  was  employed  by  George  Wesselhoeft  of 
Philadelphia,  who  imported  and  dealt  in  books  and  homoeopathic  medicines, 
and  also  published  a  German  newspaper.  He  thus  became  acquainted  with 
Hering,  Green,  Humphrey.  Matlack  and  other  early  homoeopathic  practi- 
tioners. Among  them  was  Dr.  Charles  F.  Hoffendahl,  from  Berlin.  Prussia, 
who  befriended  Bruchhausen  and  under  his  encouragement  and  tuition  the 
latter  commenced  the  study  of  medicine.  In  1839  he  went  with  him  to  Al- 
bany, where  Dr.  Hoffendahl  entered  practice.  He  afterward  studied  in  Hud- 
son, New  York,  with  Dr.  George  W.  Cock.  Ill  healthy  caused  him  to  relin- 
quish graduation  and  for  a  time  he  devoted  himself  to  literature.  In  1842, 
learning  of  an  opening  for  a  homoeopathic  physician  in  Chenango  county,  one 
of  the  then  recently  settled  counties  of  New  York,  he  located  at  Green.  In 
Mav,  1843,  he  went  to  Oxford,  remaining  there  five  years,  and  in  1848  set- 
tled permanently  in  Norwich.     He  died  December  28,   1891. 

In  1836  Dr.  Martin  Freligh,  of  Saugerties,  Ulster  county,  became  inter- 
ested in  homoeopathy.  He  visited  Vanderburgh  in  New  York  and  was  sent 
to  Channing,  who  gave  him  his  first  instructions  in  homoeopathic  medication. 
Dr.  Freligh  left  Ulster  county,  going  to  Rhinebeck,  Dutchess  county.  In 
1841  Dr.  Garrett  D.  Crispell  investigated  the  subject.  He  had  been  ah  old 
school  practitioner  for  eighteen  years. 

Homoeopathy  was  introduced  into  Auburn,  Cayuga  county,  by  Horatio 
Robinson,  who  was  born  in  Lebanon,  Connecticut,  in  1804.  He  graduated  at 
the  Berkshn-e  Medical  School  and  commenced  practice  at  the  age  of  twenty- 
one.  For  the  next  twelve  years  he  resided  at  Stonington,  Connecticut,  after 
which  he  went  to  Yates  county,  New  York,  where  he  remained  four  years 
and  then  settled  in  Auburn.  While  living  in  Y^ates  county  he  became  ac- 
quainted with  Mr.  Bayard  of  Seneca  Falls,  afterwards  Dr.  Bayard  of  New 
York,  who  was  then  testing  the  merits  of  the  homoeopathic  system.  This 
was  Dr.  Robinson's  first  mtroduction  to  homoeopathy.  He,  like  others,  be- 
came convinced  only  after  practical  demonstration.  When  he  located  in  Au- 
burn in  May,  1841,  he  formed  a  partnership  with  Dr.  Humphrey,  who  was 
physician  to  the  hospital  of  Auburn  state  prison,  and  who  was  ignorant  of  his 
partner's  change  of  medical  faith.  The  day  after  he  arrived  Dr.  Humphrey 
took  him  to  see  a  case  and  the  next  day  went  to  New  York,  leaving  Rob- 
inson to  attend  the  business.  The  patient  had  been  sick  for  seven  weeks,  and 
had  been   seen  by   two  allopathic   physicians   in   consultation.     Dr.    Robinson 



treated  t\v.s  case  secretly  and  successfully  with  homoeopathic  medicines,  and 
the  result  caused  the  new  system  to  he  favorably  received.  Soon  afterward 
cholera  broke  out  in  the  prison,  and  Dr.  Robinson  at  Dr.  Humphrey's  request 
treated  certain  cases  with'  arsenic  and  veratrum,  and  with  marked  success.  In 
Jul}-.  1841,  Dr.  Robinson  w^as  called  to  Throopsville  to  see  a  patient  for  Dr. 
JMcCarthy,  who  was  anxious  to  observe  the  effect  of  the  homoeopathic  reme- 
dies. The  success  in  the  case  was  so  complete  that  he  began  to  investigate, 
only  to  become  convinced  and  soon  to  adopt  the  new  system.  Dr.  McCarthy 
was  the  second  convert  to  homoeopathy  in  Cayuga  county.  He  afterward 
W'cnt  to  Utica. 

The  Old  school  opposition  to  homoeopathy  was  malignant  and  even  threat- 
ened prosecution,  and  in  order  to  test  the  matter  Mr.  Peterson  of  Springport, 
a  lawyer,  supplied  himself  with  homoeopathic  books  and  medicines  and  began 
practice,  visiting  patients  and  taking  fees,  without  having  a  diploma.  Suit 
was  brought,  trial  followed,  and  the  jury  brought  in  a  verdict  of  three- 
quarters  of  a  cent  for  the  plaintiff,  and  at  the  same  time  donated  their  fees 
•to  the  defendant.     Dr.  Robinson  practiced  for  many  years  and  died  July  28, 

1889.  It  is  said  that  his  homoeopathic  (mtfit  con- 
sisted of  a  small  paper  box,  in  which  were  eleven 
vials  of  homoeopathic  pellets,  each  vial  about  the 
dfameter  of  a  goose  cjuill,  and  one  and  a  half  inches 
in  length ;  also  a  copy  of  Epps'  "  Domestic  Homoe- 
()]iathy."  It  is  said  that  Auburn  prison  was  the 
first  public  institution  in  which  homoeopathy  was 

Dr.  W.  W.  Alley,  contemporary  with  Robin- 
son, lived  to  be  the  oldest  homoeopathic  physician 
in  the  world,  having  practiced  for  sixtv-five  years. 
Me  was  l)orn  in  1802  in  Sullivan  county.  New 
"^'ork.  and  died  at  Moravia,  New  York,  January 
24.  1802. 

Dr.  Harvey  Hull  Cator  introduced  homceopathy 
into  (  )nondaga  county,  locating  in  Syracuse  in 
1842.  He  was  born  in  Roxbury,  Delaware  county, 
New  York.  July  12,  1815,  and  graduated  from  the  Geneva  Medical  College 
in  1840.  In  1 84 1  he  commenced  the  practice  of  allopathy  at  Moravia,  Cayuga 
county.  His  attention  was  first  called  to  homoeopathy  by  Dr.  Robinson  of 
Auburn.  His  own  wife  was  cured  by  homoeopathic  medicines  after  being 
given  up  by  the  allopathic  physicians  and  he  was  led  to  adopt  the  new  medical 
system.  Syracuse  seemed  to  be  a  favorable  field  in  which  to  begin  the  new 
practice  and  he  located  there  in  1842.  He  remained  for  several  years.  A 
notable  circumstance  of  his  sojourn  was  that  he  published  there  the  "  Homoeo- 
pathic Pioneer,"  a  scientific  and  practical  journal  of  homoeopathy.  Twelve 
numbers  were  issued,  July,  1845,  to  June,  1846.  It  was  a  small  quarto  of 
sixteen  pages.  Dr.  L.  M.  Tracy  was  associated  with  Dr.  Cator  in  this  venture. 
The  latter  was  compelled  on  account  of  his  wife's  health  to  leave  Syracuse  in 
1846,  at  which  time  he  went  west,  opening  an  ofifice  in  Milwaukee  with  Dr. 
Tracy.  He  subsequently  returned  to  New  York  and  in  1874,  after  living  in 
several  places,  opened  an  office  in  Camden,  New  Jersey,  where  he  died  Feb- 
ruary 21,  1882.     In  1852  there  were  but  five  homoeopathic  physicians  in  Syra- 

Horatio    Koliinson,   '\\.    1). 

HISTORY  OF  HOMCEOi'ATllV     •  97 

cuse;  in  1857,  seven;  in  1870,  eleven;  in  1880,  seventeen;  in  1890,  twenty- 
one;  in  1899,  thirty,  and  in  1904,  thirty-one. 

The  first  practitioner  of  homojopathy  in  Rensselaer  county  was  Dr.  F.  S. 
Field,  a  graduate  of  Knigs  College  Hospital,  London,  an  accomplished  man, 
but  being  unknown  and  advocating  a  new  doctrine,  he  was  unable  to  support 
himself  and  left  after  two  years.  This  was  in  1839  or  1840.  He  was  ac- 
quainted Vv^ith  Drs.  Richard  S.  Bryan  and  Richard  Bloss  and  furnished 
them  wath  the  translation  of  Jahr's  Manual,  then  lately  published.  Bloss 
openlv  adopted  homoeopathy  in  1841,  being  influenced  by  witnessing  several 
remarkable  cures.  In  1852  there  were  in  Troy  but  three  homoeopathists.  Drs. 
Bryan,  Bloss  and  Simeon  A.  Cook;  in  1857  there  were  four;  in  1870,  eleven; 
in  1880,  thirteen;  in  1890,  eleven;  in  1899,  ten. 

In  1842  Dr.  Daniel  Starkweather  Kimball,  who  had  been  for  some  years 
practicing  allopathy  at  Sackett's  Harbor,  Jefferson  county,  declared  his  belief 
in  homoeopathy.    He  was  born  in  Charlestown,  iMontgomery  county.  New  York, 
January    7,    1806,    and    was    in   part   educated   at        ' 
Auburn  Theological  Seminary.     In  1824  he  com- 
menced the  study  of  medicine  under  Dr.  Joseph  F. 
Pitney,    of    AulDurn.     He  graduated  at   Fairfield  ^ 

Medical  School  in  1828,  and  settled  at  Sackett's 
Harbor.  When  Dr.  Kimball  adopted  homoeopathy 
he  was  the  only  practitioner  of  that  school  within 
an  area  of  eightv  miles.  He  died  December  12, 

Dr.  George  W.  Cook  introduced  homoeopathy 
into  Columbia  county  in  1838.  He  was  born  at 
Hyde  Park,  Dutchess  county,  ^lay  21,  1806,  and 
studied  medicine  with  Dr.  Winfield  of  Crawford, 
Orange  countv,  and  with  Dr.  Pomeroy  White,  of 
Hudson.  He  graduated  at  the  College  of 
Physicians  and  Surgeons  of  New  York  in  1828,  H.  C.  Hubbard,  :m.  I). 

and     settled     in     Stockport,     Columbia     county, 

remaining  there  until  1836,  when  he  located  at  Hudson.  He  began  practice 
in  1838,  two  years  after  he  had  located  in  the  town.  In  1844  he  removed  to 
New  York.  His  health  failed  and  after  short  partnerships  with  Qianning 
and  Beakley  he  returned  to  Hudson,  where  he  died  October  i,  1849. 

Dr.  Henry  C.  Hubbard  was  the  pioneer  of  homoeopathy  in  Cortland 
county,  and  practiced  many  years  in  the  town  of  Scott.  He  was  born  in 
Berlin,  Rensselaer  county,  March  24,  1810,  and  died  in  Scott,  March  22,  1867. 
In  1842  Dr.  W'iilis  R.  Browne,  after  practicing  allopathy  for  five  years,  read 
the  Organon,  became  convinced  of  its  truth,  and  began  the  practice  of  homoeo- 
pathy. In  a  letter  written  about  that  time  he  says :  "  For  about  five  years 
previously  I  had  practiced  on  the  principles  of  the  old  school  under  a  diploma 
from  the  professors  of  one  of  the  colleges,  but  I  can  distinctly  see  that  my 
knowledge  of  the  art  of  healing  commenced  with  my  acquaintance  with  that 
invaluable  book." 

To  Dr.  Nash  Hull  W^arner  is  due  the  honor  of  having  introduced  homoe- 
opathy into  Erie  county.  Dr.  W^arner  was  born  in  Plymouth,  Connecticut, 
January  14,  1808,  graduated  from  Yale  Medical  School  in  1831.  and  com- 
menced practice  in  A'an  Dusenville,  Mass.,  w'here  he  remained  until  1836, 
when  he  went  to  Euft'alo.     Early  in  1844  he  became  impressed  with  the  triith 


of  homoeopathy,  and  in  his  diary  under  date  of  February  6,  of  that  year,  is 
the  following  note :  "  This  day  I  have  made  my  first  purely  homoeopathic 
prescription,"  The  next  year  he  fully  adopted  the  system.  At  that  time  there 
were  but  one  or  two  homoeopathic  physicians  in  Western  New  York,  and  Dr. 
Warner  was  the  victim  of  the  most  bitter  opposition  from  his  former  col- 
leagues. During  the  prevalence  of  cholera  in  1849,  ^^e  fully  demonstrated 
the  efficacy  of  the  doctrine  of  Hahnemann.  He  practiced  in  Buffalo  for- 
many  years,  and  died  June  24,  i860. 

Dr.  Charles  A.  Stevens  practiced  homoeopath}'  in  Buffalo  as  early  as 
1844.  In  1852  there  were  six  homoeopathic  physicians  in  Buffalo;  in  1857, 
ten;  in  1870,  fifteen;  in  1880,  twenty-six;  in  1890,  fifty-six;  in  1899,  forty- 
nine;  and  in  1904,  forty-six. 

In  Herkimer  county  Dr.  Nathan  Spencer,  born  in  Sangerfield,  Oneida 
•county,  March  29,  1809,  was  the  pioneer  of  homoeopathy.  He  read  medicine 
with  Dr.  Eli  G.  Bailey  of  Brookfield,  Madison  county,  remaining  with  him 
until  the  spring  of  1834.  During  this  time  he  attended  three  full  courses  of 
lectures,  one  in  Castleton,  Vt.,  and  two  in  Fairfield,  Herkimer  county,  where 
he  graduated.  He  began  practice  at  Winfield  a  short  time  after  becoming  a 
member  of  the  county  society.  Being  of  liberal  mind,  he  began  to  investigate 
homoeopathy  about  1846,  and  was  summoned  before  the  bar  of  trial  of  the 
■county  society,  expelled,  and  the  records  of  the  action  were  published  in  the 
county  papers.  But  Dr.  Spencer  defended  the  system  splendidly,  and  con- 
fessed to  but  one  dereliction  of  duty,  that,  having  by  his  agreement  to  the 
by-laws  promised  to  make  progress  in  the  healing  art,  he  had  failed  in  not 
long  before  telling  the  society  of  his  success  with  homoeopathic  medicines. 
He  practiced  in  Winfield  with  excellent  success,  and  died  there  December  7, 

Dr.  Erasmus  Darwin  Jones  introduced  homoeopathy  in  Essex  county  in 
1844.  He  was  born  in  Upper  Jay,  Essex  county,  September  10,  1818;  was 
graduated  from  the  Albany  Medical  College  in  1841,  and  at  once  began  prac- 
tice at  Keeseville.  In  1844  he  adopted  homoeopathy  in  his  practice.  In  1846 
he  went  to  Albany,  where  he  resided  for  many  years. 

Dr.  Ira  Adams,  an  old  school  physician  of  Lowville,  became  dissatisfied 
with  allopathy  and  through  the  influence  of  friends  adopted  the  homoeopathic 
system.  He  had  been  practicing  for  thirty  years  and  was  the  first  homoeo- 
pathic practitioner  in  Lewis  county.     He  died  in  1856. 

In  1843  Dr.  Chauncey  M.  Dake  introduced  homoeopathy  into  Livingston 
county.  He  was  the  son  of  Dr.  Jabez  Dake,  of  Nunda,  and  was  born  Decem- 
ber I,  i8t6.  He  attended  medical  lectures  at  Geneva,  but  was  obliged  to 
discontinue  his  studies  in  1836,  and  began  to  practice  under  a  state  license. 
He  was  converted  to  homoeopathy  by  his  brother-in-law,  Dr.  H.  Hull  Cator, 
in  1 84 1.  While  at  Rushville  he  suffered  with  inflammatory  rheumatism,  and 
becoming  steadily  worse  called  in  Dr.  Cator.  who  relieved  and  cured  him 
with  homoeopathic  treatment.  When  he  recovered  he  procured  homoeopathic 
books  and  medicines  and  soon  accepted  the  truth  of  the  "  little  pills."  In 
1843  ^""c  located  at  Gcneseo.  He  practiced  for  a  time  at  Pittsburgh,  Pa..  Imt 
finally  retired  to  a  farm  near  Rochester,  N.  Y.,  where  he  died  July  15,  1872. 

in  the  spring  of  1840  Dr.  Robert  Rossman  removed  from  Hudson  to 
Brooklyn,  where  he  was  the  first  to  raise  the  standard  of  homoeopathy.  He 
remained  alone  there  for  three  years  ^vhen  he  formed  a  partnership  with  Dr. 
Aaron  Cooke  Hull,  then  of  New  York  citv.     Four  or  five  months  after  Dr. 


l^ossman  settled  in  the  city,  Dr.  David  Baker  commenced  practice  there,  and 
to  their  earnest  efforts  the  great  success  of  the  system  of  Hahnemann  in 
Brooklyn  was  larg^ely  due.  Dr.  Rossman  was  born  in  Claverack,  Columbia 
county,  October  i8,  1807.  He  graduated  from  the  College  of  Physicians  and 
Surgeons  of  New  York,  and  located  at  Hudson,  Columbia  county,  where  he 
became  a  convert  to  homoeopathy  in  1839.  He  lived  in  Brooklyn  until  his 
death,  December  25,  1859. 

The  hi3tory  of  homoeopathy  in  Kings  county  is  practically  included  in 
that  of  Brooklyn.  In  1852  there  were  the  following  practitioners  of  homoe- 
opathy in  that  city :  George  R.  Beebe,  Abraham  C.  Burke,  Joel  Bryant,  Car- 
roll Dunham,  Samuel  Smith  Guv,  Charles  Julius  Hempel,  Aaron  Cooke  Hull, 
O.  R.  King.  Edwin  Albert  Lodge,  Reuben  Curtis  Moffatt,  George  V.  New- 
comb,  J.  R.  Orton,  Robert  Rossman,  C.  D.  Rossiter,  Phineas  Parkhurst  Wells, 

In  1857  the  homoeopathic  physicians  there  were  D.  Baker,  J.  Barker,  J.  B. 
Bennett,  Joel  Brvant,  Abraham  C.  Burke,  J.  Pitman  Dinsmore,  S.  B.  "Doty, 
J.  Duffin,  Carroll  Dunham,  Joseph  Bailev  Elliott.  Bernhard  Fincke,  H.  S. 
Gilbert,  Samuel  Smith  Guy.  S.  H.  Hanford,  William  H.  Hanford,  Aaron 
Cooke  Hull.  Edwin  Albert  Lodge,  Benjamin  Clasby  Macy,  H.  May,  Henry 
Minton,  Reuben  Curtis  Moffatt.  George  V.  Newcomb,  William  L.  R.  Per- 
rine.  Edward  T.  Richardson,  M.  A.  Richter,  Robert  Rossman,  John  Gaul  Ross- 
man, Dr.  Saltzweidel,  Dr.  Stamm,  John  Turner,  James  H.  Ward,  J.  I.  Watson, 
Phineas  Parkhurst  Wells,  Albert  Wright,  William  Wright.  J.  Young. 

In  1870  there  were  sixty-seven  practitioners  in  Brooklyn;  in  1880.  one 
hundred  and  twenty-nine;  in  1892,  two  hundred  and  one;  in  1904,  one  hun- 
dred and  seventy-six.  Dr.  Charles  Harvey  Hadley  practiced  at  Blyther- 
bourne.  Dr.  Robert  Boocock  at  Flatbush  and  Dr.  John  C.  Robert  at  New 

In  New  York  city  in  1852  there  were  the  following  homoeopathic  practition- 
ers :  James  H.  Allen, .Moses  Anderson,  H.  D.  Appleton,  Alonzo  S.  Ball.  Samuel 
Bancroft  Barlow,  E.  H.  Bartlett,  Edward  Bayard,  George  Beaklev,  Jacob  Beak- 
ley.  George  Elisha  Belcher,  H.  W.  Bell,  T.  J.  Blakeney,  Richard  Montgomery 
Bolies.  Benjamin  Franklin  Bowers,  Josiah  Bowers,  Edward  V.  Brown,  Wil- 
liam Channing,  Eliza  D.  Cook,  J.  Croffut.  Joseph  Thomas  Curtis,  H.  G.  Doyle, 
Henry  Gale  Dunnell,  Benjamin  C.  Dutcher.  Joseph  T.  Evans,  Alfred  Free- 
man. Martin  Freligh,  John  Franklin  Gray,  Egbert  Guernsey,  Lewis  Hallock, 
Benjamin  Franklin  Joslin,  Edwin  Merritt  Kellogg,  C.  Kiersted,  Hudson  Kins- 
ley. Stephen  Reynolds  Kirby,  J.  F.  Mahon,  Erastus  Edgerton  Marcy,  Dr. 
Morton.  James  Mairs,  M.  J.  Mayer.  H.  G.  McGonegal,  Robert  McMurray, 
John  Augustus  McVickar,  James  Whiting  Metcalf,  Walter  C.  Palmer.  Miles 
Weslev  Palmer,  John  C.  Peters,  James  M.  Ouin,  A.  Reisig,  S.  E.  Shepherd. 
Hunting  Sherriii,  Daniel  E.  Stearns,  W.  Stewart.  John  L,  Sullivan.  Federal 
Vanderburgh,  Lewis  T.  Warner,  J.  Westcott,  Edwin  West,  E.  G.  Wheeler, 
Ferdinand  Little  Wilsey.  Abraham  Durve?.  Wilson,  J.  D.  Worrall.  Clark 
W^right.  In  1857  New  York  city  contained  ninety-three  homoeopatbic  prac- 
titioners; in  1870,  one  hundred  and  forty-eight;  in  1880.  two  hundred  and 
live;  in  1890,  four  hundred  and  thirty-nine;  in  1904.  three  hundred  and 

Homoeopathy  was  introduced  into  Queens  county  by  Dr.  Spaulding,  who 
settled  in  Flushing  in  1825  as  an  allopathic  physician,  and  who  embraced  homoe- 
opathv  in  1839.     He  left  Flushing  in  1844. 

The  pioneer  in   ^lonroe  county   was   Dr.   Augustus    Philip   Biegler,    who 


went  from  Albany  to  Rochester  in  1840.  In  1852  there  were  ten  homoeopathic 
physicians  m  Rochester;  in  1857  there  were  thirteen;  in  1870,  seventeen;  in 
1880,  twenty-five;  in  1890,  fifty-two,  and  in  1899,  sixty-three.  In  1904  there 
are  recorded  seventy-one. 

About  1845  ^1'-  Ezekiel  Lovejoy,  then  located  at  Owego,  the  county  seat 
of  Tioga  county,  introduced  the  new  system  to  his  patients.  He  had  begun 
practice  as  an  allopathic  physician  at  Owego  in  1828.  While  visiting  a  sister 
his  attention  was  called  to  homoeopathy.  He  met  Dr.  Granger  in  New  York 
and  tested  its  truth,  and  on  his  return  home  he  adopted  it  in  practice.  He 
was  born  at  Stratford,  Conn.,  July  6,  1803,  and  died  in  1871. 

'  In  the  winter  of  1843-44  Dr.  Erastus  Humphreys  opened  an  office  in 
Utica  for  the  practice  of  homoeopathy.  He  had  been  previously  in  practice 
in  Auburn  where,  in  1840,  through  the  instrumentality  of  Dr.  Horatio  Robin- 
son, who  had  recently  become  his  partner,  he  was  converted  to  a  belief  in 
homoeopathy.  He  was  an  important  acquisition,  being  one  of  the  prominent 
medical  men  of  the  vicinity,  physician  to  the  Auburn  state  prison,  and  having 
great  social  influence.  In  1842  he  went  to  Syracuse  where  he  practiced  for  a 
year  and  a  half,  and  where  he  was  joined  by  Dr.  H.  Hull  Cator,  having  been 
the  first  to  open  an  office  in  Onondaga  county.  In  the  fall  of  1843  1"'g  went 
to  Utica,  being  the  pioneer  both  in  the  city  of  Utica  and  of  Oneida  county. 
Dr.  Humphreys  remained  in  practice  in  Utica  until  1847,  when  he  went  to 
New  York,  leaving  his  son,  Dr.  Frederick  Humphreys,  who  later  became  the 
proprietor  of  "  Humphreys'  Specifics,"  and  Dr.  Samuel  Stewart,  to  succeed 
him.  In  New  York  he  endeavored  to  found  a  homoeopathic  hospital,  but  he 
was  prostrated  by  a  sunstroke,  from  which  he  never  recovered.  He  died  on 
March  14,  1848.  He  was  born  in  Canton  in  1784  and  received  his  diploma 
from  the  State  Medical  Society  of  Connecticut  at  Hartford  in  1808.  He 
practiced  with  Dr.  Everest  for  two  years,  when  he  went  to  Marcellus,  Onon- 
daga county,  where  he  remained  until  1823,  when  he  went  to  Auburn. 

Dr.  Erastus  A.  Munger  of  Waterville,  Oneida  county,  in  the  summer  of 
1843  went  to  New  York  for  the  purpose  of  learning  something  of  the  new 
system.  While  there  he  became  acquainted  with  Drs.  Gray,  Freeman,  Bayard 
and  Kirby,  purchased  Jahr's  New  Manual  and  other  homoeopathic  books  and 
a  supply  of  medicines,  and  on  his  return  began  the  practice  of  homoeopathy. 
At  this  time  there  was  no  other  homoeopathic  physician  in  the  county  or  nearer 
than  Syracuse. 

Dr.  Leverett  Bishop  acquired  an  understanding  of  homoeopathy  from  the 
Babcock  brothers  and  Dr.  Douglass  of  Hamilton,  Madison  county,  in  the 
winter  of  1843-44.  Dr.  Erastus  Humphreys  furnished  him  with  his  first  outfit 
of  homceopathic  medicines,  and  with  Hull's  Jahr  and  Organon. 

The  Central  New  York  Homoeopathic  Medical  Society  was  organized 
at  Utica  in  June,  1849,  '^"*^^  was  a  means  of  union  of  the  homoeopathic  physi- 
cians in  the  vicinity,  and  also  the  cause  of  rapid  growth  of  the  system.  This 
was  called  the  "  Syracuse  and  Utica  Convention  of  Homoeopathic  Physicians." 
The  first  informal  meeting  was  held  in  Utica,  September  13,  1849.  The  fol- 
lowing persons  signed  their  names  to  the  constitution  at  a  meeting  held  at 
Utica,  January  16,  1850:  Drs.  A.  L.  Kellogg.  Bridgewater;  S.  W.  Stewart,. 
Utica ;  Silas  Bailey,  Brookfield ;  Leverett  Bishop.  Sauquoit :  N.  Stebbins,  Clin- 
ton ;  Erastus  A.  Munger,  Waterville ;  Lucian  B.  Wells,  Pompey :  Daniel  S. 
Kimball,   Sackett's  Harbor;  Daniel  Barker,  ]\fa<lison;  Frederick   Humphreys,, 


Utica;  Jonas  C.  Raymond,  W'aterville ;  Jesse  M.  Peak,  Cooperstown ;  Jere- 
miah Green,  Hamilton ;  H.  R.  Foote,  Utica. 

It  is  probable  that  Dr.  Louis  A.  Morgan  was  the  pioneer  homoeopath 
in  Cattaraugus  county,  as  he  was  in  Chautauqua  county.  He  was  born  March 
20,  1801,  at  West  Sprmgfield,  Mass.  He  attended  the  Berkshire  Medical 
College  and  studied  with  a  number  of  distinguished  physicians.  When  he 
married  Cornelia  Spellman  in  1826,  they  took  a  wedding  trip  of  fifteen  hun- 
dred miles  through  New  York  and  Pennsylvania,  during  which  Dr.  Morgan, 
the  groom,  gave  lectures  on  the  sciences.  He  had  graduated  from  Williams 
College  in  1828,  and  for  a  time  was  a  teacher.  In  1845  ^^^^  attention  was 
directed  to  homoeopathy  and  he  became  convinced  of  its  truth.  Previous  to 
that  he  had  been  ordained  in  the  ministry  and  had  labored  in  Western  New 
York  as  missionary  and  physician  to  the  poor.  He  was  called  to  the  church 
in  Conewango,  Chautauqua  county,  and  practiced  medicine  there  for  six  years, 
the  only  homoeopathist  in  the  region.  About  185 1  he  removed  to  Gowanda, 
where  he  had  to  combat  the  opposition  of  three  allopaths  and  three  eclectics. 
He  remained  there  six  years,  but  a  disastrous  fire  impoverished  him.  He 
then  went  to  Buffalo,  where  his  wife  died.  After  a  year  spent  in  Illinois,  he 
returned  east  and  opened  an  office  in  Hornellsville,  "Steuben  county,  and  re- 
mained there  five  years,  after  which  he  resided  in  Conewango.  In  Allegheny 
county  the  homoeopathic  pioneers  were  Drs.  John  H.  Thorp,  Washington  Irv- 
ing Wellman,  Samuel  Smith  Allen,  Llewellyn  D.  Farnham,  Dr.  Hayes,  Syl- 
vester Pelton  and  W.  S.  Todd,  Sr. 

In  Niagara  county  the  pioneer  was  Dr.  Franklin  L.  Knapp,  who  was 
born  in  Pembroke,  Genesee  county,  September  22,  1817;  educated  at  Geneva 
Medical  College  and  graduated  in  1845.  At  a  public  debate  between  Dr. 
Williams,  a  homoeopathic  physician  of  Geneva,  and  Professor  Thomas  Spen- 
cer of  the  college.  Dr.  Knapp  was  so  impressed  with  the  arguments  in  favor 
of  homoeopathy  that  he  decided  to  investigate  its  claims.  He  sought  out  Dr. 
Williams  at  his  office  and  soon  became  convinced  that  there  was  indeed  a 
specific  law  governing  the  remedial  action  of  medicinal  drugs.  He  at  once 
commenced  the  study  of  homoeopathy  in  the  office  of  Dr.  Matthews,  of  Roch- 
ester. He  afterward  was  associated  with  Dr.  C.  M.  Dake  at  Geneseo.  Called 
by  his  father's  health  to  Gasport,  he  established  himself  there  as  a  homoeo- 
pathic physician  in  1846.  Dr.  David  Fowler  Bishop  commenced  the  practice 
of  homoeopathy  in  Lockport  iii  1850. 

The  pioneers  in  Broome  county  were  Drs.  Titus  Lonson  Brown,  Dr. 
Brownson,  Dr.  Covert,  E.  Ely,  T.  Mather,  Ira  W.  Peabody,  Stephen  D.  Hand, 

A.  A.  Witherill.  Dr.  C.  F.  Harris  introduced  homoeopathy  into  Binghamton 
in  the  spring  of  1847.  I"  1853  there  were  four  homoeopathists  practicing  in 
that  city. 

The  introduction  of  homoeopathy  into  Schuyler  county  w'as  due  to  Dr. 
Richard  Huson,  then  living  in  the  village  of  Dundee  in  the  adjoining  county 
of  Yates.  His  professional  duties  frequently  brought  him  into  the  northern 
and  middle  towns  of  the  countv,  and  where  in  connection  with  his  practice  he 
gave  frequent  lectures  on  homceopathv  at  school  houses.  Thus  the  knowledge 
spread  rapidly  through  the  neighboring  towns.  Dr.  Edwdn  W.  Lewis  com- 
menced to  practice  at  Watkins  in  1846,  at  which  time  there  were  but  two  fam- 
ilies there  who  acknowledged  their  belief  in  homoeopathy. 

In  Delaware  county  the  first  practitioner  of  homoeopathy  was  Dr.  Liverus 

B.  Hawley,  who  was  born  in  Delaware  county,  August  22,  1828.     He  served 


in  the  Mexican  war  and  was  discharged  and  pensioned  on  account  of  a  wound, 
received  in  battle.  In  1849  ^^^  commenced  the  study  of  medicine  and  grad- 
uated from  the  Homoeopathic  Medical  College  of  Pennsylvania  in  1853.  He 
at  once  located  at  Delhi,  Delaware  county,  but  in  1855  removed  to  Phoenix- 
ville,  Pa.,  where  he  resided  until  his  death,  March  20,  i8$o. 

Dr.  Jesse  Temple  Hotchkiss  introduced  homoeopathy  into  Orange  county,, 
beginning  its  practice  in  1851  at  Blooming  Grove.  He  was  a  graduate  of  the 
University  of  Pennsylvania  in  1842.  He  practiced  in  Monroe,  Blooming 
Grove  and  Cornwall.    He  died  at  Cornwall,  June  11,  1886. 

In  1850  Dr,  Reuben  Curtis  Mofi'at  introduced  homoeopathy  into  Suffolk 
county,  being  called  to  see  a  case  of  consumption.  In  185 1  Dir.  Burke  of 
Brooklyn  passed  a  few  weeks  at  Greenport  and  advised  a  Mrs.  Davis  to  study 
homoeopathy  in  order  to  doctor  her  own  family.  In  1857  ^^-  Samuel  Ban- 
croft Barlow  visited  Mrs.  Davis  and  found  her  so  successful  in  practice  among 
her  neighbors  that  he  advised  her  to  charge  a  fee  for  her  services. 

Dr.  Jabez  W.  Dake  located  in  Albion,  Orleans  county,  in  1863.  Several 
homceopathic  physicians  had  previously  tried  to  practice  there,  but  were  com- 
pelled to  abandon  the  field,  but  Dr.  Dake  bought  a  house,  moved  into  it,  sent 
word  to  his  allopathic  friends  that  he  had  paid  for  his  house  and  had  enough 
to  keep  him  for  a  year  and  that  he  had  come  to  stay.  He  remained  five  years 
and  then  gave  up  the  place  because  of  his  health.  At  that  time  Medina  alone 
in  the  whole  county  could  boast  of  a  homoeopathic  physician. 

In  Madison  county  Dr.  Robert  S.  Bishop  was  the  pioneer  homoeopath, 
locating  in  1863  at  Chittcnango.  Previously  he  had  been  a  partner  with  Dr. 
David  Fowler  Bishop  at  Lockport.  In  1865  he  removed  to  Medina,  Orleans 
county.     Dr.  Bishop  was  born  in  Paris,  N.  Y.,  November  22,  1831. 

The  records  of  homoeopathy  in  Washington  county  are  meagre.  It  was 
first  introduced  by  a  clergyman.  Dr.  J.  Savage,  an  allopathic  physician, 
adopted  it,  and  soon  afterwards  was  followed  by  Dr.  A.  M.  Savage.  In  1852 
there  were  about  ten  homoeopathic  practitioners  in  the  county. 

Great  credit  is  due  to  one  of  the  pioneers  of  homoeopathy  in  Albany  county 
for  his  painstaking  labor  of  historical  compilation  in  the  first  ten  volumes  of 
the  transactions  of  the  State  Homoeopathic  Medical  Society.  These  volumes 
contain  a  very  complete  history  of  the  advance  of  homoeopathy  in  New  York 
state,  and  that  this  is  so  is  due  to  Dr.  Horace  Marshfield  Paine. 

Dispensaries  in  Nezv  York  State:.  Albany,  1868;  Brooklyn,  E.  D.  Asso- 
ciation, 1872;  Brooklyn,  1853;  Buffalo  Free,  1867;  Buffalo  Eye  and  Ear  In- 
firmary, 1878;  Central  of  Brooklyn,  1882;  Gates  Ave.,  Brooklyn,  1867;  Pough- 
keepsie  Medical  and  Surgical,  1865;  Prospect  Heights,  Brooklyn,  1889;  Roch- 
ester Free,  1874;  Syracuse  Free,  1890;  Women's  Hospital,  Brooklyn,  188 1 ; 
Avenue  A,  New  York,  1883;  Bayard  Homoeopathic,  1886;  Bond  St.,  1855; 
Central  Flomoeopathic.  New  York,  1854;  Five  Points  House  of  Industry,  1861  ; 
Hamilton,  1891 ;  Harlem  Homoeopathic.  1872;  Heilenstadt,  1859;  Holy  Trin- 
ity, 1889;  New  York  Homoeopathic,  1890;  Metropolitan,  1868;  Morrisiana, 
1869;  New  York  Homoeopathic,  1845  (the  first  established  in  the  United 
States);  New  York  Homoeopathic,  i860;  College  for  Women,  1863;  New 
York  Homoeopathic  College.  1859;  Northeastern,  1869;  Northern,  1857; 
Tompkins  Square,  1874;  Western,  1868;  West  Side,  1889;  Yorkville,  1871. 

Plmrmacies:  The  first  to  deal  in  homoeopathic  books  and  medicines  was 
J.  < '.  Wesselhocft,  a  printer  and  pul)lisher  of  Philadelphia.  He  was  located 
in   1835  at  142  Fulton  street,  New  York  city.     William   Raddc  was  his  clerk 

]\\>\'(  )K\  ()]■  II()M^^^)l^\Tll^■ 


and  had  chai\£;x-  ct  the  Xow  York  store.  Mr.  Radde  afterward  hought  the 
business  in  both  cities.  In  1840  Radde  had  a  store  at  322  liroadway,  and  was 
the  agent  for  tlie  Central  Homoeopathic  Pharmacy  of  Leipsic.  In  1869  he 
sold  out  to  the  nrm  of  Dr.  F.  E.  Bocricke  and  Mr.  A.  J.  Tafel  (Boericke  & 
Tafel).  This  firm  is  still  doing  business  and  has  several  stores  in  New  York 
city.  In  1843  Jf^lii-'  I  •  ■^-  Smith,  who  was  a  patient  of  Dr.  A.  Gerald  Hull,, 
began  to  prepare  tinctures  and  triturations  for  him  and  Dr.  j.  F.  Gray.  As- 
soon  as  other  ph\sicians  learned  this  they  called  on  him  for  supplies,  and 
soon  his  time  was  entirely  occupied  in  the  manufacture  of  homcKopathic  med- 
icines. In  May.  1846,  this  pharmacy  was  located  at  488  Broadway.  In  1868 
Dr.  H.  M.  Smith  and  his  brother  were  admitted  to  the  firm  and  in  1869  the 
style  became  H.  M.   Smith  &  Bro.     This  pharmacy  is   still  continued  by  the 

Horace  M.  Fainc.  M.  D. 

sons  of  Dr.  Henry  M.  Smith,  In  December,  1849.  one  J.  Edward  Stohlmann 
opened  a  liomoeopathic  pharmacy  at  24  North  William  street.  In  July,  1852,. 
J.  T.  P.  Smith  established  a  pharmacy  at  50  Court  street,  Brooklyn,  which  he 
sold  to  Pierce  Brothers  ;n  1865,  and  thev  in  1874  to  S.  G.  Clarke. 

In  1852  Charles  T.  Hurlburt  opened  a  pharmacy  at  437  Broome  street,. 
New  York.  In  1874  he  remo\'ed  to  898  Broadway,  and  in  1879  to  3  East 
Nineteenth  street,  and  in  1881  located  at  61  West  125th  street.  He  has  a 
branch  at  Harlem.  Dr.  C.  B.  Currier  for  a  time  in  1876  conducted  a  pharmacy 
at  1005  Sixth  avenue.  ]Mr.  J.  B.  Bell  had  one  in  Vesey  street  in  1884.  In 
1879  E.  D.  Clark  Armstrong  located  at  276  Sixth  avenue.  J.  O.  Noxon  opened 
a  pharmacy  March  i.  1869,  at  323  Washington  street,  Brooklyn.  Lewis*  H. 
Smith  located  at  59  Court  street,  in   1859.     In  1875  ^^^  Sommers  was  estab- 


lished  at  120  Fourth  street,  Brooklyn.  F.  P.  Carter  also  conducted  a  phar- 
macy for  a  time  in  Brooklyn. 

Dr.  Samuel  Swan  prepared  his  "  nosodes  "  for  sale,  but  kept  no  pharm- 
acy.   They  are  now  sold  by  Boericke  &  Tafel. 

The  first  homoeopathic  pharmacy  in  Buffalo  was  opened  by  Dr.  Die  Lewis 
in  1850.  He  also  edited  "The  Homoeopathist."  He  prepared  his  own  atten- 
uations, offering  them  for  sale  at  ten  cents  per  vial  of  250  drops. 

In  1864  Adolph  J.  Tafel  opened  a  pharmacy  at  6  Eagle  street,  Buffalo. 
In  1867  he  sold  to  C.  S.  Halsey.  H.  T.  Appleby,  Mr.  Halsey's  manager, 
bouo-ht  him  out  in  1870.  It  was  afterward  conducted  by  Dr.  McCrea  and 
C  F.  Buck.  In  1891  Halsey  Brothers  opened  a  pharmacy  at  535  Washington 
street,  Buffalo.  About  185 1  Dr.  David  A.  Baldwin  established  the  Rochester 
Homeopathic  Pharmacy  at  17  Arcade  street. 

In  1856  James  Bryan,  operative  chemist  and  druggist  at  68  State  street, 
Rochester,  conducted  as  an  adjunct  to  his  store  a  homoeopathic  pharmacy 
directed  by  Mr.  L.  D.  Fleming.  E.  W.  Farrington  for  a  time  had  a  pharmacy 
at  68  State  street,  Rochester.  In  1877  Tuckes  &  Fitch  established  a  pharmacy 
at  26  Warren  street,  Syracuse.  Dr.  H.  R.  Smith  had  a  small  pharmacy  at  his 
residence  in  Brockport,  and  in  1865  E.  B.  Sprague  had  a  pharmacy  in  Owego. 

List  of  physicians  who  practiced  homoeopathy  in  New  York  city  previous 
to  and  including  the  year  i860.  The  character  *  opposite  a  name  indicates 
that  the  practitioner  originally  was  of  another  school  of  medicine,  and  subse- 
quently a  convert  to  homoeopathy ;  the  year  preceding  the  name  indicates  the 
time  of  beginning  practice,  except  that  the  character  x  following  a  name  indi- 
cates that  practice  was  begun  before  that  date : 
184^     Allen,  James  Hart  *  1852     Croffut,  J. 

1852     Anderson,  Moses  1833,    Curtis,  Joseph  Thomas 

1852     Appleton,  H.  D.  1857     Doyle,  J.   R.  x 

1856  Alley,  James  T.  *  1852    Doyle,  G.  H.  x 

1839  Ball,  Alonzo   Spafford  *  1840  Dunnell,  Henry  Gale  * 

185^  Baldwin,  Jared  G.  1834  Dutcher,  Benjamm  C. 

1857  Banks,  H.  M.  x  1857  Eckhart,  C.  x 
1857  Banks,  W.  x  1852  Evans,  J.  T.  x 

1857  Barker,  Helen  Cooke  x  1857  Fowler,  Almira  L.  x 

1837  Barlow,  Samuel  Bancroft  *  1855  Fowler,   Edward  Payson 

1852  Bartlett,  E.  H.  1840  Freeman,  Alfred  * 

1849  Bartlett,  Rodman  1854  Freeman,  Warren 

1846  Baruch,   Meyer  1848  Freligh,  Martm 

1844  Bayard,  Edward  *  1854  Fullgraff,  Otto 

1852  Beakley,   George  1826  Folger,  Robert  B.  * 
1844  Beakley,  Jacob  *  1857  Geraud,  F.  x 

1839  Belcher,  George  Elisha  .1857     Gourlay,  G.  x 

1849  Berghaus,  Julius  Martin  *                            1827  Gray,  John  Franklm  * 

1846  Bell,  Henry  W.  1825  Gram,  Hans  Burch  * 

1853  Bissell,  A.  F.  x  1833  Granger,  John 
1852  Blakeney,  J.  T.  1848  Guernsey,  Egbert  * 

1840  Bolles,  Richard  Montgomery  *  1846     Guy,  Samuel  S. 
1839     Bowers,  Benjamin  Franklin  *  1841     Hallock,  Lewis 

1841  Bowers,  Josiah  *  1840     Harris,  Zina  H. 

1857  Boskowitz,  H.  x  1852  Houghton,  A.  x                                        ' 

1857  Brainard,   E.  W.  x  1833  Hull,  Amos  Gerald 

1857  Brenna,   D.  x  1848  Jacobson,  R.  S. 

1852  Brown.   Edward  V.  1842  Joslin,  Benjamin  Franklin  * 

1833  Channing,  William  *  1852  Joslin,  Benjamin  Franklin,  Jr. 

1852  Cook,  Eliza  D.  x  1852  Kellogg,  Edwin  Merritt 

1857  Crane,  J.  W.  x  1857  Keuffner,  F.  A.  x 



1852  Kiersted,  C.  x  1850 

1854  King,  O.  R.  1856 

1847  Kinsley,  Hudson  *  1857 
1857  Kip,  R.  B.  •  1852 
1830  Kirby,  Stephen  Reynolds  1857 
1857  Kirby,  T.  x  1839 
1857  Leach,  George  H.  x  1840 
1844  Leon,  Alexis  1829 

1840  Lovejoy,  Ezekiel  *  1852 
1852  Mahon,  J.  F.  x  1856 
1836  Mairs,  James  *  1845 

1848  Marcy,  Erastus  Edgerton  *  1844 
1857  Morton  x  1844 
1852  Mayer,  Martin  x  1857 
1857  McDonald,  William  Ogden  x  1838 
1852  McGonegal,  H.  G.  x  1832 
1844  McMurray,  Robert  *  1857 

1841  McVickar,  John  Augustus  *  1857 
1857  Miller,  C.  x  1847 

1849  Metcalf.  James  Whiting  1857 
1857  Muhr,  H.  X  1857 

1857  Newcomb,  O.  x  1852 
1840  Palmer,  Miles  Wesley  1849 
1840  Palmer,  Walter  C.  *  1852 
1847  Petherbridge,  J.  B.  x  1826 
i860  Pardee,  Walter  1829 
1840  Peters,  John  C.  1852 

1858  Peterson,  Wilson  1852 
1857  Perkins,  Roger  Griswold  .... 
1867  Powell,  Hans  *  1854 

1842  Quin,  James  M.  *  .1842 
1832  Reisig,  Gottlob  Adolph  * 

Homceopathic  physicians  who  have  practiced  in  Brooklyn  and  WilHams- 
burgh  previous  to  and  including  the  year  i860: 

Reisig,   Richard 

Richards,  George  Washington 

Ring,  T.  L.  x 

Shepard,  S.  E.  x 

Saltonstall,  G.  D.  x 

Schue,  John 

Sherrill,    Hunting  * 

Stearns,  Daniel  Edward  * 

Stewart,  Walter  x 

Smith,  Daniel  Drowne  x 

Snow,  Ralph  Albert 

Sullivan,  John  L. 

Taylor,  John  * 

Franchand,  R.  x 

Vanderburgh;  Federal  * 

Van  Beuren,  Louis  Folk 

Wade,  Joseph   L.  x 

Wallace,  J.  W.  x 

Warner,  Lewis  Tillman 

Weisse,  J.  A.  x 

Wellman,  Washington  Irving  x 

Westcott,  J.  X 

West,  Edwin 

Wheeler,  E.  G.  x 

Wilsey,  Ferdinand  Little 

Wilson,  Abraham  Duryea  * 

Worrall,  J.  G.  x 

Wilder,  Louis  DeValois  x 

Ward,  A.  B. 

Ward,  John  Augustine 

Wright,  Clark  * 

1858  Ascoli,  Achille  * 

1840  Baker,  David  * 
1853  Barker,  John  * 
1855  Bateman,  H. 

1859  Bates,  Charles  E.  * 

1852  Beebe,  George  R. 
1847  Bennett,  J.  B. 

1857  Bond,  Frank 
1849  Bryant,  Joel 

1847  Burke,  A.  C.  * 

1841  Cox,  George  * 

1848  Culbert,  W.  A.  M.  * 
1859  Cate,  Hamilton  J. 
1859  Dickinson,  John 

1853  Dinsmore.  J.   P. 
1853  Doty,  S.  B. 

1853  Duffin,  J.  P.  * 

1849  Dunham,  Carroll 

1854  Elliott,  J.  B.  * 
1854  Fincke,  Bernhard 
1859  Flanders.   A.   H. 

1858  Hahne,  Victor  de 

1848  Hanford,  S.  Culien  * 

1849  Hanford,   William  H. 
185Q  Hawks,  Jonathan  * 
1843  Hull,  Aaron  Cooke  * 
1858  Hunt,  F.  G. 





Hempel,  Charles  J. 
Gilbert,  H.  S. 
Gilbert,   H.  O. 
Guernsey,  Egbert  * 
Guy,  Samuel  S.  * 
Johnson,  F.  G.  * 
Kmg,  O.  R. 
Keep,  Lester  * 
Keep,  J.  Lester 
Lodge,  Edwin  A. 
Macy,  Benjamin  C. 
May,  H.  * 
Minton,   Henry 
Moflfat,  R.  C. 
Morrill,  H.  E.  * 
Newcomb,    George   V. 
Orton,  J.  R. 
Palmer,  A.  J. 
Palmer,  G.  W.  * 
Palmer,  W.   W. 
Perrine,  W.  L.  R.  * 
Richter,  I\L  A. 
Rockwell,  John 
Richardson,  Edward  T.  * 
Rossman,  J.  Gaul 
Rossman,   Rribert  * 
Rossiter,   C.   D. 



1856  Saltzwedel,  H. 

i860  Samson,  C.  M. 

1832  Skiff,  Charles  H.  * 

i860  Skiff.  Charles  W. 

i860  Smith.  J.  W.,  Jr. 

1853  Stamm,  Frederick  F. 

1850  Stansbury,  — 

1856  Stiles,    Henry    R. 

1859  Talmage,  J.  F. 

l8^6  Thomas,    Edward 

List  of  ph}sicians  who  were  practicing 
ions  to  and  inclncling  i860: 

1853  Turner,  John 

185 1  Ward,  Isaac  Aloreau  * 
1850  Ward,  James  H. 

1856  Watson,  James  L. 

1842  Wells,  Phineas  P.  * 

1859  Wood,  L. 

1850  Wright,  Albert  * 

1852  Wright,  William  * 
1849  Young,  John 

1853  Zimmerman,  — 

homoeopathy  in  New  York  state 


1846  Adams,  Henry  *     Coxsackie 

i860  Adams,  Ira  R.     Lowville 

1859  Adams,  Henry  F.     Canastota 

1849  Allen,  Charles  S.     Albany 

1840  Allen,  George     Auburn 

1858  Allen,   Samuel   S.  *     Angelica 

1852  Allen,  Joseph  H.  x     Oswego 

1841  Alley,  William  W.  *     Moravia 

1853  Austin,  Alexander   G.     Williamson 
1858  Arjnstrong,  T.  S.  *     Speedsville 

1848  Ayres,  Dr.     Havana 

1854  Ayres,  Dr.     Brownsville 
1857  Bacon,  W.  H.  x     Corning 

1845  Bailey,  Silas  *     Watertown 
1857  Bailey.  E.  S.  x     Brooktield 

1850  Baldwin,  David  A.     Rochester 
1852  Baker,  J.  F.  x    Albion 

1857  Baker,   C.  x     Clarksville 

1852  Ball,  A.  R.  X     Clarkson 

1852  Ball,  Jay  x    Virgil 

1857  Ball,  W.  L.  X     Homer 

1852  Barr,  D.  T.     Ludlowville 

1852  Barker,  Daniel  x    Madison 

1857  Barnes,  Dr.  x     Spencertown 

1852  Batty,  B.  A.  x     Lockport 
1857  Beers.  A.  H.  x     Buffalo 

1853  Blanchard,  H.  C.     Buffalo 

1854  Blanchard,  J.  A.     Rochester 
1857  Beaklcy,  Henry     Peekskill 

1846  Bell,  11.  W.     Peekskill 

1849  Bartlett,  Rodman     Rhincbeck 

1857  Bartlett.  A.  C.  x     Cato 

1858  Bass,  Edgar  C.     Cazenovia 

1857  Bartlett,  L.  x     Skaneateles 
i860  Belding,  Dexter  R.     Malone 

1847  Benedict,  H.  S.  *     Havana 

1842  Bennet,  Dr.  *     Batavia 

1858  Bennett,  A.  M.     Rochester 
1840  Bennett,  Hilem  *     Rochester 
1845  Baxter,  William  *     Fishkill 
1840  Berry,  James  *     Gloversville 
1853  Bigelow,  Franklin     Syracuse 

1851  Bigelow,  Alfred  (}.     Alavsville 
1849  Bigelow,  J.  G.     Syracuse 
1853  Bigelow,  Thomas  *     Hartford 
1837  Bieglcr,  A.  P.     Albany 

1857  Biegler,  Jos.  A.     Rochester 

1857  Billings.  Geo.  H.     Cohoes 

1S33  Birnstill,   Joseph     Dunkirk. 

850  Bishop,  David  F.     Lockport 

844  Bishop,  Leverett  *     Sauquuit 

848  Blodgett,  T.  S.     Cooperstown 

853  Bloss,  Jabez  P.  *     Troy 

847  Boyce,  Capt.  Wm.  *     Auburn 

852  Bradner,  Ira  S.  *     Scotchtown 

853  Brewster,  A.  J.     Cato 

830  Brooks,  Paschal  P.  *    Alban\ 

848  Brown,  D.  T.     Fredonia 

853  Brown,  Titus  L.     Binghamton 
842  Brown,  Wm.  R.  *     Homer 
852  Brownson,  Dr.  x     Windsor 
842  Bruchhausen,   Caspar     Norwich 

841  Bryan,  Richard  S.  *     Troy 
852  Bryant,  Chas.  G.     Albany 

848  Bucknell,  Hanley  N.  *    (Tape  Vincent 

857  Bucknell,  Jr.  *  x     Cape  Vincent 

848  Bull,  Alexander  T.     Buffalo 

857  Bull,  M.  L.  X     Granville 

854  Burdick,  Edwin     Whitesville 

857  Burling.  Dr.     Waverly 

858  Butler,  Charles  F. 

857  Burritt,  —  x     Canandaigua 

857  Buckley,   M.  x     Easton 

857  Burroughs,  G.  W.  x     Poughkccpsie 

857  Burke,  W.  x    Rochester 

857  Bowers.  J..  Jr.  x     Smithtown 

852  Blakeslv,  J.  M.  x     Livonia 

860  Bullard,  D.  H.  *     Glens  Falls 

852  Brush.  Henry  N.  x     Moira 

853  Campbell,  M.  W.     Stillwater 

856  Carpenter,    Chas.   li.  *     Troy 
844  Cass,  O.  D.  *     Clinton 

846  Case,  Ephriam  *     Clinton 

857  Gate,  H.  J.  x     Poughkccpsie 

842  Cator,  Harvey  H.  *     Kingston 
857  Cator,  John  J.  x     Roxbury 
852  Champlin,  H.  C.  x     Owego 
841  Chase,  Durfec  *     Palmyra 

859  Chase,  Edwin  R.  *     Kecscville 
857  Clark,  I.  X     Eaton 

S45  Clary,  Lyman  * 

841  Coburn,   Edward  *    Chatham  Corners 

846  Childs,  Amherst  x     Waterloo 

852  Childs,  G.  C.  X     Clyde 

^^7  Chappell,  A.  W.  x     Pouipev 

857  Churchill.  Dr.   x     Peekskill 

857  Clemenls,   D.   F.   x     V'ictoryville 

857  Clements.  Z.   x     X'iclory  Mills 



1852  Clements,  J.  x     Vicloryville 

1857  Comstock,  A.  L.  *     Buffalo 

1852  Coman,  J.  W.  x     Buffalo 

1852  Cone,  Dr.  x     Coventry 

1857  Coon,  Dr.  x     Wecdsport 

1857  Cander,  W.  H.  x     Speedsville 

1850  Camp.  Mr.  H.  W.  (non-grad.)  Owego 

1852  Corbin,  E.  L.  x    Waverly 

1850  Coweli,   C.    (layman)    Spencer 

1842  Coburn,   E.  L.  *     Ghent 
184T  Coburn,  Stephen  *     Ghent 
1846  Cole,  Edgar  B.     Easton 

1856  Cole,  Sam'l   P.  *     Henderson 

1857  Collins,  —  X     Spafford 

1840  Cook,  A.  P.  *  Kinderhook 
183S  Cook,  Geo.  W.  *  Hudson 
1850  Cook,  E.  G.     Fredonia 

1849  Cook,   Simeon  A.  *     Troy 
i860  Cooke,  S.  G.     Stanfordville 

1852  Cornell,  B.  F.  x     Moreau  Station 

1855  Couch,  Asa  S.     Fredonia 

1857  Covert,  I.  X     Deposit 

1859  Cox,  George  A.     Albany 

1852  Cox,  James  W.     Albany 

1857  Crane,  Dr.  x     Holland  Patent 

1857  Crittenden,  J.  x     Morristown 

1841  Crispell,  Garret  *     Kingston 
1845'  Crossfield,   C.   C.     Attica 

1852  Culbert,  Wm.  A.  x     Newburgh 

1857  Dake,  D.  L.  x     Newark 

1845  Dake,  David  M.  *     Nunda 

1852  Dake,  Chas.  A.  *     Warsaw 

1841  Dake,  C.  M.  *     Genesee 

1850  DeForest,    S.  H.     Havana 

1848  Dunham,  Rufus  C.  *     Canton  Canal 

1845  Dunning,  Dr.  *     Watertown 

1846  Doty,  Hilem  *     Baldwinsville 
1850  Doane,  Wm.  C.     Elmira 

1848  Donovan,  T.  W.     New  Brighton 

1850  Dykeman,  H.  H.  x     Cohoes 

184s  Dodge.  Lewis     Buffalo 

1857  DeWolf,  —  X     Bath 

1852  De  LaMontagnie,  J.  x     Fishkill  Ldg. 

1854  Dewey,  Geo.  A.  x     Plattsburgh 

1852  Duane,  James  x     Duane 

1857  Ely,  F.  X     Binghamton 

1858  Evarts,  Edgar  S.     Cato 

1850  Everett,   D.  L.  *     I\Iodena 

1851  Ely,  W.  A.  *     Hempstead 
1857  Fay,  —  X     Fort  Ann 

1852  Farnam,  L.  D.  *     Almond 
1840  Field,  F.   S.  *     Troy 

1852  Foote,  S.  H.  X     Walton  New  Road 

1848  Foote,  E.  T.  *     Jamestown 

1857  Foote,  H.  R.  X     Utica 

1850  Foote.  G.  F.  * 

18.38  Formes.  —  *     Poughkeepsie 

1843  Freligh,  ^Inrtin  *     Saugerties 
1852  Freeman,   G.   W.     Glencove 
1852  Freeman.  Geo.  L.     Glenhead 
1857  Fuller,  H.  R.     Lansingburgh 

1851  Fulton,  Samuel  J.     Ndrwich 

1857  Fortune,  J.  x     Canandaigua 

1S52  Fox,  C.  W.  X     Morris 

1852  Gage,  J.  L.  x     Leroy 

T852  Garner,  James  x     Constable 

1857  Garret,  R.  x     Morris 

1H52  Gross,  J.  E.  X     Clinton 

1852  Easton,  D.  J.  x     Saratoga  Springs 

1844  Eddy,  H.  L.     Canoga  Village 

1857  Elwood,  L.  X     Schenectady 

1852  Ehrmann,  Lewis  x     Buffalo 

1848  Flagg.  Levi  W.  *     Yonkers 

852  Fleming,  L.  D.  x     Rochester 

857  Flowers,  B.  F.  x     Utica 

857  Fisher,  D.  L.  x     Webster 

859  Gardner,  M.  M.  *     Holland  Patent 

855  Gaylord,  Edward  P.  *     Syracuse 
854  Getman,  Norman  H.     Richfield  Spgs. 

856  Getman,  Norman  *     Pierpont  Manor 

859  Gillett,  ^L  H.  *     Springfield 

852  Govan,  William  x    North  Haverstraw 

836  Graham,  J.  H.  A.  *     Berne 

852  Gray.  Patrick  W.  x     Buffalo 

844  Grav,  Alfred  W.     Portland 

853  Gregg,  R.  R.     Buffalo 

857  Gerow,  Stephen  W.     New  Paltz 

845  Gulick,  William  *     Watkins 

860  Guiwitz,  Abram  *     Salisbury  Centre 
844  Guernsey,  C.  P.  *     Clinton 

852  Gorton,  Wm.  R.  x     Skaneateles 

852  Gove,  Geo.  V.  R.  x     Fort  Covington 

852  Goodspeed,  J.  L.  x     Burke 

857  Graves,  E.  x     Nelson 
844  Green,  Jeremiah  x    Utica 
852  Green,   H.  x     Peoria 

850  Hadley,  Hiram  *     Boonville 
838  Hall,   A.  *     Poughkeepsie 

846  Hall,  L.  B.     Baldwinsville 

856  Hall,  Geo.  A.     Westfield 

842  Haight,  Charles  *     Poughkeepsie 

852  Hand,  S.  D.  x     Binghamton 
848  Hannum,  Dr.  *     Hainesville 

858  Harter,  Dr.  *     Salisbury 

847  Harris,  C.  F.  *     Binghamton 
846  Havens,  S.  F.  x     Cortlandville 
846  Haven,  Simeon  Z.  *     Utica 

853  Hawley,  L.  B.     Delhi 
853  Hawley,  William  A.  * 

851  Hawley,  William  H.     Syracuse 

857  Hennery,  —  x     Hallsville 
857  Holbrook,  P.  R.  x     Keeseville 
857  Herrick,  S.  x     Hoosick 

844  Heath,  H.  H.  x     Seneca  Falls 

852  Hosford,  O.  T.  x     Malone 
852  Hopkins,  Dr.  x     Quincy 
852  Hayes,  F.  B.  x     Cuba 

852  Hewitt,  Dr.  x     Farmersville 

852  Heming,  L.  D.  x     Canandaigua 

851  Hedenberg,  James     Troy 

846  Hedges,  Wm.  S.  *     Jamestown 

859  Hill,   Charles  J.     Utica 

S^o  Hindley,  Alonzo   S.     Buffalo 

^h  Hoffendahl.  C.   F.     Albany 



1852  Hoffman,  Ernst  F.  *     Poughkeepsie 

1857  Holden,  A.  W.  *     Glens  Falls 
1854  Hornby,  John  *     Poughkeepsie 

1858  Horton,  Heman  B.  *     Eden 

1851  Hotchkiss,  J.  T.  *     Bloomingrove 

1852  Houghton,  H.  A.     Keeseville 

1852  Houghton,  A.  x     St.  Andrew 

1853  Howe,  E.  C.  *    Troy 
1844.  Howe,  Israel    Rushville 
1846  Hoyt,  Wm.  H.     Salina 
1840  Hubbard,  Henry  C.     Scott 
1852  Hull,  Amos  G.  X     Newburgh 
1842  Humphreys,  E.  *    Auburn 
1850  Humphreys,  F.     Auburn 
1852  Hunt,  W.  W.     Candor 

1849  Hurd,  Edwin  H.  *    Rochester 

1846  Hurd,   George  *     Fayetteville 

1852  Huntington,  D.   N.  x     Malone 
1842  Huson,  Richard  *     Dundee 

1857  Huson,  S.  K.  X     Dundee 

1853  Ingham,  Geo.  W.     Elmira 
1842  Jayne,  DeWitt  C.  *     Florida 

1858  Jernigan,  C.  P.  *  Saugerties 
1852  Jolls,  Augustus     Albany 

1844  Jones,  Erasmus  D.  *     Keeseville 

1856  Jones,  Henry  C.     Mount  Vernon 

1852  Jones,  Reuben  x     Keeseville 

1846  Jones,  C.  D.  *    Albany 
■857  Johnson,  H.  x    Mayfield 

1858  Kellogg,  George    Troy 

1847  Kellogg,  John  L.  *     Bridgewater 

1857  Kellogg,  A.  D.  X    Wolcott 

1846  Kenyon,  L.  M.  *    Westfield 
1857  Keyes,  Alvah  E.     Jamestown 
1857  Keys,  D.  C.  x     Corning 

1848  Kiersted,  J.  A.     Saugerties 
....  Kirk,  Isaac  E.     Hudson 

1853  Kinne,  Theodore  Y. 

1844  Knapp,   Franklin   L.  *     Gaspnrt 

1854  Knapp,  Theodore  P.  *    Union 
1852  Knapp,  J.  P.  X     St.  Andrews 
1857  Kornbach,  —  *     Poughkeepsie 

1842  Kimball.  D.  S.  *     Sackett's  Harbor 
1852  Kendrick,  —  x     Granville 

1857  Kingsley.  W.  J.  C.  x    Rome 

1843  Leman,  E.  H.  * 

1859  Landon,  Eliza  T.  Fredonia 
1852  Lansing,  G.  C.  *  Rhinebcck 
1863  Lansing,  B.  *     Hyde  Park 

1858  Landt,  William     Mohawk 

1855  Laurie,  P.  B.  *     Rhincbeck 

1847  Lilienthal,   Samuel  *     Haverstraw 
1840  Lillie,  James  *     Rhinebeck 

1858  Little.  Edward  *     Oneida 

1857  Loomis,  D.  D.  x     Bridgewater 

1844  Loomis,  Isaac  G.  *     Westmoreland 
1847  Lorillard,  George 

1840  Lovejoy,  Ezekiel  *     Owego 

1857  .  Loucks,  J.  X     Lyme 

1857  Marien.  L.  J.  x     Northampton 

1852  Manning,   Warren  L.  x    Ft.  Covington 

1852  Lathrop,  E.  x     Syracuse 












Lakin,  E.  L.  x    Jamestown 
Lawrence,  Dr.  x     Port  Jervis 
Lackey,  S.  M.  x    Rochester 
Leggatt,  C.  J.  X     Flushing 
Levanway,  W.  A.  x    Lyons 
Lewis,  Geo.  W.  x    Buffalo 
Lewis,  George  x    Rochester 
Lewis,  Edwin  W.     Watkins 
Lewis,  Dioclesian  x     Buffalo 
Loersch,  P.  x     Buffalo 
Macy,  Benj.  C.     Dobbs  Ferry 
Mather,  Thaddeus  x     Binghamton 
Matthews,  Moses  M.  *    Rochester 
Maura,  J.  P.  x    Adams 
Merritt,  J.  F.  *     Pleasant  Plains 
McCarty,  Lewis  *    Throopsville 
McGonegal,  H.  G.     Marcellus 
Melvin,  John     Shortsville 
Mitchell,  G.  H.     Saratoga  Springs 
Mitchell,  John  J.     Newburgh 
Morgan,  Alonzo  R.     Svracuse 
Morgan,  Louis  S.     Gowanda 
Mosher,  Charles  *     Shagticoke 
Mosher,  James  P.  *     Shagticoke 
Mosher,  J.  C.     Pittstown 
Mott,  Orville  H.     Fort  Edward 
Moore,  Samuel  x    Lyons 
Mower,  John  W.     West  Schuyler 
Mull,  Philip  W.     Ghent 
Mull,  G.  H.  X     Ghent 
Munger,  Erastus  A.  *    Waterville 
Minier.  Wm.  E.  x     Elmira 
McCall,  S.  H.  X    Batavia 
Manter,  —  x     Coming 
Marvin,  Harvey  x     Evans 
Mason,  —  x     Galesville 
Morse,  A.  W.  x     Hamilton 
Morse,  G.  S.  x    Waterville 
Morgan,  Edward  J.  x     Ithaca 
McLaren,  P.  M.     Morristown 
Malin,  George  W.  *     Naples 
Meacham,  Isaac  J.  *     Nunda 
McClellan,  C.  H.  x     Poughkeepsie 
Miller,  Frederick  x     Sing  Sing 
Nelson,  Thomas  J.  x     Kingston 
Noble,  O.   E.  x     Penn   Van 
Norton,  S.   S.  x    Vernon 
Ormes,  Cornelius  *     Panama 
Ostrom,   J.  X     Goshen 
Osborn.   O.  x     Schoharie 
Owen,  J.  N.  x     Sherburne 
Paine.  Henry  D.     Albany 
Paine,  Horace  M. '   Albany 
Paine.  John  Alsop  *     Albany 
Parker,  C.  M.  x     De  Ruyter 
Parker.  Charles  *     Fredonia 
Parson,  Ovin  C.     Newark 
Palmer,  Geo.  B.     East  Hamilton 
Peabody,  Ira  W.  x     Vestal 
Peterson.  P.  H.     Auburn 
Pearsall,  S.  J.     Saratoga  Springs 
Patrick,   Abram  x     Cobbleskill 



1854  Pcttit,  Thos.  J.     Fort   Plain 

1858  Peck,  Oliver  J.  *     North  Chatham 
1848  Peer,  Geo.  W.     Rochester 

1846  Peak,  J.  M.  x  *     Cooperstown 

1852  Perkins,   S.   G.  x     Waterford 

1853  Pcrrine.   Geo.   W.  *     Pittsford 
1852  Phillips.   J.   G.  X      Sherman 
1841  Phillips,  John  *     Kinderhook 
1857  Phillips.   S.  X     Catskill 

1852  Phelps,  Elias  P.  x     Fort  Plain 

1852  Phillips,   J.    S.  X      Ansterlit/ 

1841  Phillips,  John  *     Columbia 

1857  Piatt,  J.  H.  X     Albany 

1845  Poole,  A.  *     Oswego 

1845  Potter,  E.  A.  *     Oswego 

1852  Potter,  E.  T.  V.  x     Moravia 

1857  Potter,  F.  W.  x     Oswego 

1857  Potter,  Asaph  LeRov     Dundee 

1856  Pelton,  S.  *     Wellsville 

1859  Peterson,  Orton  W.     Waterloo 

1852  Peterson,  P.  H.  x    Union  Springs 

1853  Pom.eroy,  T.  F.     Utica 

1847  Pot  wine,  Benjamin  *     Corry 

1854  Pratt,  L.  M.     Albany 
185T  Purdy,  W.  S.  *     Corning 

1857  Prime,  A.  x     White  Plains 

1855  Quick,  Theodore     Milton 
1857  Randall,  W.  W.  X     Mexico 
1851  Randall.  Wm.  H.     Alhan}; 

185 1  Ravmond.  Jonas  G.     Utica 
1857  Read,  T..W.  x  *     Elmira 

1844  Rice,  F.  *     Cazenovia 

1857  Richardson,  S.  x     Syracuse 

1857  Roberts,  M.  P.  x     Gowanda 

1852  Roberts,  G.  W.  x     Greene 

1857  Reynolds,  O.  x     Webster 

1845  Richardson,  E.  T.  *     Syracuse 

1848  Ring,  Tobias  S.     Yorkville 
184s  Roberts,  Elisha 

1840  Robinson,  Horatio  *     Auburn 

1858  Robinson,  S.  A.  W.     New  Brighton 
1847  Roe.  L.  S.     Schenectadv 

1854  Rosa,  W.  V.  *     Waterloo 

1838  Rosenstein.  I.   G.     Albany 

1839  Rossman,  Robert  *     Hudson 

1845  Rogers,  E.  W.     Watkins 

1857  Royston,  T.  P.  x     Seneca  Falls 

1857  Russell,  A.  W.  X     Albany 

1857  Search,  —  x     West  Granville 

1852  Searle,  J.  x     Granville 

1857  .Scofield,   E.  X     Poughkeepsie 

t86o  Scott,  Fremont  W.     Modena 

1849  Scudder,  Samuel  O.     Rome 
1852  Seward.  W.  x     Liverpool 

1859  Searle.  Wm.  S.     Troy 
1857  Seeley.  Nathaniel  R. 

1846  Seward.  Stephen  *     Liverpool 
1849  Seymour,  S.  *     Rome 

1852  Sibley.  S.  Louis  x     Tthaca 

1839  Sieze.   Emanuel     Albany 

1845  Sloan.  Ja'i''cs  D.  *     Sing  Sing 

1855  Slncimi.  Mrrtimcr 

832  Skiff,  Charles  H.  *    Albany 

860  Slfjan,   Henry   S.     Binghamton 

858  Smith,  R.  G.     Rochester 

860  Smith,   Henry  W.     Rushville 

842  Smith,  Ezra  P.  K.     Moravia 

857  Smith,  G.  X     Phoenix     . 

857  Southwick,  David  E.     Ogdensburg. 

852  Smith,  H.  E.  x     Rochester 

839  Spaulding,  Dr.  *     Flushing 

846  Springsteed.  D.  *     Bethlehem 

847  Sprague,  Ezra  B.  *     Owego 

846  Spencer,  Nathan  *     Herkimer 
852  Spooner,   Stillman  x     Wampsville 
857  Stebbins,  N.  x     Clinton 

854  Stebbins,  J.  H.     Geneva 

857  Stebbins,  Wm.  B.  *  x     Little  Falls- 

857  Stevens,  C.  D.  x     Cortlandville 

841  Stevens,  Chas.  A.     Buffalo 

84s  Stewart,  Samuel  W.  *     Clinton 

848  Stockton,  C.  L.  *  Ripley 
852  Stone,  Joshua  Randolph 
854  Stow,  Timothy  D.     Mexico 

856  Strong.  Walter  D.  O.  K.  *     Owasco 

850  Stone.  Henry  E.  *     Otego 

857  Steenburg,  —  x     Dunning  Street 
857  Stanton,  J.   B.  x     Ellicottville 
857  Sayles,  H.  x     Elmira 

857  Schell.  T.  C.  X     Geneseo 

847  Stoddard,  J.  L.  *     Glens  Falls 
846  Swift,  Charles  E.     Ithaca 

851  Schenck,  Benj.  B.  *     Plainville 

852  Schuch,  Chas.  E.  x     Rochester 
852  Sherman,  Stephen  x     Lyons 

858  Sullivan,  N.  B.  *     Plainville 
857  Shuld,  P.  x     Warren 

852  Sullings,  Hervey  x     Batavia 

856  Sumner,  Charles     Rochester 
.. .  Shattuck,  A.     Buffalo 

857  Sunderlin,  —  x     Hammondsport 

848  Switz.  Harman     Schenectady 
852  Talmadge,  Rufus  x     Enfield 
852  Throop,  B.  F.  x     Palmyra 
852  Thorp.  John  H.     Whitesville 

858  Tisdale.  T.  P.     Lowville 

859  Todd,  W.  S..  Sr.  *     Angelica 

856  Towner,  Enoch,  Jr.     Turin 
844  Tracy,  L.  M.  *     Fairfield 
846  Towner,  Daniel  A.  *     Elmira 

857  Tuttle,  Dr.  x     Oneida 

846  Van  Buren.  Roswell  *     Frewsburg- 

838  Vanderburgh,  F.  *     Poughkeepsie 

8i3  Van  Rensselaer,  D.  S.     Randolph 

852  Valk,  W.  W.  x     Flushing 

857  Von  Wackerbarth.  Dr.  x     Narrows- 

857  Warren,  S.  C.  x     Otego 

857  Washburn.  G.  x     Utica 

852  Van  Vleck.  —  x     Valatia 

852  Wager,  J.  L.  x     Ithaca 

857  Wager,  W.  L.  x     Deposit 

832  Ward,  Isaac  M.  *     Albany 

844  Warner.  X.  H.     Buffalo 



1854  Watson,  Wm.  H.  Utica  1857 
1857  Ward,  H.  R.  x  Oriskany  Falls  1857 
1857  Weed,  Hiland  A.  Jordan  185 1 
1857  Wellman,  W.  I.  x  Friendship  1847 
1846  Wells,  Lucien  B.  *  Pompey  1852 
1852  Weeks,  Benj.  x     Fulton  1846 

1855  Wheeler,  Jared  P.     Brighton  1850 

1856  White,  Joseph  R.  Butternuts  1852 
1854  White,  Joseph  N.  Amsterdam  1854 
1859  White,  Theodore  C.  Rochester  1843 
1852  Whitney,  J.  I.  x     Bainbridge  1858 

1857  Wilber,  E.  C.  x  Dundee  1844 
1857  Wallrath,  C.  H.  x  Evans  Mills  1847 
1857  Wisner,  G.  S.  x  Florida  1852 
1852  White,  Daniel  x  Geneva  1S49 
1852  Wilder,  Louis  DeV.  x    Geneva 

West,  Dr.  x     Warsaw 
Woodbury,  Dr.  x     Pompey 
Wilbur,  Charles  A. 
Williams,  E.  D. 
Wright,  J.  C.  X     Newtown 
Witherill,  E.  C.  x     Canandaigua 
Witherill,  A.  A.     Union 
Woodward,  J.  W.  x     Dobbs  Ferry 
Woodruff,  Charles  S.     Troy 
Wolcott,  Wm.  G.  *    Westfield 
Wright,  Andrew  R.     BufYalo 
Wright,  Noah  H.  *     Buffalo 
Wright,  Ira  *     Watertown 
Wright,  Wm.  *     Fort  Edward 
Wright,  Albert     Williamsburg 

HISTORY  ()V  ]]Cn\n-X)\\\T\\Y  111 


By  Thomas  Lindsley  Bradford,  M.   D. 

Introductory  Remarks— Primacy  of  Pennsylvania  in  Homoeopathic  Institutions — Homoe- 
opathic Medical  Society  of  Pennsylvania— Other  State  and.  Local  Societies— Allen- 
town  Academy— Recollections  of  Early  Practitioners— Detwiller,  the  Prescriber— 
Wesselhoeft  and  Freytag,  the  Founders— Becker  and  Helfrich,  the  Preacher  Phy- 
sicians—Ihm,  the  Pioneer  in  Philadelphia— Hering,  the  Prover,  Philosopher,  Scien- 
tist and  Founder— Brief  Allusion  to  other  Early  Practitioners— Lists  of  Pioneer 
Physicians — Plomoeopathic   Dispensaries. 

HomcEOpathy  gained  a  foothold  in  Pennsylvania  in  much  the  same  man- 
ner as  the  system  "was  planted  in  New  York,  and  within  three  years  after 
Gram  left  the  New  England  coast  and  settled  permanently  in  the  great 
metropolis  of  America.  As  was  Gram  to  homoeopathy  in  New  York,  so  was 
Detwiller  to  the  new  system  in  Pennsylvania,  yet  in  the  latter  commonwealth 
greater  prominence  seems  to  have  been  given  to  the  introduction  of  _  Hahne- 
mann's doctrine  than  in  the  former ;  and  .in  Pennsylvania  all  chroniclers  of 
contemporary  history  have'  dated  its  advent  to  the  day  when  Detwiller  admin- 
istered the  first  homoeopathic  dose.  And  unlike  Gram  in  New  York,  Detwil- 
ler in  Pennsylvania  from  the  time  he  began  to  investigate  homoeopathy  was 
•encouraged  by  the  sympathy  and  assistance  of  zealous  co-workers,  Wessel- 
hoeft and  Freytag,  and  sooii  afterward  by '  acquisitions  from  abroad  and  the 
converts  they  "made  among  the  German  settlers  in  the  locality  in  which  the 
scene  of  their  early  experiences  was  laid. 

Although  the  Hahnemannian  doctrine  was  first  planted  in  New  York 
and  afterward  in  Pennsylvania,  the  latter  in  some  respects  holds  primacy  in 
the  establishment  of  institutions  and  the  natural  development  oi  the  homoe- 
opathic system.  Indeed,  there  seems  to  have  been  less  ooposition  to  contend 
•against  and  overcome  in  the  Keystone  state  than  in  New  York,  which  may 
in  part  be  accounted  for  in  the  fact  that  in  Pennsylvania  homoeopathy  first 
found  lodgment  in  a  part  of  the  state  remote  from  its  metropolis,  and  the 
practitioners  had  gained  a  strong  foothold  with  the  people  when  Ihm  set  him- 
self up  as  a  practitioner  of  the  new  school  in  the  city  of  Philadelphia.  Again, 
in  less  than  eight  years  after  Detwiller  and  Wesselhoeft  had  made  their 
first  practical  demonstrations  of  homoeopathy  the  number  of  converts  had  so 
increased  that  a  medical  society  was  formed,  and  just  a  little  later  these  same 
determined  pioneers  had  the  courage  to  go  beyond  society  organization  and 
found  a  school  of  homoeopathic  medical  instruction.  The  so-called  Allentown 
Academy  was  the  result  of  their  enterprise,  and  while  that  institution  was 
destined  to  a  brief  existence  it  always  has  figured  in  history  as  the  first  insti- 
tution of  its  kind  in  the  world ;  and  after  it  had  passed  out  of  being  some  of 
its  best  elements  were  utilized  in  founding  the  Homoeopathic  Medical  College 
of   Pennsylyania,    which    was   organized   in   Philadelphia    in    1848.      The   two 


schools  were  quite  unlike  in  many  respects,  yet  the  experiences  of  the  first 
endeavor  were  of  s^rcat  value  in  laying;  the  foundation  of  the  latter  institu- 


Tlie  Homoeopathic  Medical  Society  of  the  State  of  Pennsylvania,  while 
not  the  first  organization  of  its  character  in  the  state,  is  nevertheless  of  first 
importance  and  is  regarded  as  the  conservator  of  the  peace  and  dignity  of 
the  homoeopathic  profession  and  its  other  societies  the  extent  of  whose  author- 
ity and  jurisdiction  is  less  than  that  of  the  mother  organization.  The  State 
Society,  as  commonly  known,  was  organized  at  a  convention  of  physicians 
held  June  5,  1866,  in  the  Homoeopathic  Hospital  of  Pittsburgh  in  pursuance 
of  a  call  emanating  from  the  Allegheny  County  Homoeopathic  Medical  Soci- 
ety. This  informal  meeting  was  called  to  order  by  Dr.  J.  C.  Burgher  of 
Pittsburgh^  who  stated  briefly  the  object  of  assembling  the  homoeopathic 
physicians  of  the  state.  Dr.  J.  P.  H.  Frost  was  chosen  chairman  and  Dr. 
Bushrod  W.  James  secretary  pro  tem.  An  informal  organization  was  then 
perfected  and  a  committee  of  one  from  each  county  was  appointed  to  prepare 
a  constitution  and  by-laws  for  the  government  of  the  society's  affairs.  These 
preliminaries  being  settled  the  convention  proceeded  to  perfect  a  permanent 
organization  by  electing  officers  for  the  ensuing  year,  as  follows :  Dr.  J.  B. 
Wood  of  West  Chester,  president;  Drs.  J.  H.  P.  Frost  of  Philadelphia  and 
J.  C.  Burgher  of  Pittsburgh,  vice-presidents ;  Bushrod  W.  James  of  Phila- 
delphia, recording  secretary ;  Robert  J.  McClatchey  of  Philadelphia,  corre- 
sponding secretary ;  David  Cowley  of  Pittsburgh,  treasurer ;  Coates  Preston 
of  West  Chester,  Robert  Faulkner  of  Erie,  and  H.  H.  Hoffman  of  Pittsburgh, 

Thus  permanently  organized  and  officered  the  society  began  its  active 
career  and  history,  and  during  tlie  period  of  its  existence  in  all  later  years  it 
has  been  instrumental  in  promotmg  and  safeguarding  the  interests  of  the 
homoeopathic  profession  in  the  Keystone  state,  and  through  its  members  has 
exercised  an  influence  for  good  in  directing  the  affairs  of  that  greater  body, 
the  American  Institute  of  Homoeopathy.  There  were  thirty  original  members 
of  the  society,  all  of  whom  were  subscribers  to  the  constitution.  In  the  course 
of  the  next  year  the  membership  increased  to  seventy-one,  and  in  the  third 
year  to  ninety-eight.  In  1903  the  society  numbered  three  hundred  and  fifty- 
eight  members,  which  represented  about  one-half  the  strength  of  the  profes- 
sion in  the  state. 

The  policy  of  the  society  ever  has  been  to  hold  its  annual  meetings  in 
different  cities.  Previous  to  1873  these  meetings  were  held  in  May  or  June, 
and  since  then  in  September  or  October;  now  they  are  held  in  the  former 
month.  Transactions  have  been  published  since  the  society  was  first  organ- 
ized. The  first  six  volumes  were  issued  in  paper  covers  and  later  ones  in 
substantial  cloth  binding.  In  1889  the  society  published  a  repertorv  to  Her- 
ing's  "Condensed  Materia  Medica."  Several  important  annual  addresses  by 
presidents  of  the  society  also  have  been  published. 

The  Hahnemannian  Society  was  the  pioneer  organization  of  homoeopathy 
in  Pennsylvania  and  indeed  in  the  entire  country,  and  dates  its  history  to 
April  10,  1833,  when  Drs.  Ihm,  Bute.  Matlack,  Hering  and  Wesselhoeft,  wMth 
a  few  la\nien,  associated  themselves  for  the  purpose  of  disseminating  among 
the  ])enple  some  knowledge  of  the  history  and  doctrines  of  homreopathv,  and' 

History  of  iioMCEorATiiY  113 

its  advant'ii^cs  over  other  inctliods  of  medical  treatment.  In  pursuance  of 
this  design  Dr.  Herin"-  ])repared  an  interesting  address,  an  English  version 
of  which,  furnished  by  Dr.  Matlack,  was  read  before  the  society  April  i8, 
1833,  and  was  afterward  published  under  the  title  of  "A  Concise  View  of  the 
Rise  and  Progress  of  Homoeopathic  Medicine."  This  address  and  notices  of 
it  by  the  press  were  the  means  of  promoting  to  a  considerable  extent  the  de- 
sign contemplated  by  its  publication.  The  society  having  issued  this  brochure, 
and  having  addressed  a  letter  to  Hahnemann,  informing  him  of  its  formation 
on  the  anniversary  of  his  birth,  and  bearing  his  name,  was  succeeded  by 
another  society,  from  membership  in  which  laymen  were  excluded,  and  which 
was  known  as  the  Homoeopathic  Medical  Society  of  Philadelphia,  organized 
in  1838,  with  a  membership  of  physicians  only.  This  was  the  first  regularly- 
constituted  homoeopathic  society  in  the  city  of  "Brotherly  Love." 

Another  notable  organization  of  Hahnemann's  disciples  of  which  chron- 
iclers of  homoeopathic  history  in  Pennsylvania  have  given  little  account  was 
that  known  as  the  Homoeopathic  Society  of  Northampton  and  Counties  Adja- 
cent, which  was  formed  soon  after  the  Hahnemannian  Society,  and  of  which 
Detwiller  many  years  ago  gave  this  description  :  "In  1834,  23d  of  August, 
the  Homoeopathic  Society  of  Northampton  and  Adjoining  Counties  was 
formed  by  Drs.  W'esselhoeft,  Freytag,  Romig,  myself  and  Rev.  Christian  J. 
Becker,  D.  D.  The  object  of  the  association  was  the  advancement  of  homoe- 
opathy amongst  its  members — by  interchange  of  experience  and  reciprocal 
encouragement  to  persevere  in  the  study  and  spread  of  the  doctrine  and  prac- 
tice of  similia  similibus  curantur."  The  meeting  at  which  the  society  was 
organized  was  attended  by  several  notable  characters  in  earlv  homoeopathic 
history  in  Pennsylvania.  They  were  Wesselhoeft,  Freytag,  Romig,  Detwil- 
ler, Becker,  the  minister,  Joseph  H.  Pulte,  afterward  founder  of  a  homoe- 
opathic medical  college  in  Cincinnati,  Ohio,  J.  C.  Gosewich,  assistant  to  Wes- 
selhoeft, Rev.  R.  Wohlfrath,  Gustav  Reichhelm  the  pioneer  homoeopath  west 
of  the  .Allegheny  mountains.  Rev.  John  Helfrich  and  Rev.  Mr.  Waage.  The 
first  officers  of  the  society  were  E.  Freytag,  president ;  William  Wesselhoeft, 
vice-president;  Rev.  C.  Becker,  recording  secretary;  Henry  Detwiller,  corre- 
sponding secretary  and  librarian. 

For  more  than  half  a  century  Pennsylvania  has  been  the  home  of  manv 
important  medical  societies  and  associations,  some  of  them  district  organiza- 
tions and  others  of  a  purely  local  character.  The  older  of  these  are  the  Alle- 
gheny County  Medical  Society,  organized  November  25,  1864,  and  still  exist- 
ing; Allegheny  County  Anatomical  Society,  organized  October  19,  1864, 
incorporated  December  4,  1865 ;  Allegheny  County  INIateria  Medica  Club, 
May  3,  1875 ;  American  Provers'  Union,  organized  at  Philadelphia,  August 
15,  1853;  Beaver  County  Homoeopathic  Medical  Society,  January  8,  1883; 
Berks  and  Schuylkill  Counties  Homoeopathic  Medical  Society,  November  9, 
1869;  Boenninghausen  Club  of  Philadelphia,  November,  1867';  Chester  Coun- 
ty Homoeopathic  Medical  Society,  September  5,  1858:  Chester  Organon  Club, 
1887;  Crawford  County  Homoeopathic  Medical  Society,  July  28,  1882;  Cum- 
berland Valley  Homoeopathic  Medical  Society,  May  8,"^  1866';  Dauphin  Countv 
Homoeopathic  Medical  Societv,  1866;  Erie  Countv  Homoeopathic  Medical 
Society.  July  i,  1891  ;  Farrington  Materia  Medica  Club  of  Allegheny  County, 
1888;  Germantown  Homoeopathic  Medical  Societv,  October,  1879;  German- 
town  Homoeopathic  Medical  Club,  about  1889:  Hahnemannian  Association  of 
Pennsylvania,    organized    in    Philadelphia,    October      11,    1887;    Hahnemann 


Club  of  Philadelphia,  January,  1874;  Hahnemannian  Society,  organized  at 
Philadelphia,  April  10,  1833.  the  first  homoeopathic  society  in  America;  Hahne- 
mann Medical  Society  of  Reading,  November  23,  1882;  Hahnemann  Medical 
Institute,  a  students'  society  organized  1849-1850;  Hering  Club  of  Phila- 
delpdiia,  December  20,  1880;  Homoeopathic  Medical  Council  of  Pennsylvania, 
November  24, '1880;  Lehigh  Valley  Homoeopathic  Medical  Society,  March  24, 
1881  ;  Lippe  Society  of  Philadelphia,  January  5,  1880;  Luzerne  County 
Homoeopatliic  Medical  Society,  1868;  Northeastern  Philadelphia  Society  of 
Homoeopathic  Physicians,  February  9,  1883 ;  Northwestern  Pennsylvania 
Homceopathic  Medical  Society,  July  5,  1866;  Northwestern  Pennsylvania 
Homoeopathic  Medical  Society,  January  13,  1874;  Northern  Pennsylvania 
Homoeopathic  Medical  Society,  June  20,  1882;  Northampton  and  Adjacent 
Counties  Homoeopathic  Medical  Society,  organized  August  23,  1834;  Organon 
and  Materia  Medica  Society,  November  6,  1888 :  Pennsylvania  Homoeopathic 
Pharmaceutical  Association,  April  9,  1881,  incorporated  October  3,  1881  ; 
Philadelphia  Branch  of  the  American  Institute  of  Homoeopathy,  organized  at 
Philadelphia  June  6,  1846;  Philadelphia  Homoeopathic  Clinical  Society,  1877; 
Philadelphia  Homoeopathic  Medical  Society,  1838;  Philadelphia  Homoeopathic 
Medical  Society,  July  19,  1852;  Philadelphia  Countv  Homoeopathic  Medical 
Society,  April  13,  1859;  Philadelphia  Medical  Club,  1882;  Women's  Homoe- 
opathic Association  of  Pennsylvania,  1883-1884;  Women's  Homoeopathic  Med- 
icaJ  Club  of  Philadelphia,  October  15,  1883;  Ladies'  Association  of  the  Homoe- 
opathic Hospital  of  Philadelphia  for  Sick  and  Wounded  Soldiers,  Septem- 
ber 8,  1862;  Pittsburgh  Microscopical  Society,  1881  ;  Doctors'  Round  Table 
Club  of  Allegheny  County,  1891  ;  Schuylkill  County  Homoeopathic  Medical 
vSociety,  July  28,  1883 ;  Scranton  Homoeopathic  Clinical  Club,  March,  1892 ; 
Homoeopathic  Medical  Society  of  the  Twenty-Third  Ward,  Philadelphia,  Octo- 
ber 21,  t88i  ;  Homoeopathic  Medical  Society  of  Western  Pennsylvania,  Au- 
gust 3,   1881 ;  West  Philadelphia  Homoeopathic  Medical  Association,   1882. 


In  reality  there  never  was  an  institution  in  existence  under  the  proper 
name  of  Allentown  Academy,  yet  for  convenient  designation  that  name  was 
assumed  in  preference  to  that  adopted  by  the  founders — The  North  American 
Academy  of  the  Homeopathic  Healing  Art ;  but  under  whatever  name  the 
institution  was  brought  into  existence  it  was  the  first  school  of  homoeopathic 
medical  instruction  in  the  world,  and  as  such  is  worthy  a  place  in  Pennsyl- 
vania homoeopathic  history,  although  it  is  also  made  the  subject  of  somewhat 
extended  mention  in  the  chapter  devoted  particularly  to  the  old  Homoeopathic 
Medical  College  of  Pennsylvania  and  its  successor,  the  Hahnemann  Medical 
College  of  Philadelphia.  It  may  be  said,  however,  that  the  events  narrated 
in  this  chapter  relate  to  elements  of  history  which  are  not  specially  treated 
in  the  college  article,  hence  the  double  mention  must  not  be  regarded  as  a 
duplication   of   subject  matter. 

The  so-called  Allentown  Academy  had  its  inception  in  the  Homoeopathic 
Society  of  Northampton  and  Counties  Adjacent,  to  which  reference  has  been 
made,  and  also,  although  in  a  less  degree,  to  that  pioneer  organization  of 
homoeopathy  in  this  state  known  as  the  Hahnemannian  Association.  The  estab- 
lishment of  this  society,  the  circulation  of  Flering's,  pamphlet,  and  the  other 
efforts  of  the  friends  of  homoeopathy  at  an  carlv  dav  excited  considerable 
interest  not  only  among  the  clergy  and  other  laymen  but  among  physicians, 



and  many  of  the  latter  were  disposed  to  investigate  the  new  doctrine ;  but  it 
was  soon  found  that  there  was  need  of  some  method  by  which  the  principles 
of  homoeopathy  could  be  taught.  Hering's  plan  was  to  devise  a  course  of 
lectures  on  the  subject,  and  to  encourage  students  of  medicine  to  learn  the 
German   language    in   order   to   understand   and  appreciate   the   value  of  the 

Allentown   Academy. 

founder's  teachings.  At  the  same  time  the  members  of  the  Northampton  soci- 
ety felt  the  need  of  a  school  for  the  teaching  of  homoeopathy,  and  in  writing 
on  the  subject  Det wilier  said  that  as  early  as  December  30,  1833,  Wesselhoeft, 
Romig  and  himself  waited  on  Hering  in  Philadelphia  and  adopted  a  plan 
which  ultimately  resulted  in  the  establishment  of  the  academy.  The  plans 
were  matured  on   Hering's  birthday,  January   i,   1834,  and  provided   for  an 


academy  to  be  located  in  AUeutown,  with  Hering  as  president  and  principal- 
instructor,  for  which  purpose  he  was  to  remove  to  that  place  from  Philadel- 
phia "as  soon  as  they  would  guarantee  him  a  salary  equal  to  that  of  a  first 
class  Allentown  clergyman."' 

The  plans  of  the  founders  contemplated  the  procuring  of  a  charter  from 
the  legislature  through  the  influence  of  the  homceopaths  in  Northampton  and 
Lehigh  counties,  which  being  accomplished,  Wesselhoeft  proposed  to  invite 
there  medical  students  who  attended  the  allopathic  colleges  for  instruction 
during  the  summer  months,  there  being  no  summer  courses  at  that  time,  and 
that  they  should  have  the  benefit  of  lectures  devoted  to  the  science  and  appli- 
cation of  pure  homoeopathy.  Such  a  thing  as  opposition  from  any  source 
was  not  thought  of,  as  there  was  to  be  no  interference  with  the  regular  courses 
in  other  schools,  but  such  violent  opposition  and  bitterness  of  feeling  as  was 
soon  aroused  was  as  surprising  as  it  was  unwarranted. 

The  commendable  purpose  of  the  founders  was  to  devote  considerable 
time  during  the  winter  months  to  the  preparation  of  text  works  with  which 
to  promulgate  the  doctrines  of  homoeopathy ;  also  to  pledge  all  students  to 
continue  their  courses  in  other  schools,  except  those  who  came  for  the  express 
purpose  of  perfecting  themselves  in- homoeopathy  alone.  All  books  previously 
published  on  the  subject  of  homoeopathy  were  to  be  translated  into  English. 

Another  original  purpose  of  the  founders  was  to  organize  a  stock  com- 
pany for  the  purchase  of  land  and  the  erection  of  an  academy  building.  For 
this  object  about  one  hundred  subscribers  from  Allentown,  Bethlehem,  Phila- 
delphia and  New  "^'ork  did  create  a  fund  sufficient  to  purchase  a  tract  of  land 
comprising  one  entire  square  in  the  very  center  of  Allentown.  The  greater 
part  of  this  fund  was  in  fact  raised  in  Philadelphia  through  the  efforts  of 
William  Geisse,  who  is  said  to  have  been  the  real  pioneer  of  homoeopathy  in 
that  city. 

According  to  the  original  plans,  which  as  a  matter  of  fact  were  not  fully 
carried  out,  the  academy  building  was  to  comprise  a  main  structure  with  two 
wings,  each  forty  by  sixty  feet  in  size,  three  stories  high,  and  of  brick  con- 
struction, and  another  two  story  building  for  use  as  a  chemical  laboratory 
and  also  for  anatomical  and  dissecting  purposes ;  for  these  old  patriarchs  of 
Jiomoeopathy  had  in  mind  the  establishment  of  a  college  curriculum  which 
included  both  didactic  and  clinical  teaching,  and  furnished  instruction  in  sur- 
gery as  well  as  medicine.  But  the  elaborate  plans  of  the  foimders  never  were 
consummated;  discouragements  and  obstacles  arose  before  them  and  confused 
their  operations  to  a  considerable  extent.  They  did,  however,  succeed  in  open- 
ing the  academy  and  carried  forward  its  work  for  several  years,  though  with 
not  better  than  indififerent  results  so  far  as  medical  education  was  concerned 
and  at  some  loss  from  a  financial  standpoint.  The  principal  mistake  was  in 
giving  medical  instruction  in  German  in  an  English  speaking  countrv,  and 
rather  than  educate  themselves  in  German  the  American  students  were  inclined 
to  enter  other  schools  and  thus  quite  naturally  adopted  some  other  svstem 
of  medicine  than  homoeopathy. 

To  receive  an  Allentown  diploma  was  a  medical  distinction.  The  profes- 
.sors  were  graduates  of  German  universities  and  subjected  the  candidate  to 
the  same  rigorous  examination  as  they  had  received.  Manv  who  sought  to 
pass  were  rejected. 

Several  important  books  were  issued  under  the  auspices  of  the  Allentown 
Academy.     "Einige  Wort  ueber  Nothwendigkeit" — the  address  at  the  dcdica- 


lion  of  the  academy;  the  "Homoeopathic  Domestic  Physician,"  by  Hering, 
1835-38,  and  Hahnemann's  Organon,  a  reprint  of  the  Stratton  edition.  This 
was  pubhshed  at  the  "Academical  Bookstore,"  1836,  and  contains  a  preface 
"by  Hering:  the  "Correspondenzblatt,"  1835-37;  "Wirkungen  des  Schlangen- 
giftes"   (Effects  of  Snake  Poisons),  by  Hering,  Allentown,  1837. 

So  much  of  the  early  history  of  Allentown  Academy  as  is  here  nar- 
rated will  suffice  for  the  purposes  of  this  chapter,  which  is  devoted  more  par- 
ticularly to  the  history  of  homoeopathy  in  Pennsylvania  than  that  of  its  schools 
of  medical  instruction.  Again,  the  academy  history  is  made  the  subject  of 
sufficient  mention  in  the  chapter  which  relates  especially  to  the  Homoeopathic 
Medical  College  of  Pennsylvania  and  its  successor,  Hahnemann  Medical  Col- 
lege and  Hospital  of  Philadelphia,  the  former  of  which  was  in  a  way  the  indi- 
rect outgrowth  of  the  older  institution  at  Allentown,  although  not  immediately 
a  part  of  it.  It  is  proper  to  state,  however,  that  this  first  school  of  homoe- 
opathic medical  instruction  in  the  world  was  founded  in  1835,  and  that  its 
cornerstone  was  laid  with  due  ceremony  on  May  27  of  that  year,  the  contents 
of  the  box  being  as  follows :  Hahnemann's  Organon  and  picture ;  the  con- 
stitution of  the  academy  corporation,  printed  in  German  and  English ;  names 
of  members  of  the  academy  household  and  the  incorporators ;  Hering's  ad- 
dress ;  Philadelphia  newspapers  containing  an  account  of  homoeopathy  in  Ohio ; 
a  copy  of  "Freidensbote ;"  quantity  of  homoeopathic  medicine,  names  of  state 
and  city  officers ;  programme  of  the  celebration. 

At  a  meeting  of  the  founders  and  incorporators  held  on  the  same  day 
these  officers  were  elected:  Constantine  Hering,  president;  John  Romig, 
vice-president ;  Adolphus  Bauer,  secretary ;  Solomon  Keck,  treasurer ;  Will- 
iam Wesselhoeft,  Eberhard  Freytag,  Henry  Detwiller,  Rev.  Christian  Becker, 
John  Rice,  C.  Pretz,  Joseph  Saeger  and  George  Keck,  directors ;  William 
Eckert,  Rev.  Philip  H.  Goep,  Henry  Ebner  and  J.  V.  R.  Hunter,  trustees. 

On  June  17,  1836,  the  legislature  granted  a  charter  to  the  North  Amer- 
ican Academy  of  the  Homoeopathic  Healing  Art,  and  the  institution  then  incor- 
porated by  law  entered  upon  its  interesting  and  eventful  career.  The  incor- 
poraiors  completed  the  organization  of  their  body,  and  adopted  a  constitution 
which  in  its  declarations  showed  the  beneficent  objects  of  its  founders.  The 
second  article  reads  as  follows :  "The  Academy  shall  consider  every  member 
of  a  Homoeopathic  .Society  in  the  United  States  as  a  member  of  its  own  body, 
and  shall  grant  to  all  equal  privileges  in  the  use  of  what  has  been  accom- 
plished by  means  of  its  enterprise,  according  to  conditions  hereafter  mentioned, 
without  demanding  therefor,  generally,  a  stipulated  contribution." 

The  constitution  also  provided  for  a  thorough  course  of  study,  medical 
and  otherwise,  as  will,  be  seen  by  the  following  extract  from  one  of  the  arti- 
cles :  "The  Literary  institution  according  to  the  express  design  of  its  foun- 
dation shall  be  as  comprehensive  in  its  operations  as  possible,  and  will  em- 
brace the  following  branches  of  study  as  indispensable  to  the  complete  educa- 
tion of  the  physician,  viz. :  clinical  instruction,  examination  of  the  sick,  and 
semeiotics ;  pharmacodynamics  and  materia  medica ;  pharm.aceutics  and  med- 
ical botany;  dietetics;  special  therapeutics,  surgery  and  obstetrics;  medical 
jurisprudence;  general  therapeutics;  symptomatology  and  human  pathology; 
phvsiology  and  anatomy ;  comparative  physiology  and  comparative  anatomy ; 
zoology,  phytology  and  mineralogy ;  chemistry,  physics,  geology,  astronomy 
and  mathematics ;  history  of  medicine  and  natural  sciences :  the  Greek,  Latin 
and  German  languages  as  preparatory  studies." 































r.   . 





This  curriculum  was  broad  enougli  for  the  most 
advanced  medical  schools  of  the  day  in  which  the 
founders  wrought,  and  theirs  was  hardly  more  than 
an  experimental  institution.  Indeed  the  prescribed 
course  would  do  justice  to  many  modern  colleges. 
Those  old  founders  built  better  than  they  knew,  and 
liad  the  English  language  been  spoken  by  the  fac- 
ulty as  freely  as  twenty  years  later  the  academy 
undoubtedly  would  have  endured  to  the  present  time. 
However,  its  downfall  has  been  attributed,  in  part 
at  least,  to  other  causes  than  the  mere  fact  of  hav- 
ing been  a  school  in  which  German  only  was  spoken. 


The  Homoeopathic  Hospital  for  the  Insane  at 
Allentown.  In  1876  an  effort  was  made  to  secure 
a  homceopathic  hospital  for  the  insane  in  this  state, 
but  the  attempt  was  not  well  organized  hence  noth- 
ing came  of  it;  nor  of  a  similar  movement  in  1888, 
although  considerable  interest  was  then  awakened 
in  legislative  circles  and  also  generally  in  the  med- 
ical profession.  However,  another  twelve  years 
passed  before  any  well  organized  effort  was  inaugu- 
rated in  the  direction  of  such  an  institution,  and  then 
the  initial  steps  were  taken  by  the  Germantown 
Homoeopathic  Medical  Society  of  Philadelphia,  an 
organization  of  about  two  hundred-  influential  ho- 
mrjeopathic  physicians  of  that  city,  who  fathered 
the  movement,  raised  the  necessary  preliminary 
funds,  and  aroused  public  interest  in  favor  of  the 
cnter])rise  to  such  extent  that  the  legislature  in 
1 90 1  appropriated  $300,000  for  the  purchase  of 
lands  and  the  erection  of  hospital  buildings,  but  the 
governor  cut  the  appropriation  to  $50,000,  pleading 
in  justification  of  his  action  economy  in  public  ex- 

The  commission  appointed  under  the  act  to 
select  a  site,  purchase  grounds  and  erect  the  build- 
ings comprised  Dr.  William  P.  Snyder  of  Chester 
county,  William  F,  Marshall  and  Dr.  Louis  H.  Wil- 
lard  of  Allegheny  county,  W.  R.  Stroh  of  Carbon 
county,  and  Dr.  Isaac  W.  Heysinger  of  Philadelphia, 
the  latter  the  representative  of  the  homoeopathic 
profession  and  chairman  of  the  executive  commit- 
tee of  the  Germantown  medical  society  which  had 
taken  such  earnest  interest  in  the  enterprise  from 
the  licginning. 

In  1903  the  legislature  appropriated  $300,000 
f reduced  to  $2^0.000  bv  the  executive)  for  the 
ereclion  of  hospital  buildings  at  Fast  Allentown  on 


lands  purchased  by  the  state  for  that  purpose,  and  on  June  2^,  1904,  the  cor- 
nerstone of  the  main  structure  was  laid  with  formal  ceremonies,  the  governor 
being  present  and  taking  part  ifi  the  exercises. 

The  Cholera'  Hospital  of  Philadelphia  was  the  first  public  charity  of  the 
homoeopathic  school  of  medicine  in  this  country,  and  was  established  by  the 
authorities  of  that  city  during  the  cholera  epidemic  of  1832.  It  was  located 
in  a  building  on  Cherry  street,  and  was  placed  in  charge  of  Dr.  George  Bute,, 
one  of  the  "homoeopathic  pioneers  of  the  city  and  state.  The  hospital  was 
established  for  a  temporary  purpose  and  when  the  period  of  the  epidemic  had 
passed  the  institution  was  closed. 

The  Homoeopathic  Hospital  of  Philadelphia  was  chartered  April  20,  1850. 
For  its  purposes  a  building  at  the  southeast  corner  of  Chestnut  and  Twenty- 
fourth  streets  was  rented!  a  hospital  staff  was  organized,  and  in  1852  the 
institution  was  opened  for  the  reception  of  patients.  This  was  the  second 
institution  of  the  kind  in  America.  Indeed,  it  may  be  regarded  as  the  first 
regularly  organized  homoeopathic  hospital  in  this  country.  It  was  continued 
only  two  years. 

The  Homoeopathic  Hospital  of  Philadelphia  for  sick  and  w^ounded  soldiers 
was  the  outgrowth  of  a  meeting  of  patriotic  women  held  September  9,  1862, 
at  the  Homoeopathic  Medical  College  of  Pennsylvania  for  the  purpose  of 
organizing  a  soldier's  hospital.  The  board  of  managers  of  the  college  fitted  up 
a  building  for  the  reception  of  patients,  with  the  hope  that  the  war  department 
would  allow  such  soldiers  as  preferred  homoeopathic  treatment  to  become  its 
temporary  inmates.  This,  however,  was  refused,  and  only  disabled  soldiers 
who  had  been  discharged  were  received  there.  Several  reports  were  pub- 
lished by  the  managers,  and  the  institution  during  its  existence  was  the  means 
of  much  good  for  the  public  welfare. 

The  Pennsylvania  Homoeopathic  Hospital  for  Children  was  established 
largely  through  the  eft'orts  of  a  number  of  charitable  persons  of  both  sexes 
who  appreciated  the  advantages  of  homoeopathic  treatment  of  children,  and 
who  conceived  the  idea  of  an  institution  especially  for  them.  A  building  in 
West  Philadelphia  was  secured  and  fitted  up  for  the  purpose,  and  was  opened 
April  24,  1877;  a  board  of  managers  was  created,  of  which  Mrs.  William  H. 
Furness  was  president  and  Miss  H.  W.  Hinckley  secretary.  The  hospital 
stafif  comprised  Dr;  W.  C.  Goodno,  attending  surgeon ;  Dr.  C.  B.  Knerr,  at- 
tending physician  ;  Dr.  C.  R.  Norton,  resident  physician ;  Drs.  Hering,  Lippe, 
Raue,  H.  N.  Guernsey  and  Thomas  Moore,  consultants ;  Dr.  C.  M.  Thomas, 
surgeon.  In  1880  a  gift  of  $15,000  from  the  estate  of  William  Weld  enabled 
the  association  to  purchase  the  hospital  property,  and  the  institution  was  char- 
tered June  19  of  tliat  year.  The  hospital  occupied  one-fourth  of  a  city  square, 
furnished  acQpmmodations  for  twenty-five  patients,  and  was  provided  with  a 
dispensary  department.  It  was  continued  tmtil  after  the  death  of  Mrs.  Fur- 
ness, who  had  been  its  chief  supporter,  when  (January,  1886)  the  hospital 
was  merged  in  the  Hahnemann  Hospital  of  Philadelphia.  In  the  latter  a  ward 
was  established  in  honor  of  Mrs.  Horace  Howard  Furness  and  Mrs.  Will- 
iam H.  Furness,  Avhich  became  known  as  the  Mrs.  Furness  ward. 

The  Children's  Homoeopathic  Hospital  of  Philadelphia  is  one  of  the  most 
completely  appointed  institutions  of  its  kind  in  the  world,  and  is  known  from 
one  end  of  the  country  to  the  other.  Lt  was  founded  as  a  public  charity,  the' 
result  of  an  incident  which  was  not  uncommon  to  life  in  a  great  city,  but  in 
its   immediate   foundation   was   the   result   of   the   action   of  members   of  the 


Hahnemann  Club  and  their  determination  to  estabhsh  an  institution  in  which 
sick  and  injured  children  could  receive  proper  care  and  attention.  To  this 
€nd  a  meeting  of  friends  of  the  enterprise  was  held  at  the  house  of  Dr.  Bush- 
rod  W.  James  on  January  i6,  1877,  and  at  that  time  a  temporary  organization 
was  effected.  On  March  5  following  the  institution  was  incorporated,  a  char- 
ter was  secured,  and  on  April  14  a  permanent  organization  was  effected  in 
the  election  of  a  board  of  directors  and  officers,  as  follows :  Henry  C.  Carey, 
president ;  Enoch  Turley,  vice-president ;  William  N.  Shoemaker,  treasurer ; 
Thomas  M.  Montgomery,  secretary. 

In  connection  with  the  immediate  management  of  the  hospital  a  board  of 
lady  managers  was  formed,  with  these  officers :  Mrs.  Joseph  Elwell,  presi- 
dent; Mrs.  V.  C.  Haven  and  Mrs.  Enoch  Turley,  vice-presidents;  Mrs.  Will- 
iam Shoemaker,  treasurer ;  Miss  Georgiana  Sturges.  secretary. 

The  medical  staff  of  the  hospital  was  composed  of  members  of  the  Hahne- 
mann Club,  viz. :  Drs.  Robert  J.  McClatchev,  A.  H.  Ashton.  C.  S.  Middleton, 
E.  A.  Farrington,  Pemberton  Dudley,  B.  F.'  Betts,  M.  M.  Walker,  J.  R.  Ear- 
hart,  W.  H.  H.  Neville,  M.  S.  Williamson,  J.  Frishmuth  and  R.  C.  Smith, 

Children's    llomccopathic    Hospital,    Philadi'lpliia. 

attendin>,;  ])h}sicians ;  Mrs.  Beulah  M.  Townsend,  matron :  Dr.  Thomas  L. 
Bradford,  resident  physician. 

The  hospital  was  opened  June  20,  1877,  at  the  northwest  corner  of  Eighth 
and  Poplar  streets  (now  qoi  North  f'lighth  street).  A  dispensary  was  estab- 
lished in  the  same  building.  The  building  in  this  location  was  occupied  by  the 
hospital  association  five  years,  and  in  1883  the  hospital  was  removed  to  North 
Board  street,  where  a  new  site  had  been  secured  by  purchase  at  an  expense  of 
$24,000.  The  new  building  was  formally  opened  March  14,  1883.  The  hos- 
pital had  thirty-six  beds ;  the  dispensary  was  in  a  separate  building  in  the 
rear;  the  nurse's  school  was  opened  in  1886. 

The  new  quarters  were  much  larger  and  better  suited  to  the  purposes 
of  the  hospital  association  than  the  former  home  on  Eighth  street,  but  within 
the  brief  space  of  ten  years  it  became  evident  to  the  managers  that  still  more 
commodious  buildings  must  be  provided  in  the  near  future,  and  to  this  end 
the  directors  began  the  work  of  determining  upon  a  new  location  with  lands 
of  sufficient  extent  to  meet  the  requirements  of  the  institution  inr  many 
years.     Soon  afterward  the  committee  on.  site  and  buildings  secured  lands  at 

HISTOkV  UJ"  JK  )Ma-:oi'ATIlV  121 

the  corner  of  Franklin  and  Tlionipson  streets,  distant  (jne  sqnare  from  (jirard 

The  plans  for  the  new  hospital  contemplated  a  large  central  building  with 
extensions  on  both  sides,  and  the  latter  have  been  built  as  occasion  made  nec- 
essary. On  September  14,  1898,  ground  was  broken  for  the  main  building  and 
on  November  19  following  the  cornerstone  was  laid.  The  structure  was 
completed  and  formally  opened  during  the  week  of  June  5-12,  1889,  and  on 
the  latter  date  the  inmates  of  the  old  hospital  on  Broad  street  were  transferred 
to  the  new  building.  The  new  south  wing  was  begun  August  26,  1903,  and 
was  finished  and  opened  June  15,  1904.  The  north  wing,  now  nearly  com- 
pleted, will  cost  $30,000.  The  buildings  previously  erected  cost  $55,000. 
The  main  building  has  fifty-four  beds ;  the  isolation  building  four  beds ;  the 
south  building  seventy-two  beds,  a  total  of  one  hundred  and  twenty-six  beds 
in  the  hospital.  The  institution  is  supported  chiefly  by  the  state,  and  in  a 
less  degree  bv  endowments  and  voluntary  contributions.  In  1894,  at  the  earn- 
est suggestion  of  Dr.  Bushrod  W.  James,  free  beds  were  set  apart  for  sick 
and  iniured  newsbovs. 


lieniii;  i  iuiidiii,^,   Medical  and  Mir!;ical  I  )fi)ai'tiiicnt. 

The  Medical,  Surgical  and  Maternity  Hospital  of  the  Women's  Homce- 
opathic  Association  of  Pennsylvania,  in  the  city  of  Philadelphia,  comprising 
one  of  the  most  worthv  institutions  in  a  city  famous  for  noble  charities,  was 
founded  in  1882,  by  seventeen  women  who  previously  had  been  members  of 
the  auxiliary  board  of  managers  of  the  Homoeopathic  Hospital  of  Pennsyl- 
vania, and  who  from  their  experiences  in  that  institution  were  in  position  to 
appreciate  the  necessity  of  a  home  in  the  city  for  the  care  of  women  in  confine- 
ment. In  carrying  their  resolution  into  effect  a  society  was  formed,  and  on 
December  13,  1882,  the  Women's  Homoeopathic  Association  of  Pennsylvania 
was  incorporated  under  the  laws  of  the  state.  Various  means  were  resorted 
to  in  order  to  arouse  public  interest  in  the  proposed  institution,  and  loyal 
friends  soon  provided  the  means  to  place  the  association  on  a  safe  and  lasting 
basis.  In  June,  1883,  through  the  generosity  of  Charles  D.  Reed,  lands  at  the 
northeast  corner  of  Susquehanna  avenue  and  Twentieth  street  were  purchased 
and  paid  for,  Mr.  Reed  donating  the  entire  purchase  price  ($30,000)  and  also 


contributing  liberallv  to  the  general  building  fund.  Another  generous  bene- 
factor was  Miss  iMary  jeanes,  who  gave  to  the  association  the  occupancy  of 
two  houses  on  Twentieth  street,  and  at  her  death  devised  the  same  for  the 
benefit  of  the  institution.  On  March  20,  1884,  the  hospital  was  opened  in 
these  houses.  On  July  17  of  the  same  year  work  was  begun  on  the  new 
building  and  was  completed  in  October.  1887.  The  state  appropriated  $20,000 
for  the  construction  fund  of  the  association.  The  main  structure  when  com- 
pleted was  called  Hering  building,  in  memory  of  the  late  Constantine  Hering. 
It  was  opened  October  13,  1887.  The  maternity  pavilion  was  finished  May 
16,  1890,  and  was  called  Sargent  building,  in  allusion  to  Dr.  Rufus  Sargent. 
The  isolation  building  was  begun  in  the  latter  part  of  1890,  was  finished  in 
the  next  year,  and  was  named  Lippe  building,  in  honor  of  the  late  Dr.  Adolph 
Lippe.  whose  admirers  had  contributed  generously  to  its  construction  fund. 
The  nurse's  school  was  opened  soon  after  the  completion  of  the  hospital. 
The  entire  institution  is  maintained  strictly  in  accordance  with  the  principles 
of  pure  homoeopathy  and  temperance,  and  its  staff  includes  nearly  all  the 
Hahnemannian  hnmcpopaths  in  Philadelphia. 

Lippe   Isolated   Pavilion. 

The  Homoeopathic  Medical  and  Surgical  Hospital  and  Dispensary  of 
Pittsburgh,  one  of  the  best  institutions  of  its  kind  in  the  country,  was  the 
result  purely  of  homoeopaniic  initiative  born  of  the  old-time  prejudice  on  the 
part  of  the  allopathic  school  and  its  disposition  to  deny  homoeopathic  access 
to  the  hospitals  of  the  city.  The  homoeopathic  practitioners  of  Allegheny 
county  having  failed  to  secure  accommodations  in  the  then  existing  hospitals 
of  the  city  for  patients  who  desired  their  treatment,  determined  to  establish  a 
hospital  of  their  own,  and  for  their  exclusive  use  and  benefit.  For  this  purpose 
an  informal  organization  was  effected  and  grounds  and  buildings  on  Second 
avenue  near  Smithfield  street  were  secured  and  held,  through  the  influence 
and  good  offices  of  Drs.  Burgher,  Cote  and  Hoffman,  until  a  more  permanent 
organization  could  be  accomplished.  On  April  4,  1866,  a  charter  was  obtained, 
trustees  and  officers  were  chosen  and  the  work  of  the  corporation  was  begun 
in  earnest.  Buildings  were  arranged  for  the  occupancy  of  the  hospital,  and 
the  institutifin  \vas  opened  for  patients  on  August  i,  1866. 



The  hospital  was  continued  in  its  ori.£?;inal  building-  until  April,  1882, 
when  the  trustees  determined  to  erect  new  buildings  and  extend  the  area  of 
the  surrounding  grounds.  A  considerable  fund  was  required  to  carry  out 
the  plans  of  the  corporation,  but  friends  were  found  in  the  time  of  need. 
William  Thaw  gave  the  trustees  $50,000 ;  the  legislature  appropriated  for  the 
hospital  in  1882  the  sum  of  $50,000,  and  a  like  sum  in  1884.  The  Ladies' 
Association  "house  warming"  netted  more  than  $17,000;  Miss  Jane  Holmes 
gave  $15,000,  and  many  smaller  contributions  were  received  from  various 
other  sources.  With  the  splendid  fund  thus  created  the  trustees  erected  the 
present  hospital  structure,  comprising  two  main  buildings,  one  on  First  ave- 
nue and  one  on  Second  avenue,  the  total  cost  of  which  was  nearly  $234,000. 
From  1882  to  1884  hospital  work  was  suspended  on  account  of  the  improve- 
ments, but  the  completed  structure  was  opened  for  patients  on  April  i,  1884; 
the  formal  opening  was  held  April  15.     On  that  occasion  Dr.  Cooper  on  be- 

}.^n?-i      V 

Sargent   or   IMaternitv   Building. 

half  ot  the  building  committee  handed  the  kev  to  Dr.  McClelland  of  the  exec- 
utive committee.'  who  accepted  the  same  with  the  responsibilities  of  the  trust 
implied  by  it.  From  that  time  the  hospital  has  been  recognized  as  one  of  the 
most  worth}-  institutions  of  the  great  city  in  which  it  is  located,  and  through 
the  good  works  there  accomplished  has  been  the  means  of  elevating  the  stand- 
ard of  the  homoeopathic  profession  both  in  Pennsvlvania  and  in  America.  In 
connection  with  its  .general  work  an  excellent  nurses'  school  is  maintained. 
The  institution  is  supported  by  the  interest  on  its  invested  funds,  the  pay 
of  patients,  and  contributions  from  benevolent  persons.  The  "Hospital  News" 
is  a  publication  issued  monthly  by  an  editorial  staff  chosen  by  the  officiary  of 
the  hospital  corporation. 

The  Homoeopathic  .Aledical  and  Surgical  Hospital  of  Reading  is  the  out- 
growth of  the  still  older  Reading  Homoeopathic  Dispensary  Association,  which 
was  organized  in  1887  and  located  on  Franklin  street.  A  ladies  auxiliary 
association  was  formed  in  November,  1888.  After  active  measures  for  organ- 
ization and  the  creation  of  a  necessary  fund,  a  charter  w^as  obtained  in  1890. 
Soon   afterward    tb.e    trustees    purchased   the   Dr.    Luther   Diller   property  on 

Homoeopathic    Hospital,    PittsbuVKl'- 

iiisi'oin'  n\-  ii()M(]:()rATiiv  i:^^ 

Sixth  street,  wliich  was  eciuipped  for  its  intended  occupancy  through  the 
generosity  of  the  ladies  auxihary.  The  formal  opening  was  held  July  i, 
i8gi.  and  since  that  time  the  hospital  has  taken  rank  with  the  hest  of  the  city's 
charities.  'J1ie  hospital  staff  is  chosen  from  the  homoeopathic  physicians  of 
the  city.  In  1897  the  institution  received  a  bequest  of  $12,000  from  the 
estate  of  Maria  Von  Neida. 

The  Woman's  Southern  Homoeopathic  Hospital  of  Philadelphia  dates  its 
history  from  the  year  1895,  and  is  the  outgrowth  of  a  dispensary  opened  in: 
September,  1893,.  by  Dr.  Amelia  L.  Hess  and  Miss  Annie  M.  Miller  in  a 
small  first  floor  room  in  what  now  is  Rodman  street.  The  dispensary  accom- 
plished much  good  work  and  the  constantly  increasing  demands  upon  it  neces- 
sitatefl  frequent  removals  to  more  commodious  quarters.  In  1894  Dr.  Han- 
nah R.  Mulford  became  a  part  of  the  life  of  the  dispensary,  and  soon  after- 
ward it  was  resolved  into  a  private  hospital,  and  was  located  on  South  Seventh 
street.  In  1895  the  Woman's  Homoeopathic  Qub  began  taking  an  interest 
in  the  work,  and  the  outcome  of  its  efforts  was  a  charter  (October  31,  1896) 
for  a  hospital  corporation  and  the  conduct  of  a  hospital,  dispensary  and  mater- 
nity home  under  the  name  of  the  Woman's  Southern  Homoeopathic  Hospital 
of  Philadelphia.  In  1897  the  premises  on  the  south  side  of  Spruce  street, 
near  Eighth,  was  purchased  and  arranged  for  hospital  occupancy.  The  dis- 
pensary is  an  important  department  of  the  w^ork  of  the  hospital.  The  Ann 
May  memorial  home  became  a  department  of  the  greater  institution  in  1904. 
It  is  the  gift  of  Mrs.  Albionia  Whartenbury  of  Philadelphia  as  a  memorial  of 
her  daughter.  Ann  May  Whartenbury  Robinson,  and  was  formally  opened  at 
Spring  Lake,  New  Jersey,  June  10,  1904. 

St.  Luke's  Homoeopathic  Hospital  of  Philadelphia  had  its  origin  in  a 
meeting  of  physicians  and  laymen  held  in  November,  1895,  to  discuss  the  need 
of  a  hospital  in  the  north  part  of  the  city.  An  association  was  formed  and  a 
house  on  North  Broad  street  was  secured  and  equipped  for  its  intended  occu- 
pancy. The  formal  opening  was  accompanied  with  a  three  days'  public  recep- 
tion, January  7-9,  1896.  In  October  following  a  training  school  for  nurses 
was  established  in  connection  with  the  hospital.  The  trustees  incorporation 
was  effected  January  30,  1896.  On  September  14,  1899,  the  trustees,  com- 
prising men  only,  resigned  and  their  places  were  filled  with  women,  under 
whose  management  the  institution  has  since  been  conducted.  However,  the 
constantly  crowded  quarters  of  the  hospital  made  it  necessary  for  the  man- 
agement to  secure  more  commodious  quarters  in  another  location,  and  to  that 
end  a  building  committee  was  chosen  to  accomplish  the  work.  In  May,  1904, 
the  trustees  purchased,  at  a  cost  of  $75,000,  the  property  formerly  ownecl  by 
Dr.  Meyer  at  the  southwest  corner  of  Broad  and  Wingohocking  streets.  The 
stone  buildings  on  this  site  are  now  being  arranged  for  hospital  uses.  The 
site  is  most  desirable  for  the  purpose  for  wdiich  the  property  is  intended.  Ac- 
cording to  the  plans,  a  dispensary  will  be  provided,  and  located  in  a  separate 
building,  fronting  on  Fifteenth  street.  The  main  building  when  fully  arranged 
will  contain  rooms  for  fifty  beds,  and  a  separate  building  will  be  provided  for 
servants'  quarters. 

The  J.  Lewis  Crozer  Home  and  Hospital  for  Incurables,  near  Chester,, 
was  founded  through  the  benevolence  of  the  late  Mr.  Crozer,  for  whom  the 
institution  is  named.  He  died  in  April,  1897,  ^^^  i"  ^'''s  will  made  provision 
for  founding  a  home  for  incurables  and  also  a  homoeopathic  hospital,  for 
which  purpose  the  sum  of  $50,000  was  set  apart  from  his  estate.     After  his 


death  his  widow  immediately  set  out  to  carry  the  provisions  of  the  bequest 
into  effect,  and  in  Uctol)er  of  that  year  the  work  of  erectino-  the  home  was 
begun.  The  buildings  are  located  at  Upland,  near  Chester,  and  within  its  com- 
fortable walls  are  loo  rooms,  and  40  beds.  The  medical  staff  is  selected  from 
the  members  of  the  Organon  Medical  Club  of  Chester,  who  have  management 
of  the  home  and  hospital.  In  1902  a  hospital  building  was  erected,  and  opened 
July  17,  1903.  The  grounds  of  the  institution  include  36  acres,  the  gift  of 
Mrs.   Crozer  independent  of  her  husband's  original  bequest. 

The  Hahnemann  Hospital  at  Scranton  became  one  of  the  incorporated 
institutions  of  the  city  December  13,  1897,  and  since  that  time  has  been  num- 
bered among  the  worthy  charities  of  northern  and  northeastern  Pennsylvania. 
It  is  a  public  institution  in  a  sense,  in  that  it  is  in  part  supported  by  the  state 
and  in  return  receives  within  its  hospitable  walls  patients  who  are  public 
charges ;  otherwise  its  support  is  derived  from  pay  patients  and  voluntary  con- 
tributions. In  the  early  part  of  the  year  mentioned  the  homoeopathic  physi- 
cians of  Scranton  and  interested  friends  of  that  school  of  medicine  determined 
to  establish  in  the  city  a  homoeopathic  hospital,  and  for  that  purpose  associ- 
ated together  and  became  a  body  corporate.  This  accomplished,  the  trustees 
secured  the  James  Blair  homestead  at  the  corner  of  Washington  and  iMulberry 
streets,  which  was  the  first  home  of  the  hospital,  but  later  on  more  permanent 
quarters  were  found  through  the  generosity  of  W.  W.  Scranton,  who  equipped 
for  the  trustees  a  comfortable  building  at  the  corner  of  Linden  and  Monroe 
streets.  A  nurses'  school  was  opened  in  1898;  the  home  for  nurses  was  pro- 
vided in  1902.  The  trustees  and  hospital  association  are  now  taking  steps 
•toward  the  erection  of  a  new  and  modern  hospital  building. 

The  West  Philadelphia  Homoeopathic  Hospital  and  Dispensary  was 
founded  in  June,  1903,  and  permanently  organized  in  1904,  when  the  property 
at  the  corner  of  Girard  avenue  and  Fifty-fifth  street  was  secured  as  the  home 
of  the  institution. 


The  first  epoch  in  the  history  of  homoeopathy  in  Pennsylvania  extends  to 
1835,  when  the  first  college  of  homoeopathy  in  the  world — x\llentown  Acad- 
emy— was  established.  During  this  first  epoch  the  system  of  Hahnemann 
had  been  introduced  into  two  states  at  nearly  the  same  time  and  without  con- 
cert of  action. 

To  Dr.  Henry  Detwiller,  then  of  Hellertown,  is  due  the  honor  of  having 
given  the  first  homoeopathic  prescription  in  Pennsylvania,  and  the  time,  July 
23,  1828.  He  was  born  in  Langenbruch,  Canton  P>asil,  Landschaft,  Switzer- 
land, December  13,  1795.  At  the  village  school  he  showed  such  aptitude  for 
learning  that  when  he  was  thirteen  he  was  sent  to  a  French  institute  at  St. 
Immier,  where  he  remained  until  he  was  fifteen,  when  he  became  a  private 
pupil  of  Laurentius  Senor,  M.  D.,  a  graduate  of  Wurzburg,  under  whose  tui- 
tion he  prepared  for  matriculation  in  the  medical  department  of  the  L'niver- 
sity  of  Freiburg,  in  the  grand  duchy  of  Baden.  He  was  admitted  in, this  insti- 
tution in  the  spring  of  1814,  and  studied  there  for  five  consecutive  semesters. 
After  leaving  the  university,  having  barely  reached  his  majority,  and  being 
fond  of  the  natiu'al  sciences,  he  felt  a  strong  desire  to  investigate  and  to  ex- 
plore the  regions  of  America.  So  he  left  Basd  in  the  spring  of  181 7.  Several 
hundred  emigrants  accomj^anied  him  to  Amsterdam,  and  on  the  passage  he 
acted  as  physician  to  the  company.     When  he  arrived  at  Mu}den,  near  Amster- 



(lam.  he  was  asked  to  present  himself  to  a  medical  board  for  examination, 
which  he  did,  and  passin^^"  snccessfully.  was  appointed  physician  on  the  ship 
"John  of  Baltimore,"  an  American  vessel  from  Boston.  It  was  an  old  three- 
master,  on  its  farewell  trip,  almost  worn  out  and  unseaworthy,  but  it  took 
on  board  over  fom-  hundred  men,  women  and  children.  The  captain  taking 
a  southerly  course,  goin^-  south  of  Bermuda  in  the  middle  of  July,  the  oppres- 
sive heat  produced  dysentery,  cholera  morbus  anrl  a  prostrating  diarrhoea. 
The  ship's  medicine  chest  was  not  proijcrly  supplied  and  Dr.  Detwiller  and 
General  Vandame  were  obliged  to  furnish  medicines  from  their  own  private 
stores.  The  vessel  reached  Philadelphia  the  last  of  July.  The  passengers 
were  largely  redemptioners  and  were  obliged  to  remain  on  board  until  prop- 
erly disposed  of.     Many  were  sick  and  they  with  those  similarly  afflicted  from 

Henry  Detwiller,  M.  D. 

another  vessel  in  port  were  entrusted  to  Dr.  Detwilltr  by  the  port  physician, 
and  the  ofiticial  physician  at   quarantine  placed  the  same  trust  in  him. 

While  thus  detained  in  Philadelphia  Dr.  Detwiller  through  General  Van- 
dame became  acquaintefl  with  Dr.  Alonges,  a  French  physician  who  often 
called  him  in  consultation  in  the  family  of  General  \'andame  and  other  French 
refugees  then  in  Philadelphia.  At  the  suggestion  of  Joseph  Bonaparte,  Gen- 
eral \'andame  and  Dr.  Ivlonges,  Detwiller  abandoned  his  original  purpose  of 
going  into  the  Indian  country,  and  decided  to  establish  himself  in  a  localily 
where  the  language  was  chiefly  spoken.  Being  well  provided  with 
letters  of  introduction,  he  went  to  Allentown,  Pa.,  and  on  September  2,  1817, 
entered  the  office  of  Dr.  Charles  H.  Martin  as  an  assistant.  Here  he  remained 
for  seven  months.     During  the  fall  and  winter  of  1817-18  there  appeared  in 


many  parts  of  Lehigh  and  the  adjoining-  counties  a  disease  attacking  whole 
famihes  with  more  or  less  severity,  and  attended  in  convalescence  with  fre- 
quent relapses,  the  patients  being  sick  for  months  and  then  often  dying  from 
phthisis  or  dropsy.  This  disease  was  diagnosed  by  the  physicians  as  bilious 
colic,  as  one  of  the  most  prominent  symptoms  was  abdominal  or  intestinal 
pain,  with  very  obstinate  costiveness  and  vomiting.  The  treatment  had 
been  with  opium  and  calomel  in  very  large  doses,  powerful  laxatives,  tobacco 
smoke  even  being  forced  into  the  rectum,  while  salivation  was  indulged  in 
extensively.  Detwiller  was  able  to  discover  that  the  real  cause  of  the  preva- 
lent epidemic  was  lead  poisoning  produced  from  the  glazing  with  litharge  of 
earthen  pots  in  which  apple  butter,  often  rather  sour,  had'  been  kept.  This 
discovery  and  his  successful  antidotal  treatment  gained  for  the  young  doctor 
a  great  reputation,  and  he  was  urged  to  settle  in  many  different  localities. 
He  finally  selected-  Hellertown,  and  in  April,  1818,  opened  an  office  there. 
In  December  he  married  Elizabeth  Appel,  a  native  of  the  vicinity,  and  who 
died  seventeen  years  later,  leaving  three  sons  and  four  daughters. 

Dr.  Detwiller  writes  of  himself:  'T  began  to  practice  homoeopathy  in 
the  year  1828,  July  23,  at  Hellertown,  Pa.  Dr.  W.  Wesselhoeft  at  that  time 
practicing  in  Bath,  Dr.  E.  Freytag  in  Bethlehem,  Dr.  Becker  in  Kreidersville, 
myself  at  Hellertown,  all  in  Northampton  county,  met  frequently  at  the  house 
of  Dr.  Freytag,  interchanged  our  experiences  in  the  then  to  us,  new  practice, 
prepared  a  kind  of  repertory  for  our  own  use.  Homoeopathic  treatment  in  an 
epidemic  of  dysentery  in  the  fall  of  1829  (where  out  of  86  only  two  proved 
fatal)  urged  us  to  closer  studies.  Dr.  Wesselhoeft  furnished  books  and  medi- 
cines which  he  received  from  his  friend  Dr.  Stapf  as  a  present.  In  1831  I 
received  the  then  extant  whole  library  of  works  on  homoeopathy,  together 
with  the  medicines,  from  my  friend  Dr.  Siegrist  in  Basil." 

Dr.  Wesselhoeft  in  Bath  was  twelve  miles  north  of  Hellertown,  but  he 
often  met  Detwiller  socially  and  in  consultation.  At  one  of  these  meetings 
Wesselhoeft  said  that  he  had  received  from  his  father  and  Dr.  Stapf  in  Ger- 
many some  books  on  homoeopathy  and  a  box  of  homoeopathic  medicines. 
They  commenced  to  investigate  the  new  system.  Detwiller  studied  up  a  case 
he  then  had  on  hand  and  decided  that  Pulsatilla  was  the  proper  remedy.  He 
gave  it,  the  first  dose  of  homoeopathic  medicine  given  in  Pennsylvania,  on 
July  23,  1828.  The  result  was  a  speedy  cure.  From  this  time  he  was  a  steady 
practitioner  and  champion  of  the  principles  of  homoeopathy. 

Dr.  Wesselhoeft  soon  began  to  give  homoeopathic  medicines,  and  Dr. 
Eberhard  Freytag  also.  The  Rev.  Christian  J.  Becker  of  Kreidersville,  of 
whom  Detwiller  speaks,  was  a  clergyman  who  had  been  partially  educated  in 
medicine  and  became  greatly  interested  in  the  new  method.  The  result  of 
the  investigations  convinced  him  of  its  truth  and  he  practiced  with  consider- 
able success  among  the  poor  of  his  neighborhood.  In  1830  Dr.  John  Romig 
joined  this  band  of  workers. 

In  1836  Dr.  Detwiller  visited  Europe  in  company  with  his  eldest  son, 
whom  he  placed  at  school  where  he  was  to  remain  for  four  years.  While  in 
Europe  he  visited  Professors  Schoenlcin,  Oken  and  Schintz  at  Zurich  to 
converse  upon  scientific  subjects.  Fle  also  had  several  interviews  with  Hahne- 
mann in  Paris  in  the  interests  of  homoeopathy  in  the  United  States,  and  espe- 
cially of  the  Allentown  Academy,  then  just  started.  He  also  visited  his  alma 
mater,  presenting  his  certificates  of  examination  (absolutorium)  executed  in 
the  fall  of  1816,  when  he  was  unable  because  of  youth  to  receive  his  diploma. 


Thus,  after  an  absence  of  twenty  years,  he  applied  to  the  medical  faculty  for 
a  re-examination.  After  a  most  thorough  examination  on  the  different 
branches  including  operations  on  the  cadaver,  he  was  granted  a  diploma. 

He  returned  to  the  United  States  and  resumed  practice  at  Hellertown, 
remaining  there  until  1852,  when  he  removed  to  Easton.  He  introduced 
homoeopathy  into  Easton  and  had  much  opposition  at  first  to  contend  against. 
During  his  long  residence  at  Hellertown,  Detwiller,  notwithstanding  his  very 
extensive  and  arduous  practice,  always  found  time  to  follow  his  favorite  study 
of  natural  science.  He  collected  his  "Flora  Sauconensis,"  his  specimens  hav- 
ing been  gathered  largely  in  upper  and  lower  Saucon.  He  made  many  botan- 
ical excursions  with  his  friends  De  Schweinetz  and  Huebner.  His  ornitho- 
logical specimens,  the  mammals,  reptiliae,  cheloniae,  etc.,  represent  nearly 
the  whole   fauna  of  Pennsylvania.     The   greater  part  of  this   collection   was 

Samuel  R.  Dubs,  M.  D. 

donated  to  public  institutions  and  museums  in  Europe,  especially  to  the  Uni- 
versity of  Basil,  he  being  corresponding  member  of  the  Natural  History 
Society  there. 

In  1836  he  became  a  member  of  the  faculty  of  the  Allentown  Academy. 
He  was  one  of  the  organizers  of  the  American  Institute  of  Homoeopathy  in 
1844.  In  1866  he  assisted  in  the  formation  of  the  Pennsylvania  State  Homoe- 
opathic Society.  In  1886  at  the  dedication  of  the  Hahnemann  Medical  College 
building  on  Broad  street,  Philadelphia,  he  was  present,  bowed  with  the  weight 
of  years,  and  with  long  whitened  hair,  but  with  eyes  still  bright  and  skin 

Dr.  Detwiller  died  at  Easton  April  21.  1887.  He  had  been  seventy-two 
years  in  practice  and  was  ninety-two  years  of  age.     About  three  weeks  before 


his  death  ho  arose  at  an  early  hour,  as  had  been  his  habit  from  childhood,  took 
his  regular  morning-  walk,  and  near  the  corner  of  Fourth  and  Northampton 
streets  fell,  striking  his  forehead  on  the  pavement.  He  was  assisted  to  his 
feet,  returned  to  his  office,  partook  of  his  customary  lunch  and  went  to  Beth- 
lehem to  attend  several  patients.  The  next  day  he  made  professional  calls  at 
Frenchtown,  N.  J.,  and  in  the  evening  of  the  third  day  began  to  feel  the 
effects  of  his  fall.  He  was  then  confined  to  his  room  but  almost  to  the  last 
gave  directions  for  the  treatment  of  his  patients.  He  was  interested  in  educa- 
tional matters  and  in  many  business  enterprises.  His  family  consisted  of  three 
sons  and  four  daughters.  He  left  twenty-seven  grandchildren,  twenty-one 
great-grandchildren  and  two  great-great-grandchildren. 

As  has  been  stated,  the  companion  of  Dr.  Detwiller  in  the  first  investiga- 
tion in  Pennsylvania  of  the  truth  of  homoeopathy  was  Dr.  William  Wessel- 
hoeft*  of  Bath  in  Northampton  county.  He  was  the  second  son  of  Karl  Wes- 
selhoeft,  who,  with  his  brother-in-law,  Friedrich  Frommann,  owned  the  largest 
publishing  house  in  the  university  town  of  Jena  during  the  palmy  days  of 
Saxe- Weimar.  William  was  born  in  1794  and  when  he  was  four  years'  old 
his  father  moved  from  Chemnitz.  When  he  was  ten  years  of  age  Goethe 
took  a  kindly  interest  in  his  education  and  gave  him  pencils  and  paper  and 
friendly  advice,  in  order  to  foster  a  love  for  drawing,  for  he  believed  that 
art  was  an  essential  to  early  education,  and  he  himself  excelled  in  it.  Nor  did 
Karl,  the  father,  stint  these  educational  advantages,  though  impoverished  by 
the  wars  with  Napoleon.  He  had  residing  in  his  family  as  private  tutor  to 
his  children  the  celebrated  De  Wette,  afterward  professor  of  theology  at  Ber- 
lin and  later  at  Basle ;  and  after  De  Wette,  Grossman,  who  became  superin- 
tendent of  the  Lutheran  churches  at  Leipsic.  This  family  school  consisted  of 
William,  his  brothers  Edward  and  Robert,  his  sister  Wilhekuina,  and  a  ward 
of  his  uncle  Frommann,  Minna  Herzlied,  celebrated  in  the  "Memoirs  of 
Goethe"  as  one  of  the  ladies  who  for  a  time  held  the  sentimental  poet's  heart. 

In  1809  Wesselhoeft  became  a  pupil  at  the  Real-Schule  of  Nuremburg, 
then  under  the  direction  of  G.  H.  von  Schubert,  the  great  natural  philosopher 
and  psychologist,  in  whose  autobiography  may  be  found  frequent  mention  of 
young  Wesselhoeft.  Here,  besides  studying  Latin  and  Greek,  he  began  his 
profound  studies  in  the  natural  sciences,  including  anatomy,  of  which  he  was 
very  fond,  becoming  very  expert  in  anatomical  drawings.  His  botanical 
studies  also  were  extensive,  and  he  prepared  a  valuable  hortus  siccus.  Dur- 
ing his  student  life,  he  was  in  the  habit  of  making  extensive  tours  for  the 
purpose  of  explorations  in  botany,  mineralogy  and  geology,  and  his  collections 
of  mineral  and  geological  specimens  were  given  to  Dr.  Adolph  Douai  for 
the  benefit  of  the  students  in  the  Perkins  Institution  for  the  Blind. 

Our  young  savant  also  studied  transcendental  physics  with  the  celebrated 
Oken.  In  1813,  being  nineteen  years  old,  he  entered  the  University  of  Jena, 
graduating  there  seven  years  afterward  as  doctor  of  medicine,  having  per- 
fected his  general  and  medical  education  at  the  universities  of  Berlin  and 
Wurzburg,  at  each  of  which  he  resided  for  a  season,  and  at  which  he  passed 
the  second  and  third  examinations  necessary  in  Germany  to  obtain  a  license  to 
practice  medicine. 

Wesselhoeft  was  not  only  a  scholar  of  parts  liut  also  an  attractive  man 
of  the  world.     At  this  time  Goethe  was  mucli  interested  in  meteorology,  and 

^Memorial    of   Dr.    William    Wesselhoeft.  hy    P'lizahctli    P.    Peabody.    Boston,    1859. 

i[iSTORV  OF  TK)^r^l•:op.\T^[y  las 

Wesselhoeft  enjoyed  niakino  ol)?ervations  of  the  clouds  for  him  at  the  observa- 
tory at  Jena. 

Wesselhoeft  was  in  s\-nipathy  with  the  young  patriots  who  had  returned 
from  German  army  service,  in  which  struggle  Koerner  fell  in  1806.  When 
in  Berlin  in  1819  he  became  intimate  with  "Old  Jahn."  who  invented  the  mod- 
ern system  of  gymnastics  and  had  in  Berlin  a  gymnasium  as  early  as  181 1. 
It  was  the  time  of  the  Burschenschaften  in  Germany,  or  secret  political  societies 
to  promote  nationality ;  and  William  and  Robert  Wesselhoeft,  who  were  stu- 
dents at  Jena,  were' very  active  in  promoting  these  organizations.  These 
Burschenschaften  were  betrayed  by  a  traitor  and  many  were  arrested,  among 
them  William  and  Robert  Wesselhoeft.  William,  who  was  at  the  time  pur- 
suing his  studies  at  Berlin,  was  thrown  into  the  political  prison,  and  Robert 
was' confined  in  the  fortress  at  Magdeburg.  WilHam  escaped  after  a  two 
months"  imprisonment  and  was  for  a  long  time  concealed  in  his  father's  house 
at  Jena.  Then  young  Dr.  William  wished  to  go  to  the  assistance  of  the 
Greeks,  who  were  struggling  for  freedom.  He  became  surgeon  to  the  Ger- 
man Philhellenen  and  started  w^ell  equipped  with  surgical  appliances.  Indeed 
so  ample  was  the  quantity  of  lint  and  of  bandages  prepared  by  his  sister  Wil- 
helmina,  his  friend  Ferdinanda,  and  others  in  the  secret,  that  it  is  said  to 
have  served  him  all  his  life.  When  he  arrived  at  Marseilles  an  injunction  wa3 
laid  on  the  vessel,  and  no  more  volunteers  could  go  to  Greece.  From  Mar- 
seilles he  went  to  Switzerland,  where  were  his  friends  Follen  and  Beck  and 
De  Wette,  who  had  found  positions  at  the  University  of  Basle.  In  this  uni- 
versity Wesselhoeft  also  found  employment  as  demonstrator  of  anatomy  and 
assistant  oculist.  He  remained  there  two  years,  and  spent  his  vacations  in 
tours  among  the  lofty  mountains  not  only  for  love  of  natural  science  but  for 
the  picturesque.  During  the  later  years  of  his  life  he  often  talke'd  of  revisit- 
ing Switzerland,  and  the  last  picture  he  purchased  was  a  painting  of  the  Alps 
reminding  him,  as  he  said,  of  his  own  youth. 

But  "there  was  interference  by  the  allied  powers  with  the  German  refu- 
gees, driving  Drs.  Follen  and  Beck  from  Switzerland,  and  compelling  Wessel- 
hoeft to  leave  for  America  at  the  same  time.  Some  letters  showing  his  sym- 
pathy with  Follen  had  fallen  into  the  hands  of  the  despots.  He  sailed  from 
Antwerp  and  was  four  months  on  the  voyage.  On  his  arrival  he  w^ent  to  Le- 
high county.  Pa.,  where  lived  a  German  family  he  had  known  at  home.  From 
there  he  went  to  Northampton  county,  seeking  a  place  to  practice,  and  finally 
settled  at  Bath,  where  the  population  was  largely  German.  Follen  and 
Beck,  who  also  came  to  America,  made  efiforts  to  induce  him  to  go  to  Massa- 
chusetts. In  1825  Ticknor  wrote  asking  him  to  take  charge  of  the  gymnas- 
ium at  Cambridge  and  Boston,  but  already  a  large  practice  occupied  him  at 
Bath  and  he  refused.  Here  he  married  Sarah  Palmer,  in  whose  family  he 
had  become  known  bv  his  professional  calls  as  an  allopathic  physician.  Even 
then  he  was  meditating  a  change,  and  studying  the  svstem  of  Hahnemann. 
He  frankly  told  his  fiancee  his  plans,  of  the  unsatisfactory  methods  of  the 
prevailing  therapeutics,  and  of  the  possibility  that  his  change  in  medical  prac- 
tice would  for  a  time  hurt  his  income. 

Soon  after  Wesselhoeft  had  come  to  America  certain  of  his  old  class- 
mates had  become  interested  in  homoeopathy  and  wrote  to  him  to  test  the 
medicines.  His  old  friend  Stapf  sent  him  the  Organon  provins-s,  together 
Avith  homoeopathic  medicines.  At  first  it  seemed  absurd  to  him.  but  a  love 
of  fair  play  to  the  man  who  had  devoted  so  much  time  to  this  new  materia 


medica  induced  him  to  test  its  virtues.  Infinitesimal  doses  were  hardest  to 
accept.  His  first  experiment  was  in  a  case  of  ozaena  whose  symptoms  indi- 
cated Hahnemann's  thirtieth  dihition  of  some  medicine.  He  said :  "  I  was 
really  ashamed  to  give  the  thirtieth  dilution  and  substituted  the  sixth."  When 
he  went  the  next  day  his  patient  was  sitting  up  in  bed,  the  symptoms  much 
worse  and  she  very  angry.  The  disease  was  cured,  however,  without  another 
dose.  Among  his  first  successes  was  his  treatment  of  croup  with  pongia  and 
hepar.  He  communicated  these  cases  to  Freytag,  Detwiller  and  to  others, 
and  they  engaged  in  personal  investigation.  So  great  was  the  confidence  in 
him  that  his  patients  were  willing  to  take  the  small  doses  that  he  soon  began 
to  prescribe.  The  story  of  the  first  provcrs'  union,  the  first  society,  the  Allen- 
town  Academy,  with  all  which  Wesselhoeft  was  identified,  will  appear  in 
proper  sequence.  When  the  success  of  the  academy  became  doubtful,  Hering 
went  to  Philadelphia  and  Wesselhoeft  to  Allentown  to  try  to  support  the 

In  1842  Wesselhoeft  decided  to  remove  to  Boston.  His  brother  Robert, 
who  had  been  a  lawyer  in  Weimar  and  an  officer  of  the  government,  was 
arrested  with  other  members  of  the  Burschenschaften,  and  for  seven  years  was 
kept  in  mild  imprisonment,  but  on  the  accession  of  Frederick  William  IV  of 
Prussia,  he  was  released,  returned  to  Jena,  married,  and  was  given  his  old 
government  position.  But  his  principles  were  too  liberal,  and  he  was 
requested  by  the  authorities  to  leave  Europe  and  take  up  his  abode  in  America. 
With  his  family  he  came  to  Allentown  and  made  his  home  with  his  brother. 
Robert  was  taught  the  materia  medica  during  the  year  they  resided  at  Allen- 
town. He  afterward  removed  to  Cambridge,  Mass.,  and  William,  to  Boston, 
and  it  was  not  long  before  they  together  founded  the  Brattleboro  (Vt.) 
water  cure.  This  was  established  in  1846,  and  was  continued  until  1851. 
Dr.  William  expected  in  removing  from  the  interior  of  Pennsylvania  to 
Boston  to  find  again  that  cultured  companionship  he  had  known  in  Germany, 
and  doubtless  believed  the  physicians  of  Boston  would  be  liberal  enough  to 
investigate  the  new  medical  system;  but  he  was  met  by  ridicule  and  contempt. 
He  passed  his  sons  and  nephews  through  Harvard  Medical  School,  however, 
and  set  himself  quietly  to  practice.  At  that  time  there  were  four  or  five 
homoeopathic  physicians  in  Boston,  among  whom  Wesselhoeft's  greater  experi- 
ence gave  him  the  lead.  He  was  soon  engaged  in  a  large  and  lucrative  practice. 
During  the  last  year  of  his  life  he  became  aware  that  he  was  overtaxing  his 
constitution.  He  went  for  a  vacation  to  the  country,  but  a  cold  brought  him 
back  to  the  city.  He  sent  to  Philadelphia  for  Hering,  his  old  friend,  refusing 
to  see  all  others  that  he  might  have  strength  to  talk  to  him.  About  twelve 
hours  before  he  could  expect  him  to  arrive  he  was  sitting  near  his  wife,  her 
hand  in  his,  when  suddenly  he  brought  his  other  hand  upon  it,  pressed  it 
tenderly  several  times  and  said  "Will  you  go  with  me?"  Then  he  arose, 
made  two  or  three  firm  steps  towards  the  bed  and  fell.  On  being  raised  up 
it  was  seen  that  he  "was  beyond  and  above" — September  i.  1858. 

Another  of  this  little  medical  fraternity  in  Pennsylvania  was  Eberhard 
Freytag,  then  practicing  in  Bethlehem.  At  that  time  he  was  sixty  years  old. 
He  was  associated  with  all  the  advancements  of  the  new  system  in  Northamp- 
ton county,  in  the  first  society  and  the  academy.  Until  the  time  of  his  death. 
March  14,  1846,  he  was  an  enthusiastic  believer  in  the  new  medical  law. 
He  was  one  of  the  charter  members  of  the  institute,  and  his  was  the  first 
death  presented  to  that  society.     He  was  82  years  when  he  died.     The  records 



of  his  life  are  meagre.  The  Northampton  County  Homoeopathic  Medical 
Society  passed  resolutions  of  regret  and  resolved  to  report  the  death  at  the 
meeting  of  homoeopathic  physicians  about  to  assemble  in  convention  at  Phila- 
delphia in  May.  These  resolutions  appear  in  the  transactions  of  the  American 
Institute  of  Homoeopathy  for  1846. 

Rev.  Christian  J.  Becker  was  an  original  director  of  Allentown  Academy, 
He  became  a  successful  practitioner  among  his  parishioners  and  was  a  member 
of  the  first  homoeopathic  medical  society.  About  1838  he  practiced  homoe- 
opathy at  Harrisburg. 

Dr.  John  Romig  was  born  in  Lehigh  county,  January  3,  1804,  and  was 
of  German  ancestry.  He  graduated  at  the  University  of  Pennsylvania  in 
1825,  and  located  at   Fogelsville,  Lehigh  county.     In  the   spring  of   1829  he 

H.  H.  Hoffman,  M.  D. 

removed  to  Allentown,  forming  a  partnership  with  Dr.  Charles  H.  Martin. 
About  1832  or  1833  he  commenced  to  practice  homoeopathy  and  was  asso- 
ciated in  all  the  homoeopathic  enterprises  of  that  time.  He  was  professor  of 
obstetrics  in  the  Allentown  Academy.  In  1838  he  removed  to  Baltimore 
with  others  to  introduce  homoeopathy.  Drs.  Haynel  and  McManus  were  then 
in  homoeopathic  practice  there.  He  remained  but  two  years,  returning  to 
Allentown,  where  he  passed  the  rest  of  his  life.  He  had  two  sons,  William 
H.  and  George  M.  Romig,  both  graduates  of  the  University  of  Pennsylvania 
and  of  the  Hahnemann  Medical  College  of  Philadelphia,  George  in  1870  and 
William  in  1871. 

One  of  the   important  members   of  this   homoeopathic  brotherhood   and 


one  whose  influence  was  extensive,  was  Rev.  Johannes  Helfrich.  He  was  the 
son  of  Rev.  John  Henry  Helfrich  of  Mosbach  in  Germany,  who  was  sent  to 
America  bv  the  Moravian  synod  of  Holland  in  1771.  He  was  placed  at 
Weisenberg  in  Lehigh  county  (then  called  Northampton)  and  at  this  place 
Johannes  was  born  January  17,  1795.  He  was  educated  for  the  ministry  at 
rhiladelphia  and  while  yet  there  pursuing  his'  studies  he  was  called  to  the 
charge  left  vacant  by  his  father's  recent  death.  This  was  in  the  spring  of 
181 6.  He  was  licensed  and  accepted- the  call,  and  three  vears  later  he  received 
ordination  at  the  synod  of  Lancaster.  He  served  this  charge  all  his  life.  On 
April  19.  1818,  he  married  Salome  Schantz.  Three  years  after  marriage  he 
purchased  a  home  within  a  mile  from  that  in  which  his  father  had  resided. 
He  was  a  warm  friend  of  the  Germans  and  his  house  became  a  hospitable 
home  for  many  immigrants.  Lentil  his  two  sons  were  grown  to  manhood  he 
kept,  at  different  times,  six  very  able  German  teachers  who  were  well  versed 
in  the  sciences.  At  this  time  his  home  was  known  all  about  the  country  as 
the  "  Weisenberg  Academy."  He  was  the  means  of  educating  many  who 
afterwards  became  professional  and  influential  men.  Among  the  German 
professors  at  his  academy  was  Dr.  William  Wesselhoeft.  It  was  through 
Wesselhoeft  that  Mr.  Helfrich  became  interested  in  homoeopathy.  He  read 
his  medical  books,  listened  to  his  discussions  on  the  new  medical  law,  and 
with  him  made  many  botanical  expeditions  in  order  to  find  new  remedies. 
Mr.  Helfrich  also  became  intimate  with  Hering  and  was  greatly  influenced 
by  his  enthusiasm.  For  a  number  of  years  Mr.  Helfrich  in  connection  with 
his  pastoral  labors  was  accustomed  to  prescribe  homceopathic  remedies  for  the 
ailments  of  his  parishioners,  but  this  so  overtaxed  his  strength  that  he 
required  all  patients  to  call  at  his  home.  It  was  soon  filled  with  invalids 
and  took  the  form  of  a  hospital,  rather  than  a  school.  In  the  fall  of  1830 
Mr.  Helfrich  arranged  his  work  to  devote  two  davs  weekly  to  medical  treat- 
ment. On  these  days  as  many  as  twenty  or  thirty  patients  were  regularly 
present  and  homoeopathy  was  given  a  practical  test.  Dr.  Wesselhoeft,  at 
that  time  settled  at  Bath,  made  weekly  visits  to  the  Weisenberg  hospital  to 
assist  in  the  treatment  and  to  further  instruct  Helfrich.  The  results  of  this 
clinic  and  dispensary  were  very  encouraging.  These  meetings  were  con- 
tinued until  the  establishment  of  the  Northampton  society  in  1834.  Then 
came  the  establishment  of  the  Allentown  Academy,  of  which  Mr.  Helfrich 
was  a  founder.  From  this  institution  Mr.  Helfrich  received  one  of  the  first 
diplomas  granted.  He  was  now  fully  established  as  a  phvsician  and  the 
demands  upon  his  medical  skill  constantly  increased.  His  eldest  son,  John 
Henr}  Helfrich.  graduated  in  Philadelphia  as  a  physician  in  1846  and  estab- 
lished himself  in  his  father's  home  in  Weisenberg.  In  1849  Mr.  Helfrich 
published  a  German  book  on  homceopathic  veterinary  practice,  the  first  book 
on  the  subject  published  in  this  country.  Dr.  J.  H.  Helfrich,  the  son,  prac- 
ticed in  Allentown  until  his  death.     The  elder  Helfrich  died  April  8,  1852. 

The  weekly  reunions  of  these  earnest  physicians,  Wesselhoeft,  Detwiller, 
Freytag  and  Becker,  were  begun  in  1828,  and  were  held  for  convenience  at 
the  house  of  Dr.  Freytag  in  Bethlehem.  In  1829  an  epidemic  of  dysentery 
occurred  in  Northamjjton  county,  and  at-  that  time  Dr.  Wesselhoeft  gave  up 
the  old  practice  and  devoted  himself  entirely  to  the  practice  of  homoeopathy. 
For  a  year  he  treated  free  all  cases  that  came  to  him,  wishing  to  learn  more 
thoroughly  the  new  materia  medica.  He  established  offices  in  Bath  and  sur- 
rounding places,   where  he   invited   the   sick   to  come   for   treatment,   and   he 



devoted  a  part  of  each  day  to  these  cUnics.  Previous  to  1830  he  furnished 
all  the  medicines  and  books,  but  in  that  year  Dr.  Detwiller  received  the  com- 
plete publications  of  homcEopathy  and  also  its  medicines  from  Dr.  Siegrist 
of  Basel  ( Basle ) ,  who  had  been  practicing  homoeopathy  in  Switzerland  for 
several  years.  But  there  was  need  of  a  more  extended  organization,  and  on 
August  23,  1834,  was  formed  the  Homoeopathic  Society  of  Northampton  and 
Counties  Adjacent,  of  which  mention  is  made  elsewhere  in  this  chapter.  In 
the  meantime,  however,  homoeopathy  had  been  introduced  into  Philadelphia 
by  Dr,  Carl  Ihm,  a  native  of  Frankfort-on-the-Main,  and  a  graduate  of  the 
University  of  Wurzburg,  in  Bavaria.  It  is  supposed  that  his  coming  to 
Philadelphia  was  induced  by  William  Geisse,  a  wealthv  German  merchant  of 
that  city,  and  a  personal  friend  of  Hahnemann,  with  the  purpose  of  investi- 
gating the  truth  of  homoeopathy.  Dr. 
Ihm  studied  the  doctrine,  adopted  its 
tenets  and  began  practice.  He  was  the 
first  homoeopathic  physician  in  the  city. 
In  the  latter  part  of  1833  he  went  to 
Tioga  county,  practiced  there  wdth  Dr. 
Lewis  Saynich,  and  afterward  went  to 

The  question  of  precedence  in 
next  prescribing  homoeopathic  medi- 
cines in  Philadelphia  seems  to  lie  be- 
tween Dr.  Charles  F.  Matlack  and  Dr. 
George  H.  Bute.  Matlack  graduated 
from  the  University  of  Pennsylvania 
in  1820.  In  an  autograph  letter  he 
writes  :  "  I  may  here  remark  that  I  be- 
lieve I  was  the  first  American  physi- 
cian in  chronological  order  who  prac- 
ticed in  Philadelphia  according  to  the 
homoeopathic  method.  I  employed  it 
by  way  of  experiment  as  early  as  the 
winter  of  1832-33."  He  practiced 
homoeopathy  in  the  city  for  many 
years,  removing  thence  to  German- 
town  in  185 1.  In  1833  he  translated 
Hering's  address  before  the  Hahne- 
mannian  Society— Kurze  Uebersicht  der  Homoeopathischen  Heilkunst  (A  Con- 
cise A  lew  of  the  Rise  and  Progress  of  Homoeopathic  Medicine).  He  died  in 
1874.  Dr.  Matlack  was  a  member  of  the  Society  of  Friends  and  his  early 
stand  for  homeopathy  probably  influenced  the  course  taken  by  so  manv  of 
that  sect,  both  in  the  United  States  and  in  England,  in  relation  to  the  adoption 
of  homoeopathy. 

George  Henry  Bute  was  born  in  the  duchy  of  Schaumburg  Lippe  Buecke- 
burg,  :\Iay  20,  1792.  During  the  French  'dominion  in  Germany  he  left 
home  to  escape  military  conscription.  He  led  a  roving  life  for  several  years, 
servmg  on  a  Dutch  man-of-war.  He  visited  the  soudiern  parts  of  Europe, 
even  Constantinople,  but  deserted  at  Genoa,  traversed  Germany  on  foot  and 
came  to  the  United.  States,  reaching  Philadelphia  in  August,  1819.  He 
became   acquainted    with    the    Moravians   through    their   bishop,    and    in    1822 

J.  C.   Burgher,  M.  D. 


entered  Nazartth  Hail,  the  Moravian  boarding  school  at  Nazareth,  Pa.,  as 
teacher.  He  married  at  Nazareth  Mary  Bardill,  daughter  of  a  Moravian 
missionary,  in  April,  1825,  and  returned  to  Philadelphia,  where  he  was  em- 
ployed in  a  store  until  after  the  arrival  from  Germany  of  his  younger  brother 
Charles,  when  the  two  started  a  sugar  refinery.  In  1828  he  received  a  special 
commission  to  go  to  Surinam  (Dutch  Guiana)  as  a  Moravian  missionary. 
Being  stationed  in  the  city  of  Paramaribo,  he  became  acquainted  with  Dr. 
Constantine  Hering,  who  was  there  as  a  botanist  and  geologist  for  the  Saxon 
government,  and  who  was  also  practicing  homoeopathy.  Bute  became  a  stu- 
dent of  Hering,  but  returned  to  the  United  States  in  1831.  He  landed  in 
Boston  and  later  went  to  Nazareth  to  perfect  himself  in  medicine.  The  chol- 
era epidemic  of  1832  broke  out  in  Philadelphia  and  he  went  there,  devoting  his 
time  to  the  care  of  the  victims  and  the  custody  of  the  hospital  on  Cherry 
street.  He  was  a  partner  with  Hering  in  Philadelphia  and  practiced  there 
for  six  years,  when  ill  health  compelled  his  return  to  Nazareth,  where  he 
passed  the  rest  of  his  life.  He  died  there  February  13,  1876,  aged  eighty-three 
years.  He  was  the  prover  of  several  important  remedies  and  all  his  life  was 
enthusiastic  in  the  advancement  of  homoeopathy. 

Constantine  Hering  was  the  most  powerful  factor  in  the  growth  of  early 
American  homoeopathy.  He  was  a  physician,  poet,  scientist,  naturalist,  psy- 
chologist, scholar  and  author.  Reaching  America  just  at  a  time  when  there 
was  need  of  ^ome  one  to  organize  the  few  men  who  were  practicing  homoe- 
opathy and  to  find  methods  to  spread  the  new  medical  doctrine,  Hering  was 
able  to  accomplish  all  these  things.  When  he  had  been  in  this  country  only 
a  few  months  we  find  him  addressing  the  little ,  Philadelphia  Homoeopathic 
Society  on  the  subject  of  homoeopathy,  in  which  address  he  gave  a  complete 
account  of  Hahnemann  and  his  discoveries  and  practice.  He  was  the  principal 
mover  in  the  establishment  of  that  first  college  of  homoeopathy,  the  Allen- 
town  Academy,  whose  graduates  spread  the  truths  of  the  new  doctrine  all 
over  the  country,  although  in  1835,  when  the  academy  was  opened,  there  were 
no  practitioners  of  the  system  in  any  state  except  New  York  and  Pennsyl- 
vania; in  1840  there  were  practitioners  in  sixteen  different  states,  and  the 
pupils  of  the  Allentovvn  Academy  had  carried  the  new  medical  system  into  all 
of  them. 

Constantine  Hering  was  born  in  Oschatz,  a  small  town  between  Dresden 
and  Leipsic,  January  i,  1800,  The  family  originally  was  from  Moravia  and 
the  family  name  was  Hrinka.  His  father  was  devoted  to  teaching  and  music, 
and  published  several  works  on  musical  instruction.  In  1795  he  was  given 
the  position  of  conrector  and  organist  of  the  church  of  Oschatz,  with  the 
title  of  magister.  His  family  consisted  of  three  daughters  and  four  sons. 
When  Constantine  Hering  was  born  his  father  was  seated  at  the  organ,  and 
when  the  news  was  brought  to  him,  answered  with  that  grand  old  anthem  of 
praise,  "Nun  Danket  Alle  Gott."  The  diligence  passed  through  the  town  of 
Oschatz  and  often  a  traveller  of  note  stopped  over  night  and  spent  the  even- 
ing with  Magister  Hering.  Hering  listened  to  their  talk.  Seume,  a  literary 
man,  inspired  him  with  his  talk  about  America  and  democracy  and  love  of 
freedom  and  hatred  of  the  privileged  classes.  His  teachers  were  cultured  men ; 
August  Rudolph  was  an  excellent  mathematician  and  taught  him  to  love 
mathematics.  History  young  Hering  called  "a  collection  of  foolish  and  hor- 
rible things.''  He  preferred  the  study  of  plants,  insects  and  stones.  He 
earned  reproof  from  Herr  Rudolph  by  refusing  to  call  Peter  of  Russia,  Peter 


the  Great,  but  wrote  in  his  composition,  "Peter,  whom  fools  call  great."  Her- 
ing  in  his  boyhood  saw  the  march  to  Russia  of  the  French  army,  and  its  ter- 
rible retreat.  A  part  of  the  army  passed  by  his  father's  door,  and  one  day  a 
company  halted  and  demanded  food.  Constantine,  then  twelve,  ran  out  with 
a  loaf  of  black  (rye)  bread,  which  an  officer  took  only  to  fling  it  on  the 
ground  where  it  was  kicked  about  by  the  soldiers.  "It's  good  bread,"  said 
the  boy,  "my  mother  made  it ;  don't  you  know  God  will  punish  you  for  throw- 
ing bread  away?"  On  the  retreat  the  same  squad  stopped  again  at  the  door 
and  again  young  Hering  took  out  bread,  this  time  white  bread,  to  them.  The 
same  officer,  wasted  and  in  rags,  his  arm  in  a  sling,. met  the  boy.  "Ah!  my 
boy,"  he  explained,  "the  curse  you  told  us  of  has  fallen  upon  us." 

Hering  found  his  first  stimulus  to  natural  history  on  a  grapevine,  the 
caterpillar  called  sphynx  atropos.  This  atropos,  followed  in  later  years  by  the 
lachesis  (the  poisonous  snake),  reminded  him  of  the  "Three  Fates."  He 
once  said :  "The  destinies  have  come  to  me  in  reverse  order."  First  came 
atropos,  the  inflexible,  who  cuts  the  thread  of  life,  next  lachesis,  who  spins 
it,  and  finally  clotho,  holding  the  distaff.  He  likened  his  work  in  writing  the 
materia  medica  to  the  spinning  of  threads  in  a  fabric,  and  when  the  web  was 
well  done,  he  said,  "When  I  shall  be  called  hence  the  work  will  be  left  on 
the  loom  for  other  hands  to  weave."  He  now  became  enthusiastic  in  col- 
lecting insects,  stones  and  plants.  He  made  long  excursions  to  the  neigh- 
boring hills  and  valleys  and  returned  laden  with  specimens.  He  would  stop 
at  some  inn  to  arrange  them,  and  it  was  there  he  learned  the  plain  simple 
language  he  so  much  loved. 

In  1817  the  young  naturalist  was  sent  to  an  academy  in  Dresden,  where 
he  studied  surgery.  A  year  later  a  copy  of  Euclid  fell  into  his  hands  at  an 
old  book  stall.  He  resolved  to  go  home  and  give  himself  to  Greek  and  mathe- 
matics, which  he  did  until  1820,  when  he  went  to  Leipsic,  where  he  studied 
seven  courses  in  medicine.  He  then  went  to  Wurzburg,  attracted  by  the 
fame  of  Schoenlein,  the  pathologist,  with  whom  he  formed  a  friendship  which 
his  conversion  to  homoeopathy  never  disturbed.  He  graduated  at  Wurzburg 
with  the  highest  honors,  in  1826.  As  was  the  custom,  he  presented  at  gradu- 
ation a  thesis  which  he  was  obliged  to  defend  in  public  disputation  with  mem- 
bers of  the  faculty  and  students.  The  following  preamble  in  Latin  was  printed 
on  the  cover  of  his.  dissertation : 

"Johann  Lucas  Schoenlein,  Dean  pro  tempore  of  the  gracious  order  of  physicians, 
Doctor  of  Philosophy,  Medicine  and  Surgery,  and  public  professor  in  ordinary,  etc.,  etc., 
with  all  due  courtesy,  invites  the  noble  vice-rector  of  the  Academy,  the  senate  fathers, 
the  professors  of  all  grades,  the  academic  citizens,  finally  men  of  letters  and  the  patrons 
.of  letters,  to  public  disputation,  to  be  held  March  22d,  1826,  at  9  A.  M.,  by  the  very 
noble,  illustrious  and  learned  man,  Mr.  Constantine  Hering,  Saxon,  under  the  presidency 
of  Caritanus  Textor,  Doctor  of  Philosophy,  Medicine  and  Surgery,  Aulic  Councillor  to 
the  August  King  of  Bavaria,  and  public  professor  in  ordinary,  etc.,  etc.,  for  the  purpose 
of  duly  obtaining  the  highest  honors  in  Medicine,  Surgery  and  Obstetrics." 

This  printed  invitation  which  young  Hering  had  to  extend  for  his  dis- 
putatia  inaugiiralis  contained  a  number  of  short  propositions  or  theses  in 
Latin,  each  one  of  which  he  stood  ready  to  defend  in  argument.  A  transla- 
tion of  the  "Questiones  inaugtdares  and  Theses''  is  here  given : 

1.  Springs  are  living  fossils. 

2.  I  hold  that  there  are  nerv-es  in  the  placenta. 

3.  The  "  ganglion  petrosum "  is  to  the  ear  what  the  "  ganglion  ophthalmicum " 
is  to  the  eye. 


4.  The  olfactory,  optic  and  acoustic  nerves  are  apophyses  of  the  cerebrum  and 
cerebellum,  not  nerves. 

5.  The  old  man  is  the  perfect  man. 

6  Materia  Medica  is  to  Hahnemann  what  Pathology  was  to  Hippocrates. 

7.  Such   as   life  i.s,   is   disease. 

8.  The  rational   system  is  not  merely  the  better,  but  the  only  one  in  pathology. 

9.  I   deny   psychic^   diseases. 

10.     Any  disease  may  be  removed  at  any  stage. 

Hering-  received  his  degree  of  doctor  of  medicine,  surgery  and  obstetrics, 
March  22,  1826.  His  medical  examination  was  severe,  doubly  so  because  of 
his  known  devotion  to '  homoeopathy.  From  1817  to  1826,  the  nine  years 
previous  to  graduation,  Hering's  life  was  that  of  a  student.  By  his  fellows 
he  was  nicknamed  "Wisent,"  from  his  studious  habits.  He  was  poor  and 
his  privation.s  were  many.  He  first  became  interested  in  homoeopathy  by 
promising  to  write  against  it.  His  preceptor  in  the  University  of  Leipsic, 
Dr.  J.  Henry  Robbi,  who  had  been  surgeon  in  the  army  of  Napoleon  and  had 
served  in  Larrey's  ambulance,  introduced  Hering  into  practical  surgery  and 
in  1820  made  him  one  of  his  assistants.  Baumgartner,  the  founder  of  a  pub- 
lishing hotise,  wanted  a  book  written  against  homoeopathy,  for  after  Hahne- 
mann was  obliged  to  leave  Leipsic  to  escape  persecution  it  was  thought  that 
homoeopathy  would  die  out,  but  as  this  death  seemed  too  slow  this  book  was 
intended  to  hasten  the  end.  Robbi  was  offered  the  work  but  refused  and 
recommended  his  assistant.  It  was  nearly  completed  when,  in  order  to  make 
quotations,  Hering  was  provided  with  Hahnemann's  books.  In  the  third  vol- 
ume of  the  "Materia  Medica"  he  found  the  "nota  bene  for  my  critics."  This 
induced  him  to  make  experiments,  and  ended  in  convincing  him  of  the  truth 
of  homoeopathy.  The  book  was  never  finished.  An  old  friend,  an  apothe-- 
cary,  was  delighted  that  he  was  writing  against  homoeopathy,  but  when  Her- 
ing went  to  him  one  day  for  some  peruvian  bark,  telling  him  he  wished  it 
for  a  homoeopathic  proving,  his  friend  said,  "My  young  friend,  don't  you  know 
there  is  danger  in  that?"  Herins-  replied  that  as  he  was  a  mathematician  he 
believed  he  could  distinguish  the  true  from  the  false.  His  old  friends  and 
others  now  shunned  him  and  said  he  was  going  crazy. 

In  making  an  autopsy  Hering  poisoned  a  finger,  which  soon  became 
gangrenous.  Leeches,  calomel  and  caustics  were  of  no  avail  and  aiuputation 
was  advised  and  rejected.  He  did  not  yet  believe  that  external  diseases  could 
be  benefited  by  internal  remedies  and  when  an  older  practitioner  of  homoe- 
opathy proposed  to  treat  the  hand  with  homoeopathic  pellets,  he  ridiculed  the 
suggestion,  but  permitted  him  to  give  him  some  small  doses  of  arsenic.  The 
wound  soon  began  to  heal.  Hering  said  of  this:  "I  owed  to  it  far  more 
than  the  preservation  of  a  finger.  To  Hahnemann,  who  had  saved  my  finger, 
I  gave  my  whole  hand,  and  to  the  promulgation  of  his  teaching,  not  only  my 
hand,  but  the  entire  man.  body  and  soul." 

After  graduation  Hering  became  a  teacher  of  natural  sciences  and  mathe- 
matics in  the  Blochmann  Institute,  an  academy  in  Dresden  for  edticating 
young  noblemen.  On  recommendation  of  Blochmann,  he  was  sent  by  the  king 
of  Saxony  on  a  botanical  and  zoological  expedition  to  Surinam  and  Cayenne. 
An  old  friend.  Christo]:)he  Weigcl,  was  appointed  botanist  to  the  exjjedition. 
He  remained  in  Sm-inam  six  years.  While  he  pursued  his  naturalist  work 
he  also  practiced  homteojiathy.  He  resided  in  the  Moravian  colony  of  Surimm 
and  had  every  opportunity  to  practice  his  profession.  During  his  stav  he 
wrote  letters  and   papers  on  homtieopathy   for  his   friend   Stapf,  editor  of  the 



"Arcliiv  fur  die  honioopathisliee  Hcilkunst,"  a  lioniceopathic  journal  of  that 
period.  This  offended  the  physician  of  the  king^.  and  orders  were  sent  from 
the  government  to  abandon  his  homoeopathy  and  to  attend  to  his  zoological 
duties  alone,  and  in  future  to  avnd  publishing  such  offensive  articles.  The 
day  after  he  received  this  letter  Hering  made  up  his  accounts  and  sent  them 
with  a  letter  resigning  further  connection  with  the  governmental  mission. 
He  then  commenced  the  practice  of  homoeopathy  in  Paramaribo,  at  the  same 
time  continued  collecting  specimens.  This  double  pursuit  he  soon  found  too 
much,  and  learning  through  a  friend,  George  fjute,  that  an  academy  of  natural 
sciences  had  been  founded  in  Philadelphia,  and  that  Rev.  Mr.  Schweinitz,  a 
well  known  m\cologist,  was  a  prominent  member,  he  decided  in  1830  to  send 
all   his   botonioal    collections,    mostly   cry])togramic.   and   zoological   collections 

Hering's  Lachesis  bnaKc. 

to  this  academy.  He  did  so  and  became  a  corresponding  meml^er.  The  life 
of  Constantine  Hering  m  Guiana  was  interesting.  He  was  a  visitor  to  the 
leper  colony  of  Surinam,  seeking  to  alleviate  the  terrible  suffering,  and  his 
observations  there  greatly  enriched  the  therapeutics  of  leprosy.  He  studied 
the  habits  and  customs  of  the  Creoles,  mulattoes.  negroes  and  Arrowackian 
Indians.  He  penetrated  deep  into  the  trackless  forest  to  meet  this  tribe, 
and  it  was  there  he  found  the  surukuku  snake — the  lachesis — whose  atten- 
uated venom  has  relieved  many  sick  peoi)le  since  that  time.  While  he  was  in 
South  America  in  July.  1828.  Hering  and  his  wife  were  living  in  a  little  camp 
on  the  upper  Amazon  river,  on  the  edge  of  the  great  tropical  forests.  The  natives 
were  his  assistants  and  had  told  him  much  of  a  deadly  serpent  living  there  and 


he  had  offered  them  a  reward  for  a  live  specimen.  One  day  they  brought  in  a 
bamboo  box,  and  then  fled  from  the  place.  They  had  brought  him  a  living 
ghurukuku,  the  most  venomous  of  their  snakes.  It  was  the  lachesis  trigon- 
acephalus,  or  lance-headed  viper.  He  and  his  wife  were  alone,  and  he  was 
about  to  risk  life  itself  in  order  to  obtam  its  venom.  As  the  box  was  opened 
he  struck  the  snake  a  blow  on  the  head,  and  then  placed  the  head  under  a 
forked  stick  and  pressed  out  the  poison  on  sugar  of  milk.  The  poison  thus 
obtained  was  for  many  years  the  only  supply  used  in  preparing  the  attenua- 
tions of  our  lachesis.  He  brought  the  dead  snake  with  him  to  the  United 
States  and  it  is  now  preserved  in  the  Academy  of  Natural  Sciences  in  Phila- 

The  ship  in  which  Hering  sailed  from  South  America  was  old  and  badly 
handled.  She  was  bound  for  Salem,  Mass.,  but  went  ashore  on  the  Rhode 
Island  coast,  and  finally  put  in  at  Martha's  Vineyard.  Hering  stepped  ashore 
on  a  Simday  morning  in  January,  1833.  On  the  ground  lay  snow,  the  first  he 
had  seen  in  seven  years.  "I  took  it  up,"  he  said,  "and  was  happy."  He  soon 
went  to  Philadelphia,  and  there  passed  the  rest  of  his  life.  Dr.  Hering  always 
retained  pleasant  recollections  of  his  life  in  South  America.  He  kept  the 
golden  piece,  his  first  fee  there,  as  a  keep-sake  and  his  son-in-law.  Dr.  Knerr, 
still  has  it. 

In  Pennsylvania  in  1833  there  were  ten  physicians  practicing  homoe- 
opathy, and  of  these,  Drs.  Bute,  Ihm  and  Matlack  were  in  Philadelphia.  Bute 
at  once  welcomed  Hering,  who  became  associated  wath  him  in  practice.  Al- 
though he  had  to  fight  bitter  prejudice,  it  was  not  long  before  his  skill  gained 
for  him  a  large  clientage.  In  the  first  year  of  his  residence  in  the  city  he 
married  Marianne  Hussman,  daughter  of  George  Hussman.  Dr.  Hering's 
influence  was  at  once  felt.  There  was  the  faithful  coterie  in  Northampton 
county,  Lx)uis  Saynich  was  at  Blossburg  and  Edward  Mansa  in  Buffalo 
township.  Tiering  was  welcomed,  and  in  that  same  year  of  1833  there  was 
formed  in  Philadelphia  the  Hahnemannian  Society.  It  was  organized  on 
Hahnemann's  birthday,  April  10,  1833,  but  three  months  after. Hering  reached 
the  city,  and  was  composed  of  both  physicians  and  laymen.  On  April  18,  1833, 
Hering  delivered  a  scholarlv  address  "A  Concise  View  of  the  Rise  and  Prog- 
ress of  Homoeopathic  Medicine,"  in  which  he  gave  an  account  of  the  life  of 
Hahnemann,  his  progressive  discoveries  in  medicine  and  a  lucid  explanation 
of  the  real  principles  underlying  homoeopathy.  He  said :  "May  our  benefi- 
cent Society  largely  contribute  to  the  wider  prevalence  and  reception  of  the 
Hahnemannian  doctrines ;  may  that  which  single  individuals  can  of  them- 
selves scarcely  achieve  be  effectuated  bv  united  efforts ;  then  in  this  blessed 
country,  may  the  miseries  of  disease  be  diminished,  future  generations  be 
rescued  from  its  leaden  fetters,  the  bitterest  human  misery — disease  bearing 
down  all  earthly  joy  become  less  from  year  to  year  and  the  sweetest  boon  on 
earth — health  and  domestic  felicity,  become  the  portion  of  growing  thousands. 
*  *  *  It  will  succeed  here  sooner  than  in  Europe,  for,  among  a  free 
people,  who  with  practiced  eyes,  soon  discern  the  truly  useful,  a  treasure 
like  this  new  art  must  quickly  be  estimated  in  a  degree  commensurate  with  its 
real  value.  *  *  *  The  American  people  demand  facts  and  upon  these  we  can 
confidently  and  securely  rest  for  our  support.  The  language  of  opposition 
may  be  employed  against  it,  but  truth  is  not  long  obscured  here  by  forms  of 
speech.  The  victory  will  be  ours,  and  in  a  century  to  come  the  anniversary 
of  our  society,  this  first  step  on  the  way  which  must  lead  to  the  public  and 


general  acknowledgment  of  the  new  doctrines  will  be  solemnized  with  grate- 
ful remembrance.  So  great  an  aim  cannot  be  attained  without  labor,  but  we 
are  prepared  to  undertake  it ;  we  shall  not  arrive  at  it  without  conflict,  but  we 
stand  equipped  for  conflict;  we  shall  not  reach  it  without  defamation,  but  we 
will    suffer    ridicule   and    defamation    with    composure." 

Hering's  address  was  published  in  German  by  Wesselhoeft,  and  was 
translated  into  English  by  Matlack  and  published  by  the  Hahnemannian  Soci- 
ety in  1833.  It  made  a  small  octavo  pamphlet  of  thirty  pages,  and  was  the 
second  homoeopathic  publication  printed  in  the  United  States.  Having  been 
printed  in  German  and  English,  and  being  largely  circulated  and  extensively 

John  Henry  Floto,  ]\I.  D. 

noted  and  quoted  by  the  public  press,  the  address  brought  homoeopathy  to  the 
notice  of  the  people.    Dr.  Hering  died  in  Philadelphia,"july  23,  1880.  ' 

Dr.  P.  Scheurer  was  of  the  Allentown  coterie.  He  was  born  in  Lehigh 
county,  August  18,  1799,  and  labored  in  the  ministry  for  fifty  years.  Ill  health 
induced  him  to  read  medical  books  and  he  acquired  a  knowledge  regarding 
the  practice  of  medicine.  In  1839  he  became  interested  in  homoeopathv  and 
afterward  practiced  successfully,  devoting  nearly  all  his  time  to  it.  He  died 
at  Hanover,  April  20,  1875. 

In  the  list  of  directors  of  Allentown  Academy  appears  the  name  John 
Henry  Floto.  He  also  was  a  student  and  received  a  diploma.  He  went  to 
California  and  lived  to  enjoy  the  distinction  of  being  the  oldest  homoeopathic 
physician  in  the  world,    in  January,  1896,  the  "Pacific  Coast  Journal  of  Homoe- 


opathy"  published  his  picture  with  the  legend  :  "John  H.  Floto,  the  oldest 
practicing-  homeopathist  in  the  world." 

Christian  Frederic  Geist  was  a  member  of  the  Allentown  Academy  in 
1836.     He  afterward  practiced  in  Boston. 

Another  of  the  students  of  Allentown  Academy  was  Charles  Haeseler. 
After  graduation  in  1836  he  went  to  Lewistown  in  Lebanon  county,  where  he 
remained  two  years.     He  afterward  settled  in  Poctsville. 

Jacob  Schmidt  was  a  student  at  Allentown.  He  was  born  at  Kreuznach, 
Germany,  June  29,  1813,  came  10  the  United  States  in  1836  and  found  em- 
ployment in  his  profession  as  civil  engineer.  He  was  received  by  Hering  as 
a  student  in  his  office  and  member  in  his  family.  He  remained  three  years, 
having  meanwhile  attended  lectures  at  the  Pennsylvania  College  (allopathic), 
and  received  a  degree  from  the  Allentown  Academy.  Dr.  Schmidt  located 
in  Baltimore. 

GROWTH     OF     H0:\I0E01'ATHY     IN     PENNSYLVANIA. 

While  homoeopathy  in  New  York  was  establishing  itself  through  its  cir- 
cle of  enthusiastic  investigators,  the  band  of  earnest  physicians  at  the  new 
homoeopathic  school  at  Allentown  were  busily  engaged  in  teaching  the  doc- 
trines of  similia,  and  it  was  gaining  a  strong  foothold  in  Philadelphia  and 
certain  towns  throughout  the  state.  The  second  epoch  includes  the  period 
between  the  establishment  of  Allentown  Academ^•  and  the  organization  of  the 
American  Institute  of  Homoeopathy,  in   1844. 

In  January,  1833,  when  Hering  reached  Philadelphia,  there  were  but  the 
two  homoeopaths,  >Ihm  and  Bute,  in  practice  there.  Dviring  the  year  1833 
several  physicians  had  begun  to  investigate.  Dr.  Matlack  began  practice 
about  the  same  time  as  Bute.  In  1833  William  Schmotde,  a  native  of  Ger- 
many, came  to  Philadelphia  and  became  a  student  and  assistant  of  Bute's. 
He  graduated  at  the  Allentown  Academy  and  established  a  large  practice  in 
the  city,  where  he  remained  until  1844,  when  ht  returned  to  Germany  and 
spent  four  years  in  studying  special  branches  of  medicine,  especially  pathology 
and  morbid  anatomy,  under  Rokitansky  and  other  pathologists.  Returning 
to  Philadelphia,  he  assisted  in  organizing  Penn  Medical  University  in  1854. 
Schmoele  is  said  to  have  been  one  of  the  first  men  in  this  country  to  advo- 
cate the  germ  theory  of  disease.  After  1857  ^^^^  time  was  in  part  devoted  to 
business  operations.  The  date  of  his  death  is  unknown.  In  1835  Drs.  Jacob 
Jeanes,  Gideon  Humphrey  and  Jonas  Green,  three  allopathic  physicians,  joined 
the  homoeopathic  ranks.  Each  began  the  investigation  of  homoeopathy  on  the 
same  day. 

Dr.  Jeanes  was  born  in  Philadelphia,  October  4,  1800,  and  died  December 
18,  1877.  '^^  0"6  of  the  founders  and  faculty  of  the  Homteopathic  Medical 
College  of  Pennsylvania  his  professional  life  is  made  the  subject  of  extended 
mention  in  that  connection,  hence  need  not  be  repeated  here. 

Gideon  Humphrey,  the  next  of  the  three  who  embraced  homoeopathy  in 
1835,  was  born  at  Simsbury,  Conn.,  in  the  year  1776  or  1778.  His  parents 
were  of  the  ancient  famil\-  of  Homfray  of  Normandy.  At  an  early  age  he 
lost  his  father  and  at  fourteen  he  left  home  and  made  his  wav  on  foot  to 
Fort  Niagara  to  join  his  brother,  ]\Iajor  Enoch  Humphrey  of  the  army,  who 
was  stationed  there,  and  who  in  later  years  highly  distinguished  himself  at 
the  battle  of  New  Orleans.  The  country  about  the  fort  was  almost  a  wilder- 
ness and  the  bov  arrived  there  shoeless  and   with  bleedin*'-  feet.      He   was  too 


young  to  be  of  service  and  spent  the  most  of  his  time  with  the  Indians,  join- 
ing them  in  hunting  excursions  and  often  sleepmg  in  the  snow  wrapped  in 
his  blanket.  After  some  years  of  wandering  Hfe  he  dev(jted  himself  to  the 
study  of  medicuie  in  New  York  city,  and  graduated  at  Columbia  College.  He 
afterward  received  appointments  as  surgeon  on  board  various  vessels,  sailing: 
to  almost  every  part  of  the  world  ;  was  once  captured  at  Havre,  France,  and 
tried  as  a  spy,  but  was  acquitted.  He  visited  the  West  Indies  and  was  pres- 
ent during  the  revolution  of  Santo  Domingo,  and  was  instrumental  in  saving 
many  of  tlie  planters  fron:  massacre.  He  joined  the  Miranda  expeditioij  in 
1806,  which,  was  intended  to  revolutionize  a  portion  of  South  America,  and 
was  appointed  surgeon  on  the  ship  "Emperor."  They  were  attacked  by  a 
Spanish  fleet  and  captured,  with  the  exception  of  one  or  two  small  vessels, 
on  one  of  which  he  escaped  and  returned  to  New  York,  where  he  commenced 
the  practice  of  his  profession ;  but  inducements  were  offered  him  to  move 
further  south  and  he  located  in  Delaware  county,  I'a.  After  residing  many 
years  in  Delaware  county  he  went  to  Philadelphia.  He  soon  became  well 
known  and  was  celebrated  for  his  great  skill  and  success.  As  age  began  to 
tax  his  powers,  he  wearied  of  city  life  and  purchased  a  home  on  the  confines 
of  Burlington,  X.  J.,  where  he  lived  in  almost  total  seclusion.  Subsequently 
he  went  to  L5e\erly,  \.  J.,  where  he  passed  the  rest  of  his  life,  devoting  his 
time  to  reading,  meditation  and  the  cultivation  of  his  grounds,  for  he  was  a 
lover  of  nature.  He  gradually  became  blind.  He  continued  the  practice  of 
allopathy  until  1834,  when  he  became  acquainted  with  Hering  and  was  induced 
to  investigate  homoeopathy.  He  resisted  for  some  time,  bvit  being  broad  and 
progressive  in  his  views  and  an  earnest  seeker  after  truth,  he  was  honest 
in  his  trials  and  at  last  became  a  convert  to  Hahnemann's  law  and  adopted  it 
in  his  extensive  practice.  He  published  an  "Address  to  the  Public  on  the 
Regular  Practice  of  Medicine"  (Burlington,  1848),  and  edited  "Ruoft''s  Rep- 
ertory," "Broackes  on  Constipation,"  and  Curie's  "Domestic  Homoeopathy." 
He  died  at  Beverly,  August  3,   1872,  aged  94  years. 

Of  Jonas  Green  there  is  but  little  jecord.  He  practiced  allopathy  in 
Philadelphia,  and  became  interested  in  homoeopathy  in  1835.  In  1836  he 
published  a  pamphlet  of  24  pages,  "A  Familiar  Exposition  of  Homoeopathia, 
or  a  Xew  Aiode  of  Curing  Diseases."  After  explaining  the  new  doctrme  he 
says:  "For  years  after  1  first  heard  of  homoeop'athia,  I  had  no  knowledge  of 
its  doctrines,  except  that  which  I  obtained  through  the  distorted  medium  of 
the  English  medical  journals.  The  ridicule  there  cast  upon  it  by  ignorant  and 
interested  writers  at  that  time  produced  upon  my  mind,  warped  as  it  was  by 
prejudice,  a  conviction  of  its  utter  worthlessness  and  folly.  Time  rolled  on 
and  the  subject  was  forgotten  only  w'hen  my  attention  was  called  to  it  by 
relations  of  alleged  cures  performed  by  homoeopathic  practitioners ;  the  cause 
oi  which  I  was  willing  to  attribute  to  chance,  to  nature,  to  any  thing  rather 
than  to  homoeopathia.  At  length,  however,  some  of  my  personal  friends,  who, 
I  knew  had  long  labored  under  severe  indisposition  and  who  had  sought  the 
aid  of  the  most  distinguished  members  of  the  faculty,  not  only  in  vain,  but 
whose  disease  had  been  aggravated  when  under  their  treatment,  had  recourse 
to  homoeopathia,  and  with  benefit.  An  accumulation  of  similar  facts  which 
could  be  solved  only  by  an  admission  of  the  efficacy  of  the  new  treatment 
left  m.e  no  alternative  and  I  determined  to  investigate  the  principles  of  this 
wonder  working  power.  I  accordingly  experimented  upon  my  own  person, 
being  then  in  a   state  of  health,  and  found  to  my   surprise  that  I  was  very 



sensibly  affected  by  the  small  doses.  Still  doubting,  however,  the  issue  of  the 
first  experiment,  I  repeated  it  again  and  again  with  similar  results.  Two 
or  three  of  my  friends  about  the  same  time  took  the  same  article  and  acknowl- 
edged that  they  were  also  affected,  some  slightly,  others  more  severely  accord- 
ing to  their  different  susceptibilities.  The  evidence  of  such  facts  I  could  no 
longer  resist,  though  I  had  cherished  in  advance  a  strong  desire  to  disprove 
the  truth  of  the  doctrine.  My  next  step  was  to  try  the  medicines  upon  the 
sick ;  an  opportunity  soon  offered,  I  studied  the  symptoms  carefully,  selected 
the  remedy  according  to  the  directions  of  the  system,  and  had  the  pleasure  of 
witnessing  a  complete  recovery.  This  was  fhe  case  of  a  young  lady  who  had 
suffered  from  re]x"ated  attacks  of  Fever  and  Ague,  which  from  time  to  time  I 

Charles   Neidhard,   M.  D. 

had  removed  by  the  use  of  sulphate  of  quinine.  On  this  occasion,  however, 
being  the  third  time  she  had  relapsed,  J.  administered  two  or  three  doses  of 
China,  which  effected  a  permanent  cure,  as  more  than  a  year  has  elapsed  and 
she  has  had  no  return  of  the  disease.  The  cure  could  not  be  attributed  to  the 
force  of  the  imagination  as  the  patient  knew  nothing  of  my  plan  of  treatment. 
An  equally  wonderful  instance  of  the  power  possessed  by  aconite  in  reducing 
arterial  action  and  febrile  excitement,  occurred  in  the  case  of  a  young  man 
of  very  full  habit  to  whom  I  was  called  one  evening  and  was  informed  that 
during  the  preceding  night  he  had  been  restless  and  delirious,  getting  no  sleep, 
during  the  day  he  had  much  heat  and  fever,  and  was  becoming  every  moment 
worse,  pain  in  the  head  violent,  pulse  full  and  quick  with  great  force,  thirst 
intolerable,  face  flushed  and  much  heat  in  the  head.  To  this  patient  I  fur- 
nished a  dose  of  aconite,  ordering  it  to  be  dissolved  in  three  or  four  table- 
spoonfuls  of  water,  one  to  be  given  every  two  or  three  hours  until  relieved; 
after  the  second  dose  the  fever  subsided,  the  heat  abated,  he  fell  into  a  gentle 


sleep  which  continued  till  late  in  the  morning.  When  I  visited  him  next  day 
all  the  unfavorable  symptoms  had  subsided  and  he  was  about  to  walk  out, 
nor  did  they  ever  return."  Dr.  Green  was  an  original  member  of  the  Amer- 
ican Institute  of  Homoeopathy.  He  practiced  in  Philadelphia,  where  he  died 
December  25,   1868. 

In  1836  Dr.  Charles  Neidhard  came  to  Philadelphia  and  Dr.  G.  S.  F. 
Pfeiffer  settled  in  Germantown.  Drs.  Jacob  Lentz,  Caleb  B.  Matthews, 
George  Lingcn  and  Richard  Gardiner  were  added  to  the  homoeopathic  pro- 
fession in  Philadelphia  in  the  same  year.  Reminiscences  of  the  professional 
life  of  Dr.  Neidhard  may  be  found  in  the  history  of  the  Homceopathic  Medi- 
cal College  of  Pennsylvania,  in  which  he  was  a  conspicuous  factor. 

Of  Dr.  G.  S.  F.  Pfeiffer  little  is  known.  He  removed  to  Philadelphia  in 
1837  and  in  1846  was  still  living  in  that  city. 

There  is  but  meagre  record  of  Dr.  George  Lingen.  He  embraced  homoe- 
opathy in  1836,  and  about  that  time  engaged  in  the  sale  of  homoeopathic  med- 
icines. In  1848  he  v/as  located  at  Yellow  Springs,  Pa.  Later  he  went  south. 
Dr.  Malcolm  Macfarlan  says  that  Dr.  Lmgen  was  practicing  homoeopathy  at 
Mobile  in  1862-63.  He  was  a  German  of  fine  education  with  a  taste  for  the 
arts.     He  died  in  1868  at  the  age  of  fifty  years. 

Of  Dr.  Jacob  Lentz  there  is  no  record.  He  embraced  homoeopathy  in 
1836,  practiced  in  Philadelphia,  and  died  in  1841.  He  was  a  member  of  the 
Homoeopathic   Society  in    1838. 

Dr.  James  Kitchen,  of  Welsh  descent,  was  born  in   Philadelphia  March 
8,  1800.     His  early  education  was  acquired  in  a  private  school  kept  by  a  Mr. 
Robinson.     Later  he  prepared  for  college  at  a  boarding  school  at  Newtown, 
Pa.     While  there  he  became  acquainted  with  Dr.  William   S.  Helmuth.     He 
entered  the  academic  department  of  the  University  of  Pennsylvania  in  1817, 
receiving  the   degree   of   A.    B.   in    1819.      He    at   once   entered   the   medical 
department  imder  the  preceptorship  of  Dr.  Thomas  A.  Hewson,  and  gradu- 
ated in  1822.     Soon  after  he  went  abroad,  spending  two  years  in  travel  and 
study   in  England,   Scotland,   Holland  and   France.     In   Paris  he   listened   to 
Laennec  as  he  demonstrated  the  use  of  the  stethoscope,  then  just  invented  by 
him ;  walked  the  wards  of  the  hospital  with  Dupuytren,  who  made  his  visits 
before  breakfast  in  dressing  gown  and  slippers ;  and  attended  the  lectures  of 
Larray,  army  surgeon  to  Napoleon,  of  Broussais  and  other  eminent  medical 
men.     He  returned  to  Philadelphia  in   1824  and  opened  an  office  next  door 
to  his  father's  house.     His  first  year  of  practice  yielded  $40.00 ;  the  next  year, 
$80.00.    Finding  little  encouragement  in  Philadelphia,  Dr.  Kitchen  determined 
to  settle  in  New  Orleans.     His  trunks  were  packed  and  the  da}-  fixed  for  de- 
parture, when  his   father  was  taken  suddenly  sick,  and  after  a  short  illness 
died.     Before  his  death  his  son  promised  him  that  he  would  remain  in  Phila- 
delphia and  care  for  his  mother  and  sisters.     The  trunks  were  unpacked,  he 
opened  an  office  in  his  father's  house  and  assumed  the  responsibility  of  the 
head  of   a  family.      Though   Dr.   Kitchen   never  married   he   was   always   at 
the  head  of  a  large  household  and  a  large  family  of  relatives  looked  to  him 
for   support   and   counsel.     For  sixty-six   years   his   sisters,   nephews,   nieces, 
grandnephews    and    nieces    received    his    fatherly   devotion,    and    all   of  them 
honored  their  "Uncle  Doctor"  Kitchen.     His  business  and  influence  now  rap- 
idly increased.     He  was  placed  in  charge  of  the  quarantine  station  in   1831 
and  was  post  physician  from  1832  to  1836. 

Dr.  Kitchen's  attention  was  called  to  homoeopathy  in   1836,  and  having 


made  a  test  of  its  medicine  and  treatment,  he  was  so  pleased  with  the  result 
that  in  1839,  after  fifteen  years  practice  of  allopathy,  he  formally  became  a 
homcEopathic  practitioner.  He  was  a  ready  writer  and  contributed  many  valu- 
able articles  to  the  journals.  In  1828  he  translated  from  the  French  Bouil- 
lard's  "Treatise  on  Rheumatism,"  and  in  1841  made  a  translation  of  Jahr's- 
"Homoeopathic  Pharmacopoeia,"  which  was  for  some  time  the  standard  text- 
book of  homoeopathic  pharmacy.  In  its  introduction  he  gave  his  reasons  for 
embracing  homoeopathy.  He  was  one  of  the  corporators  of  the  Homoeopathic 
College  in  1848,  and  took  a  lively  interest  in  that  institution.  He  was  one  of 
the  editors  of  the  "Philadelphia  Journal  of  Homoeopathy."  He  practiced 
medicine  over  seventy  years.  After  an  attack  of  cholera  in  1832,  and  of  ship 
fever  in  1847,  he  had  a  severe  attack  of  malarial  fever  in  1877,  after  which  he- 
was  obliged  to  decline  night  calls.  From  July,  1893,  he  was  confined  to  his 
room  and  kept  his  bed  six  months  prior  to  his  death,  which  occurred  August 
19,  1894.  When  celebrating  his  ninety-first  birthday  he  said :  "When  I  was 
born  Philadelphia  was  a  town  of  70,000  people,  and  now  I  have  seen  an  in- 
crease of  over  a  million." 

In  1840  there  were  several  accessions  to  the  homoeopathic  ranks,  among 
them  being  Drs.  William  S.  Helmuth,  Coburn  Whitehead,  Bernard  Bernes  and 
Samuel  R.  Dubs.  Mention  of  Dr.  Helmuth  will  be  found  in  the  history  of  the , 
Homoeopathic  Medical  College  of  Pennsylvania. 

Samuel  Richard  Dubs  was  born  in  Philadelphia,  November  8,  181 1,  and 
was  educated  in  the  public  and  high  schools  of  that  city.  At  the  age  of  sixteen- 
he  was  placed  in  a  drug  store,  where  he  remained  for  a  year  without  pay. 
In  1829  he  entered  the  ofifice  of  Prof.  Charles  D.  Meigs  and  attended  a  par- 
tial course  of  lectures  in  the  medical  department  of  the  Pennsylvania  Univer- 
sity. Being  thrown  on  his  own  resources,  he  bought  a  drug  store  on  credit 
and  conducted  it  so  successfully  that  he  was  able  to  continue  his  studies  and' 
graduate  in  1836.  For  three  years  Dr.  Dubs  practiced  allopathy  and  then 
was  prostrated  for  months  with  haemoptysis.  When  recovered  sufficiently  to- 
walk  about  he  still  suffered  with  a  cough  and  gastromalacia.  Obtaining  no 
relief  from  allopathy,  and  having  studied  Hahnemann's  Organon  and  Materia 
Medica,  he  tried  nux  vomica,  following  it  with  doses  of  sulphur,  and  was 
cured.  He  then  adopted  the  system.  He  continued  in  active  practice  until 
in  1858  when  he  had  another  attack  of  haemoptysis  and  retired  to  his  farm 
in  Doylestown,  where  he  remained  for  two  years  quietly.  Pie  was  then 
induced  to  practice  in  the  neighborhood.  In  1868  he  returned  to  Philadelphia 
to  practice,  remaining  until  1872,  when  he  was  obliged  to  return  to  Doyles- 
town on  account  of  his  health.  He  died  at  Doylestown,  December  26.  1889, 
in  his  seventy-eighth  year.  In  1839  and  1840  Dr.  Dubs  first  advised  the  use- 
of  the  decimal  scale  in  preparing  medicines  instead  of  the  Hahnemannian 
centesimal.  He  was  one  of  the  founders  of  the  American  Institute,  a  mem- 
ber of  the  Prover's  Union,  and  a  corporator  of  the  Philadelphia  Homoeopathic- 
College.  He  married,  first,  in  1866,  Adelaide  Ross,  and  after  her  death,  Marv 
E.  Wolfe. 

Joseph  Bcrens  adopted  homoeopathy  in  1841.  He  was  born'  in  Eslohe,, 
Westphalia,  December  2,  1813.  Plis  early  education  was  obtained  in  Germany. 
In  1840  he  attended  lectures  in  the  medical  department  of  the  Pennsylvania 
College,  and  graduated  in  March  2,  1841.  IDuring  his  young  life  Dr.  Berens 
was  subjected  to  much  heroic  treatment,  saw  its  effects  in  his  family  and  was- 
led  by  the  unsatisfactory  methods  of  the  old  school  to  turn  to  homoeopathy. 


He  first  practiced  it  in  Cincinnati,  but  soon  returned  to  Philadelphia,  where 
he  died. 

Dr.  Bernard  Bcrens  began  the  practice  of  homoeopathy  in  Philadelphia 
in  1840.  He  joined  the  institute  in  1846.  But  little  is  found  regarding  him. 
He  died  in  Philadelphia,  May  15,  1886. 

Moses  Anderson  practiced  homoeopathy  in  Philadelphia  in  the  forties, 
and  his  name  is  given  in  the  list  of  Philadelphia  homoeopathists  published  in 
the  transactions  of  the  institute  for  1846.     He  died  April  18,  1855. 

Dr.  Coburn  Whitehead  established  himself  in  Philadelphia  as  a  homoe- 
opathic physician  in  1840.  and  went  from  there  to  Harrisburg.  His  name 
appears  as  a  member  of  the  American  institute  in  the  transactions  for  1846. 
At  that  time  he  was  located  in  Harrisburg. 

James  Kitchen,  M.  D. 

G.  Eiliger,  a  native  of  Strasburg.  Germany,  introduced  homoeopathy  in 
Germantown  about  1845.  He  traveled  in  the  stage  coach  from  Philadelphia 
to  Bethlehem,  stopping  at  towns  on  the  way  one  day  each  week.  Afterward 
he  passed  half  of  his  time  in  Philadelphia  and  the  other  half  in  Germantown. 

During  the  years  between  1828  and  1844,  which  comprise  the  first  epoch 
■of  homoeopathy  in  Pennsylvania,  the  new  school  had  become  established  in 
many  towns  in  the  state.  As  early  as  1832  Dr.  Lewis  Saynisch,  a  German, 
highly  educated  and  a  graduate  of  medicine  from  a  German  university,  lo- 
cated at  Blossburg,  Tioga  county.  He  had  met  Hahnemann  shortly  after 
graduating,  and  during  a  discussion  with  him  had  become  convinced  of  the 
truths  of  the  new  law  of  cure.     After  coming  to  America  he  was  for  a  time 


associated  in  practice  with  Carl  Ihm  in  Philadelphia,  and  he  was  considered 
the  best  physician  in  that  part  of  the  state.  His  practice  extended  into  New 
York  and  he  was  often  called  to  visit  the  sick  in  Buffalo,  Albany,  Utica, 
Syracuse,  and  other  places  in  that  state  as  well  as  in  northern  Pennsylvania. 
He  died  in  1857. 

In  1832  or  1833  Dr.  Edward  Mansa  came  from  Germany  and  settled  in 
Buffalo  township,  Armstrong  county,  where  he  began  practice.  He  remained 
there  until  1857,  then  went  to  Illinois  and  from  there  to  Missouri,  where  he 
died  in  1870.  He  was  succeeded  by  Dr.  S.  Simpkins,  an  allopath,  who  in 
1859  settled  at  Slate  Lick  and  was  obliged  to  study  homoeopathy,  so  great  was 
the  demand  for  homoeopathic  remedies.  His  practice  was  of  either  school, 
as  the  people  desired.  He  died  in  1871,  and  Was  succeeded  by  his  student, 
Dr.  A.  D.  Johnson,  who  was  a  graduate  of  the  Cleveland  Homoeopathic  Col- 
lege in  1868. 

Dr.  Edward  Caspari  located  at  Prestonville,  now  called  West  Grove, 
Chester  county,  as  early  as  1835.  He  had  been  a  student  under  Hering.  He 
remained  there  but  a  short  time,  going  thence  to  Kentucky. 

Dr.  Francis  Ehrmann  introduced  homoeopathy  into  Carlisle,  Cumber- 
land county,   in   1835,  remaining  there  until   1844. 

Rev.  Christian  J.  Becker  who  had  been  a  director  of  the  Allentown  Acad- 
emy practiced  at  Harrisburg  for  a  short  time  in   1839  or   1840. 

Dr.  Walter  Williamson  mtroduced  homoeopathy  into  Delaware  county 
in  1836.  Dr.  Manning  B.  Roche  was  its  second  practitioner.  He  settled  near 
Darby  in  1839,  remaining  for  three  years  when  he  went  to  New  Bedford, 
Mass.,  introducing  homoeopathy  into  that  city  in  1841.  Dr.  Roche  was  born 
in  Wilmington,  Del.,  in  1790,  -graduated  at  Princeton  College,  and  in  medi- 
cine at  the  Allentown  Academy.  He  retired  from  practice  in  1861  and  died 
at  Riverside,  N.  J.,  July  8,  1863,  aged  seventy-three  years. 

Dr.  Alvan  E.  Small  of  Maine  located  as  an  allopath  at  Darby  in  1840 
and  became  a  homoeopath  in  1842.  He  practiced  there  until  1845.  when  he 
went  to  Philadelphia. 

Flomoeopathy  was  introduced  into  several  counties  about  this  period  by 
Dr.  C.  G.  Reinhold.  He  was  born  in  Muhlhausen,  Germany,  November  8, 
1802,  and  was  educated  at  Leipsic.  While  a  medical  student  in  Leipsic  he 
became  intimately  acquainted  with  a  disciple  of  Hahnemann,  from  whom  he 
first  heard  of  homoeopathy  and  with  whom  he  studied  that  medical  system. 
He  practiced  for  several  years  at  Muhlhausen.  In  1830  he  came  to  the  United 
States  and  began  to  practice  homoeopathy  in  Philadelphia,  and  was  associated 
with  Dr.  Carl  Ihm  for  a  time.  He  remained  in  Philadelphia  until  1834,  when 
he  went  to  Lebanon,  remaining  in  that  town  until  1836,  and  from  there  went 
to  Harrisburg  and  associated  himself  with  Dr.  Becker.  They  dissolved  part- 
nership in  the  spring  of  1838,  at  which  time  Dr.  Reinhold  removed  to  Mifflin, 
Juniata  county,  where  he  remained  until  1840  and  then  located  at  Lewistown. 
He  practiced  nine  years  in  Lewistown  and  then  went  to  Boalsburg  in  Centre 
county,  locating  in  1849  ^"d  remaining  there  until  1858.  In  1864.  with  his 
son,  Hahnemann  E.  Reinhold.  he  settled  at  Williamsport,  where  he  died  from 
over-exertion,  June  28,  1865,  aged  sixty-three  years.  Dr.  Reinhold  did  much 
to  introduce  homoeopathy  in  a  number  of  towns.  In  all  the  places  where  Ik 
settled  he  was  obliged  to  submit  to  ridicule,  slurs,  and  jeers  at  homoeopathy ; 
but  he  gained  a  large  practice.     While  at  Boalsburg  his  professional  circuit 


was  extensive.     He  frequently  was  called  to  Mifflin  and  Lewistown  and  into 
Huntington,  Perry,  Montour,  Union  and  Northumberland  counties. 

Dr.  Frederick  Ehrmann  was  a  physician  of  Wurtemburg,  Germany,  and 
the  son  of  a  physician.  He  had  five  sons,  all  of  whom  became  homoeopathic 
physicians.  They  were  Benjamin,  Frederick,  Christian,  Louis  and  Ernest 
Ehrmann.  Dr.  Ehrmann,  the  father,  came  with  his  family  to  Pennsylvania 
and  settled  in  York  county  about  1833.  The  Ehrmanns  were  important  fac- 
tors in  the  introduction  of  homoeopathy  into  various  towns.  Benjamin,  when 
he  reached  this  country,  was  twenty-one.  He  soon  joined  the  Allentown 
circle  and  graduated  from  that  institution.  After  graduation  he  settled  in 
Harrisburg  and  there  in  1842  married  Elizabeth  Bigler.  '  About  1845  he  intro- 

Alvan  E.  Small,  M.  D. 

duced  homoeopathy  into  Lancaster  county,  settling  in  Lancaster,  w^here  he 
remained  for  a  few  months,  and  then  went  to  Cincinnati.  Francis  Ehrmann 
(or  Frederick)  located  at  Carlisle,  Cumberland  county,  about  1845.  He  later 
went  to  Maryland.  Ernest  J.  Ehrmann  studied  medicine  with  his  father  and 
located  in  Liverpool,  York  county,  being  the  first  homoeopathic  practitioner 

In  1840  Dr.  Alexander  H.  Burrett  introduced  homoeopathy  into  Craw- 
ford county,  at  Guy's  Mills.  He  also  practiced  for  several  years  at  Conneaut- 
ville.  removing  from  there  to  Cincinnati  and  thence  to  New  Orleans. 

Dr.  Charles  Baver,  a  native  of  Wurtemburg,  located  in  Allegheny  City 
in  1841  or  1842.  He  had  been  educated  for  the  ministry  at  Tubingen,  but 
had  decided  to  study  medicine.     He  is  said  to  have  been  retired  in  manner 



and  especially  devoted  to  the  materia  medica.  In  the  winter  of  1865,  while 
going  home  from  a  professional  visit,  he  fell  on  the  ice,  his  injuries  proving 
fatal  in  a  few  days. 

In  1834  Dr.  Adolph  Bauer  established  himself  in  Lynn  township.  He 
received  a  diploma  from  the  Allentown  Academy  and  afterward  went  west. 

Dr.  Ezra  Fell  commenced  the  practice  of  homoeopathy  at  Norristown, 
Montgomery  county,  in  1842.  In  1840  one  Dr.  Wauke  had  located  at  Trappe 
in  the  northern  part  of  the  county  and  was  very  successful  as  a  practitioner. 
Dr.  Fell  continued  in  ])ractice  in  Norristown  until  1848,  when  he  was  suc- 
ceeded by  Dr.  Thomas  Pierce. 

Dr.  William  P.  Esrev  practiced  for  a  short  time  in  Norristown,  about 

'  Joseph   IJercns,   M.   D. 

Dr.  Josei)h  II.  Pulie,  who  had  been  one  of  tlie  professors  at  the  Allen- 
town  Academy.  |)raclice(l  for  a  short  time  at  Troxlertown,  Northampton 

As  has  been  stared,  Dr.  Edward  Caspari  practiced  for  a  short  time  in 
West  Grove  in  1835.  After  he  left  there  was  no  homoeopathic  physician  in 
the  county  of  Chester  until  1840,  when  Dr.  Robert  May  settled  in  Warwick 
township,  near  Warwick  h\irnacc.  where  he  had  been  a  practitioner  of  allop- 
athy since  his  graduation  from  the  University  of  Pennsylvania  in  1822. 
Dr.  May  said:  "I  ceased  to  use  calomel  and  the  lancet  and  finally  gave  it  up 
altogether,  being  fully  convinced  of  its  absurdities.  I  used  for  a  short  time 
after  this  Thompsonian  or  the  botanic  practice,  but  I  also  gave  that  up.  I 
then  took  a  trip  to  the  west.     After  my  return  I  heard  of  the  system  of  homoe- 



opathy  and  determined  to  inquire  into  its  truthfulness.  Accordingly,  I  went 
to  Philadelphia  and  visited  Dr.  Williamson  and  others.  I  purchased  books 
and  medicines,  and  ever  since  have  been  an  earnest  advocate  of  its  truths." 
During  Dr.  May's  residence  at  Warwick  he  lectured  in  various  places  on 
homoeopathy.  While  at  Warwick  he  married ;  his  wife  had  studied  medicine 
and  also  practiced  to  some  extent  before  and  after  the  death  of  her  husband, 
January  26,  1867. 

In  1841  or  1842  Dr.  Adolph  Lippe  introduced  the  system  of  Hahnemann 
to  the  people  of  Reading',  1  Jerks  county.  He  remained  there  but  a  year  or 
two  when  his  place  was  taken  by  a  Dr.  Moore,  who  after  a  sojourn  of  two 
years  renaoved  to  Philadelphia.  Dr.  Caspari  practiced  for  a  few  months  at 
Reading  in  1843.  Dr.  Ezekiel  Lovejoy  was  the  pioneer  in  Bradford  county, 
as  early  as  1841.  His  professional  life, 
however,  was  more  active  in  Owego, 
New  York.  Leonard  Pratt  located  at 
Towanda  previous  to  1851.  Homoeop- 
athy was  introduced  into  Union  county 
hy  Dr.  Ignatius  Brugger,  who  located 
at  New  Berlin  in  1838. 

Dr.  J.  Stuart  Leech,  after  studying 
luedicine  at  Pittsburgh,  graduated  in 
1 841  at  the  Jefferson  Medical  College  of 
Philadelphia.  He  settled  that  fall  to 
practice  allopathy  in  Downington,  thirty 
miles  from  Philadelphia.  He  became  a 
friend  of  William  Dowming,  who  had  re- 
cently been  made  a  convert  by  the  cure 
of  a  daughter  after  the  local  physicians 
had  failed.  One  evening  Dr.  Leech,  go- 
ing to  his  house,  made  the  remark : 
"  Well,  old  Mother  Juniner  must  die  to- 
night or  to-morrow."  She  was  a  very 
old  negress  suffering  with  asthma  and 
lived  on  a  hill  back  of  the  town.  She  had 
been  turned  over  to  the  young  physician 
bv  three  old  ones,  as  a  hopeless  case. 
ITien  said  Mr.  Downing,  "  Why  not 
try  some  homoeopathic  remedies  ?     It  can 

do  no  harm,  can  it?  "  Dr.  Leech  thought  it  could  do  neither  harm  nor  good  but 
he  was  induced  to  give  some  pellets  of  arsenicum  from  Mr.  Downing's  domes- 
tic case.  He  gave  her  half  the  contents  of  the  bottle  during  the  night  and  the 
aggravation  nearly  killed  her,  but  the  next  day  she  was  better  and  soon  per- 
fectly recovered.  Dr.  Leech  returned  to  Philadelphia,  gained  all  the  informa- 
tion possible  about  homoeppathy  and  returned  to  Downington  in  1842  to  prac- 
tice it.  He  soon  established  a  very  large  and  lucrative  business.  He  was  born 
in  1811. 

The  first  person  to  use  homoeopathic  medicines  in  Lebanon  county  was 
a  Mr.  J.  C.  Reisner,  who  in  1835  prescribed  them  for  his  neighbors  and  others. 
Dr.  Benjamin  Becker  settled  in  the  town  in  1835,  but  remained  only  a  few 
months.  In  1840  Dr.  John  Hatton  Marsden  introduced  homoeopathy  in  Adams 
county.     He  was  at  the  time  a  clergyman  located  at  York  Sulphur  Springs. 

G.  Reichhelm,  M.  D. 


He  afterward  regularly  studied  and  graduated.  In  1845  Dr.  Ehrmann,  of 
Carlisle,  treated  certain  cases,  and  one  Jacob  Bender,  with  a  box  of  medicines 
and  a  book,  practiced  gratuitously  among  his  neighbors. 

In  1853  Dr.  Thomas  Bryan  introduced  homoeopathy  in  Beaver  county, 
locating  at  New  Sheffield.  Dr.  Pretsch  was  the  first  pioneer  in  Blair  county, 
settling  at  Hollidaysburg.  A  Catholic  priest  first  brought  homoeopathy  to 
Butler  county,  about  1854,  being  stationed  at  Saxonburg.  In  1864  Dr.  Max 
J.  Werder  located  at  Johnstown,  Cambria  county.  Dr.  J.  Crowley  Bunting 
located  at  Mauch  Chunk,  Carbon  county,  in  1855.  Dr.  C.  G.  Rheinhold  intro- 
duced it  into  Centre  county  in  1849.  Dr.  F.  S.  Smith  settled  in  Clinton  county 
in  1859,  being  the  first  homoeopathist  there,  locating  at  Lockhaven.  Dr.  J. 
C.  Rutter  settled  at  Bloomsburg,  Columbia  county,  in  1855.  Dr.  S.  Marvin 
settled  at  Springfield.  Erie  county,  in  1848.  Dr.  Alonzo  Potter  Bowie  set- 
tled as  the  first  homoeopathist  in  Fayette  county,  at  Uniontown.  Dr.  J. 
Gourhea,  in  1876,  was  the  only  practitioner  of  the  system  in  Green  county.  In 
Huntington  county  Dr.  Wiestling  was  in  1859  the  homoeopathic  practitioner. 
In  Indiana  county  Dr.  W.  Hunter  was  the  pioneer,  located  at  Blairsville.  In 
Jefiferson  county  Dr.  R.  S.  Hunt  was  the  pioneer,  located  at  Brockville.  Drs. 
Samuel  Searles  and  David  C.  Porter  as  early  as  1848  located  at  New  Castle, 
Lawrence  county.  In  1865  Dr.  G.  T.  Moore  located  in  Mercer  county.  In 
Montour  county  a  Dr.  Scott  was  the  pioneer,  located  at  Danville.  In  Venango 
county  Dr.  I.  W.  Pond  was  the  pioneer ;  in  Warren  county.  Dr.  Samuel  Adams 
Robinson ;  in  Washington  county.  Dr.  George  Inglis ;  in  Wayne  county,  Dr. 
Edwin  West,  at  Honesdale.  in  1849;  i^  Westmoreland  county.  Dr.  F.  X. 
Spranger,  who  located  at  GreensBurg  in  1861. 


In  the  summer  of  1837  the  Rev.  Father  Byer,  a  Catholic  clergyman  sta- 
tioned in  Pittsburgh,  having  learned  of  the  advantages  of  homoeopathy,  wrote 
a  letter  to  Dr.  Hermg,  then  at  Allentown,  asking  him  to  send  a  homoeopathic 
practitioner  to  the  city  beyond  the  Alleghenies.  Hering  presented  this  re- 
quest to  some  of  the  younger  of  the  men  attending  his  post-graduate  school 
at  Allentown,  and  among  those  asked  to  consider  this  call  was  Gustavus 
Reichhelm,  a  young  and  enthusiastic  Prussian,  who  had  learned  the  princi- 
ples of  homoeopathy  from  Wesselhoeft,  Hering  and  others  of  the  Allentown 
faculty.  , 

Gustavus  Reichhelm  came  to  America  in  the  autumn  of  1834  and  became 
acquainted  with  Hering  and  his  followers.  He  was  born  at  Alt  Damm,  a 
village  near  Stettin  in  Prussia,  January  30,  1807.  He  and  his  brother  Fred- 
erick began  their  studies  at  the  preparatory  gymnasium.  Their  father  died 
January  30,  1816.  Gustavus  remained  at  the  gymnasium  until  ready  to  enter 
the  University  of  Halle,  where  he  applied  himself  to  the  study  of  jurispru- 
dence, but  soon  changed  to  medicine.  He  continued  his  medical  studies  at 
Berlin.  The  Allentown  Academy  had  just  been  opened  when  he  reached 
Pennsylvania,  and  he  entered  as  a  student  of  homoeopathy.  He  had  already 
commenced  to  practice  at  Hamburg,  Pa.,  when  the  request  came  from  Pitts- 
burgh. To  leave  this  medical  brotherhood  and  to  go  out  into  what  then  was 
the  wilderness  of  an  unknown  region  seemed  a  difficult  undertaking ;  but 
when  Hering  urged  him  to  accept  he  said,  "Give  me  five  minutes  to  think  of 
it,"  and  before  the  time  of  deliberation  was  passed  he  had  decided  to  make 
the  journey. 



Dr.  Reichhclm  was  gladly  received  by  Father  Byer  and  the  few  others 
who  believed  in  the  new  method.  He  began  his  work  in  Pittsburgh  October 
lo,  1837.  He  was  known  at  first  as  the  "Dutch  Doctor,"  and  the  "Sugar- 
powder  Doctor,"  and  he  was  denounced  by  the  old  school  physicians,  ostra- 
cised by  the  clergy  and  boycotted  by  the  druggists,  but  he  went  his  way  quiet- 
ly, making  cures  and  gaming  friends  among  the  people.  He  was  employed  as 
attending  physician  at  the  Catholic  Orphan  Asylum  and  the  cures  he  made 
there  attracted  much  attention.  During  twelve  years  under  his  administra- 
tion, with  several  epidemics  of  measles,  whooping  cough  and  scarlet  fever, 
there  were  but  two  deaths  in  the  institution.  It  is  said  that  more  children 
died  within  one  year  after  Reichhelm  was  superseded  by  an  allopathic  physi- 

Benj.    Becker 

cian  than  during  the  whole  term  of  his  service.  The  change  of  doctors  was 
made  because  the  institution  had  passed  into  control  of  another  order  of 
sisters,  who  knew  nothing  of  homoeopathy  and  preferred  a  Catholic  medical 
attendant.  When  the  physicians  found  that  ridicule  failed  to  check  the  new 
practice  they  resorted  to  slander.  Two  prominent  allopaths  circulated  a  mali- 
cious report.  A  respectful  but  prompt  demand  was  made  for  retraction.  One 
physician  offered  an  explanation  but  the  other  ignored  Reichhelm's  note.  A 
suit  for  damages  was  brought  and  friends  of  the  parties  effected  a  compro- 
mise. For  eight  years  Reichhelm  was  alone  in  Pittsburgh,  until  1845,  when 
Dr.  Charles  Bayer  located  at  Allegheny  City,  on  the  other  side  of  the  river. 
Dr.  Reichhelm  remained  in  Pittsburgh  until  1853.  when  he  went  to  Phila- 
delphia, where  he  practiced   until   his   death,   which   occurred    November   21, 


1861.  Dr.  Dake  thus  describes  him:  "Reichhehn  was  finely  educated,  of 
commanding  presence,  self  reHant,  of  few  words,  and  always  cheerful  and 
kind."  He  was  a  strong  figure  in  the  army  of  the  stalwart  pioneers  of  homoe- 
opathy in  America. 

Benjamin  Becker,  born  in  Sumneytown,  Montgomery  county.  Pa.,  March 
22,  1796,  was  a  son  of  Dr.  J.  J.  Becker,  a  German,  who  came  to  this  country 
in  1775.  When  fifteen  years  old  young  Becker  assisted  his  father  in  preparing 
medicines,  and  also  in  minor  surgical  operations,  and  often  went  with  him 
to  the  bedside.  After  his  father's  death,  in  1813,  he  wished  to  continue  his 
studies,  but  having  no  means  was  obliged  to  work  for  several  years  to  earn 
them.  In  1819  he  attended  his  first  course  at  the  University  of  Pennsyl- 
vania. In  1820  he  settled  at  Lyneville,  Lehigh  county,  and  soon  had  a  good 
practice.  In  1824  he  moved  to  Hamburg,  near  the  line  of  the  Schuylkill  canal, 
then  being  excavated,  and  soon  had  a  large  practice  from  the  accidents  and 
the  malarial  fevers  prevalent  there.  In  an  epidemic  of  dysentery  that  fol- 
lowed, Dr.  Becker  by  his  novel  methods  of  practice  was  very  successful.  In 
1833  he  was  appointed  steward,  physician  and  clerk  of  the  Schuylkill  county 
poorhouse.  In  July,  1835,  he  removed  to  Orwigsburg,  where  on  account  of 
some  remarkable  cures  of  which  he  had  heard,  he  became  interested  in  homoe- 
opathy and  finally  adopted  it.  He  now  had  to  undergo  the  customary  ridi- 
cule, sarcasm  and  proscription  that  always  befell  the  conscientious  seeker  after 
medical  truth,  but  his  practice  increased  so  rapidly  and  he  had  so  many  calls 
to  Lebanon,  that  he  decided  to  move  there.  He  soon  had  an  extensive  prac- 
tice in  many  neighboring  towns.  He  thus  introduced  homoeopathy  into  Leb- 
anon, Harrisburg,  Dauphin,  Lancaster,  York,  Cumberland,  Perry,  Snyder, 
Juniata,  Northumberland  and  Luzerne  counties.  In  1839  he  removed  his 
family  to  Orwigsburg,  surrendered  his  practice  to  his  associate,  and  during 
the  next  seven  years  traveled  in  the  west;  and  in  five  successive  journies  he 
practiced  homoeopathy  in  Ohio,  Kentucky,  Missouri,  Iowa,  Nebraska,  Cali- 
fornia, Colorado  and  Utah.  In  1866  he  received  a  degree  from  the  Homoe- 
opathic Medical  College  of  Pennsylvania. 

Dr.  Ignatius  Brugger,  who  first  located  in  New  Berlin,  was  born  at 
Uper-Eichsel,  Ober  Amt  Schopheim,  in  the  grand  duchy  of  Baden,  July  31, 
1809.  His  father  died  when  he  was  two  years  old.  He  attended  day  school 
until  he  was  eleven  years  of  age,  then  was  obliged  to  work  for  a  farmer, 
remaining  with  him  until  he  was  fifteen.  He  then  received  several  months 
tuition  in  German,  Latin  and  French  from  a  teacher  in  Rheinfelden,  Switzer- 
land. In  November,  1826,  he  entered  the  gymnasium  at  Freiburg,  remaining 
until  1827.  He  then  studied  at  the  lyceum  at  Constance,  Baden,  for  two  and 
a  half  years,  when  he  went  to  the  University  of  Freiburg,  attending  lectures 
in  philosophy,  medicine,  surgery  and  obstetrics  until  April,  1834,  when  he 
came  to'  America  and  arrived  in  New  York  in  October,  1834.  He  at  once 
sought  Dr.  Detwiller  of  Hellerstown,  Pa.,  who  received  him  kindly  and  invited 
him  to  study  homoeopathy  with  him  and  assist  him  in  practice.  He  accepted, 
remaining  with  Detwiller  for  several  months  and  then  commenced  practice 
in  Bucks  county,  near  OuakertoWn,  but  soon  removed  to  Skippacksvillc,  and 
from  there  to  Philadelphia.  In  January,  1838,  he  located  in  New  Berlin,  where 
he  remained  until  1856,  when  he  settled  at  Lewisburg  and  was  for  two  years 
associated  with  Dr.  J.  F.  Harvey.  In  January,  1842,  he  married  Mary  M. 
Smith  of  Berlin.     The  date  of  his  death  is  unknown. 

William   P.  Esrey  was  the  oldest  son  of  Josejih   b'srey  of  Maple  town- 


]  J7 

ship,  Delaware  county,  and  was  born  in  1818.  In  1841  he  commenced  the 
study  of  medicine  with  Dr.  Walter  Williamson  and  graduated  at  Jefferson 
Medical  College  in  1844.  After  graduating  he  remained  for  some  months 
Avith  Dr.  Williamson  in  order  to  obtain  a  more  thorough  knowledge  of  homoe- 
opathy. He  then  went  to  Norristowri,  but  was  soon  afterward  summoned 
back  to  Philadelphia  by  his  preceptor  as  an  assistant.  After  a  year  he  opened 
an  office  for  himself  in  the  city.  He  joined  the  institute  in  1846.  He  was 
the  author  of  a  work  on  anatomy  and  physiology,  and  also  compiled  a  reper- 
tory to  the  materia  medica  of  American  provings,  which  was  published  as  part 
of  the  transactions  of  the  American  Institute  of  Homoeopathy.  He  also  trans- 
lated several  works  from  the  German  into  English.  He  died  in  Philadelphia' 
September  28.  1854. 

Obadiah  C.  Buckley,   A 

Dispensaries.  The  following  homoeopathic  dispensaries  have  been  estab- 
lished in  Pennsylvania :  Allegheny  City  Free  Dispensarv,  organized,  April, 
1875;  Allentown  Homeopathic  Dispensary,  opened  in  1884;  Chester  Homoe- 
opathic Dispensary,  1882 ;  Dispensary  of  Children's  Homoeopathic  Hospital 
of  Pennsylvania.  April  24,  1877;  Dispensary  of  Children's  Homoeopathic 
Hospital  of  Philadelphia.  June  20.  1877;  Dispensary  of  Little  Wanderer's 
Home,  Philadelphia,  1870;  Frankford  Homoeopathic  Dispensary;  Free  Dis- 
pensary of  Homoeopathic  Medical  Societv  of  Twenty-third  Ward,  Philadel- 
phia, 1882;  Germantown  Homoeopathic  Dispensary,  July  20,  1869;  Hahne- 
mann Medical  College  Dispensary,  1867;  Hahnemann  Medical  College  and 
Hospital  Dispensary;  Homoeopathic  Hospital  Dispensary,  Philadelphia,   1869;: 



Homoeopathic  Infirmary  of  Philadelphia,  1859;  Homoeopathic  Dispensary  of 
Southeastern  Philadelphia,  Novemher  14,  1859;  Johnstown  Homoeopathic  Dis- 
pensary, 1889;  Northeastern  Homoeopathic  Dispensary,  1874;  Philadelphia 
Homoeopathic  Dispensary,  1848;  Philadelphia  Homoeopathic  Eye,  Ear,  Throat 
and  Surgical  Dispensary ;  Pittsburgh  Homoeopathic  Hospital  Dispensary, 
1866;  Reading  Homoeopathic  Medical  and  Surgical  Dispensary,  1887;  Ridge 
Avenue  Homoeopathic  Dispensary,  Philadelphia. 

J.  G.  Wesselhoeft  was  the  first  to  sell  homoeopathic  books  and  medicines 
in  Pennsylvania.  As  early  as  1833  he  was  located  on  Broad  street  in  Phila- 
delphia.    Dr.  George  Lingen  sold  homoeopathic  supplies,  and  they  were  also 

Obadiah  C.  Brickley,  U.  1). 

sold  at  the  Academical  book  store  in  Allentown.  Jacob  Behlert  made  cases 
for  Hering's  domestic  physician.  In  1838  Dr.  John  Tanner  returned  from 
Leipsic,  where  he  had  been  a  student  of  the  Leipsic  Homoeopathic  Pharmacy, 
and  opened  the  United  States  Homoeopathic  Pharmacy  at  No.  104  Chestnut 
street,  Philadelphia.  Dr.  Gideon  Humphrey  sold  homeopathic  medicines, 
as  also  did  Dr.  Jonas  Green.  About  1835  Mr.  William  Radde,  clerk  to  Mr. 
Wesselhoeft,  went  to  New  York  city,  taking  possession  of  that  branch  of 
his  business.  Not  long  after  Mr.  Radde  bought  out  the  Philadelphia  interests. 
In  1843  Mr.  Charles  L.  Rademacher  opened  a  pharmacy  at  No.  39  North 
Fourth  street.  In  1848  Dr.  Jacob  Sheek  became  his  partner  and  they  located 
at  239  Mulberry  street  (now  No.  635  Arch  street).  Mr.  Rademacher  with- 
drew in    1855      Dr.    Sheek  continued   the  business  until  his   death   in    1858. 



William  Radde,  Jr.,  son  of  William  Radde,  bought  Dr.  Sheek's  stock,  con- 
tinuing in  the  same  place  until  his  death  in  1862.  Dr.  Francis  E.  Boericke 
succeeded  him.  at  the  same  location.  In  1869  Dr.  Boericke  formed  a  partner- 
ship with  Mr.  Adolph  J.  Tafel,  under  the  firm  name  of  Boericke  &  Tafel. 

In  1852  Matthews  and  Houard  opened  a  pharmacy  at  Eighth  and  Spruce 
streets.  The  pharmacy  afterward  passed  into  the  hands  of  Dr.  Boericke. 
There  have  been  several  others  engaged  in  the  sale  of  homoeopathic  medicines 
in  Philadelphia.  At  present  there  are  the  firms  of  Boericke  &  Tafel,  Boericke 
and  Runyon,  and  Mr.  Carl  Vischer. 

Homo'opafhic  physicians  in  Philadelphia  and  Pennsylvania  previous  to 
i860.  The  date  preceding  the  name  indicates  the  year  the  physician  began 
the  practice  of  homoeopathy.  The  character  *  indicates  that  the  practitioner 
originally  was  of  some  other  school ;  the  character  x  indicates  that  phvsician 
practiced  medicine  before  the  date  given. 



Aldey,  John  H. 



Anderson,  Moses  x 



Ashton,  Adolphus  H. 



Bell,  Sanford  x 



Berens,  Bernard 



Berens,  Joseph 



Brooks,   Silas   Swift  * 



Brown,  T.  x 



Burdett,  S.  D.  x 



Bunting,  Thomas  Crowell 



Campton,   C.   B.  x 



Climte,  J.  C.  x 



Cowley,  David 



Coxe,  John  Redman,  Jr. 



Cresson,  Charles  C. 



Dubs,  Samuel  Richard  * 



Duhring,  George  H.  x 



Duffield,  Henry 



Earhart,  Jacob  R. 



Elder,  W.  x 



Evans,  R.  T.  x 



Esrey,  William  P. 



Fellger,  Adolph  * 



Freedley,  Samuel  * 



Frost,  James  H.  P. 



Gallagher,  Joseph  H. 



Geary.   John   Fitzgibbon 



Gardiner,  Richard  * 



Gardiner.   William   A. 



Geib,   William  x 



Cause,   Owen    Beverly 



Gilman,   J.  B.  x 



Greenbank,  J.  x 



Guernsey,  Henry  Newell 



Gumpert,  B.  Barton 



Helmuth,    William   Tod 



Helmuth,  William  Sheaff  * 



Hempel,    Charles   Julius 



Hering.   Constantine  * 



Houard.  John  Gustavus 



Hitchens,   Peter  S. 



Houghton,  C  J.  X 


Houghton,  John  S. 
Huber,  A.  x 
Humphrey,   Gideon 
Hussman,  F.  C. 
Ihm,  Carl 
James,  Davis  * 
James,   Richard   S. 
James,  Bushrod  Washington 
Jeanes,  Jacob  * 
Johnson,  J.  x 
Johnston,    Edward   R. 
Kern,  B.  F.  x 
Kitchen,    James  * 
Koch,   August   Wilhelm 
Koeifier,  E.  x 
Kreeger,  G.  H.  x 
Leech.  Charles  A. 
Lee,  John  K. 
Lcntz,  Jacob 
Leon,  Alexis  x 
Lingen,  George 
Lippe,  Adolph 
Loomis,  Joseph  G.  * 
McAllister,  James  Mairs 
McClatchey,  Robert  John 
Matlack,   Charles  F.  * 
Matthews,  Caleb  Bentley 
Metcalfe.  William 
Middleton,   R.    S.  x 
Miles,  Dr.  x 
Moore,  Thomas  * 
Morgan,   John   Coleman 
Murphy,  William 
Musgrave,    John    Freedley 
Neidhard,  Charles  * 
Nuncy.  C  x 
Pehrson,    J.    G.    G.  x 
Pearson,  S.  A.  x 
Powers,  W.  R.  * 
Pfeiffer,  George  S.  F. 
Raue,  Charles  Gottleib 
Randel,   John   Massey 






1 845 





Reed,    William    Ashton 
Reichhelm,    Gustavus 
Schmoele,  Henry  x 
Schmoele,   William 
Schaeffer,   Casper  x 
Schwartz,   Gustavus  x 
Sims.    Francis  * 
Smith.  Edward  M.  x 
Small.  Alvan   Edmond 
Semple,    Malthew 
Sheek,  Jacob    F.  x 
Simons,   W.  J.  x 
Stecks,  J.  X 
Stiles,  William  x 
Tanner,  John 
Thomas  R.  W.  x 
Tindall,   Daniel   M. 

1S51  Toothaker,   Charles   Everett 

1856  Thomas,  Amos  Russell 
1848  Vinal,  L.  G.  x 

1855  Ward,  John  Augustine 
1838  Ward,    Isaac    Moreau 
1841  Ward,   Walter  x 

1857  Watson,  James  L.  x 
1846  Weick,   John   M.  * 
1840  Whitehead,  Coburn 

i8_|5  Williams,  George  Cushman  x 

1856  Williams,  John  Henry 
1S36  Williamson,  Walter  * 
1S57  Williamson,  Walter  Martin 
1846  Withey,  Samuel  J.  x 

185s  Wolfe,   George 

1857  Wright,  W.  R.  X 


Aldey,  J.  H.  Reading  1846 

Acker,  E.  x     B'reeport  1857 

Armor,  Smith     Columbia  1853 

Armstrong,  John  *     Carlisle  1845 

Baelz,  C.  ^     Pittsburgh  1856 

Baker,  Joshua  T.     Lancaster  1846 

Bardin,  D.  R.  *     CoatesvUlc  1851 

Barr,  Benjamin     VVellsboro  1854 

Barnes,   M.   V.  x     Bath  1828 

Barden,   William  M.  '^    Mansfield  1854 

Bauer,  Adolph    Allentown  1857 

Bayer,  C.     Allegheny  City  1857 

Behlert,  Jacob  x     Emmaus  1857 

Becker,  Benjamin     Orwigsburg  1844. 

Becker,   Christian  J.     Harrisburg  1854 

Behne,  John  H.     Reading  1857 

Bender,  Jacob     Bendersville  1835 

Belden,  L.  C.  x     Le  Raysville  18^0 

Blanchard,  J.  A.     Pittsburgh  1835 

Black,    Alexander  *     Pittsburgh  1840 

Bloede,   Gustavus     Norristown  1844 

Bratt,  Benjamin  R.     Reading  1840 

Brickley,  George  *     York  1845 

Brickley,  Obadiah  C.      1  ork  1857 

Brisbane,  Dr.  x     Wilkes-Barre  1857 

Brisbane,  W.  x    Wyoming  1857 

Brugger,  Ignatius  *     New  Berlin  1857 

Bryan,  Thomas  *     New    Sheiifield  1849 
Bunting,   Thomas   C.     Mauch   Chunk       1857 

Burgher,  John  C.  Pittsburgh  1848 
Burbank,  J.  C.  x     Towanda 

Burrett,  Alexander  H.   Guys  Mills  1857 

Busch,    Lewis     HoUidaysburg  1838 

Busk,    H.  X     Alexandria  1857 

Buie,  George  H.     Nazareth  1839 

Caspari,   Adolph  1857 

Caspari,  Edward  Prestonville  1859 

Church,  William  J.     Pittslnn-gh  1828 

Clay,  George  B.  L.     Gcrmantoun  i860 

Coburn,  E.  x     Le  Raysville   '  1851 

Cooper,  F.  B.     Allegheny  City  1835 

Cooper,  John  F.  Allegheny  City  1856 

Cote,  Marcellin  *     Pittsburgh 
Corbin,  E.  L.  x     Athens 
Cowley,    David     Pittsburgh 
Coxe,  John  Redman  Jr.  Williamsport 
Dake,    Chauncey    M.     Pittsburgh 
Dake,   David  M.     Pittsburgh 
Dake,  Jabez  Percy     Pittsburgh 
Dare,  Charles  V.     Chester 
Detwiller,  Henry  *     Hellerton 
Detwiller,  John  J.     Easton 
Dickson,  P.  x    Allegheny 
Dininger,  C.  x     Reading 
Doolittle,  J.   F".  X     Wilkes-Barre 
Dornberg,  A.  G.     Mifflinburg 
Downing,   William  *     Downingtowii 
Eckhart,  Dr.  x     Allegheny 
Ehrmann,  B.  F.     Harrisburg 
Ehrmann,  Christian     Carlisle 
Ehrmann,   Francis     Carlisle 
Ehrmann,  Frederick     Carlisle 
Ehrmann,   Ernest  J.     Liverpool 
Ehrmann,  Louis     Carlisle 
Elliger,  C.     Germantown 
Elliott    P.  X     Allegheny 
Entriken,  Sarah  A.  x     West  Chester 
Everhart,  O.  T.  *     Goldsboro 
Eustace,   Andrew     Summit   Hill 
Faulkner,  Robert  *     Eric 
Eager,  John  M.  *  x     Harrisburg 
Faulkner,  P.  *     Erie 
Fell,  Ezra     Norristown 
Farmin,   M.  x     Edinborough 
Fehrenthal,  Major,  Allentown 
Ficard,  x     Bethlehem 
Floto,  John  Henry*     Allentown 
Foote,  J.  A.  x    Wellsboro 
Foster,  George  S.     East  Liberty 
Freytag,   Eberh;ird    Bethlehem 
Friese,  Michael     Carlisle    . 
Gardiner,  A.  P.     Carbondale 
Green,   Jonas 
Gritfith,  Jethro  J.     Manayunk 



1850  Gross,  James  Eldridge     Darby 

1857  Grosch,  B.  C.  x     Andersonburgh 

i860  Brumbein,  William,  Anneville 

1852  Guernsey,  William  F.     Frankford 
18.36  Haeseler,  Charles     Lebanon 

1857  Haeseler,  H.  A.  x     Pottsville 

1857  Hardmeyer,  Dr.  x     Allegheny 

1857  Hark,  J.  x     Nazareth 

1865  Harvey,  Joseph  F.     Lewisburg 

1853  Hawley,  Liverus   B.     Phoenixville 

1837  Helffrich,  John     Kutztown 
1857  Helffrich,  H.  x     Weisenburgh 
1857  Heigel,  M.  x     Strasburgh 

1856  Herron,  James  A.     Pittsburgh 

1857  Hindman,  David  R.     Cochranville 

1840  Hoffman,  Herman  H.     Pittsburgh 

1848  Hoffman,  Charles  Pittsburgh 
1856  Houghton,  Milo  G.  Pittsburgh 
1835  Huber,   Peter     Allentown 

1856  Ingham,  A.  jNI.     Lawrenceville 

1857  Ingham,  G.  W.  x     Troy 
1857  Irvine,  W.  x     Bellefonte 

1856  Irons,  Alexander     ^[arietta 

1857  Island,  W.  P.  x     Shamokin 
Jacobson,    Dr.     Bethlehem 

i860  Johnson,  William  H.     Marysville 

1852  Johnson,   Isaac   D.     Kennett   Square 

1858  Jones,  Joseph  E.  *     West  Chester 

1853  Jones,   Stacey     Darby 
1857  Kern,  J.  x     Siegersville 

1842  Leech,  J.   Stuart  *     Downingtown 

1857  Lefevre,  J.  H.  x     Paradise 

1854  Lintz,  Henry  S.     Chestnut  Hill 

1838  Lippe,  Adolph     Reading 

1841  Lovejoy,   Ezekiel  *     Towanda 

1833  ]\Iansa,   Edward.     Buffalo  Township 

1849  Marsden,  John  H.  York  Sulphur  Spg. 

1857  Martin,  C.  L.  x     Allentown 

1858  Malin,    George    W.     Germantdwn 
1857  ^fasser,  J.  P.  x     Sunbury 

1848  Alarvin,  S.     Springfield 

1838  :May,  Robert  *  .  Warwick 

1857  May,  N.  x     Holmesburg 

1S57  McClure,  D.  x     Shippensburg 

i8s7  -\Ieal,  T.  I.  x     Germantown 

1850  Miller,  C.     Carlisle 

1853  Moore,  Francis  R.     Pittsburgh 

1840  ]\Iorris,  Joseph  P.     ^Mansfield 

1841  Okie,    Abraham   H.     Allentown 
Owen,  W.  F.  *     C'ni-'ca"tville 

1848  Ober,  Benjamin     Wilkes-Barre 

1849  Penniman,   William  *     Pittsburgh 
1857  Pellichody.  Dr.  x     Birmingham 
1848  Porter.  David  C.     New  Castle 
1857  Pitcairn,   R.  x     Allegheny 

1850  Pierce.    Thomas    ^.      Norristown 

1852  Pratt,    Leonard     Towanda 

1853  Pratt,  Theodore  L.     Canton 
185T  Pratt,  David  S.     Towanda 

1855  Pretch,  Dr.  C.  Hollidaysburg 
1853  Preston,  Coates     Chester 

1835  Pulte,  Joseph   H.     Cherryville 















Rankin,   John    S.     Allegheny   City 
Randcl,  John  M.     Reading 
Reading,  John  R.     Somerton 
Reed,  J.  K.  x     Conshohocken 
Records,   Dr.  x     Bristol 
Reichhelm,  Gustavus     Pittsburgh 
Reisner,  Mr.  J.  C.     Lebanon 
Reinhold,  C.  G.     Lewistown 
Rhees,   Morgan  J.     Hollidaysburg" 
Ring,  Hamilton     Columbia 
Richter,   A.  x     Williamsport 
Roberts,  E.  W.  x     Harrisburg 
Roche,  Manning  B.     Upper  Darby 
Romig,   John     Allentown 
Romig,   W.  X     Allentown 
Rousseau,   Louis   M.  *     Pittsburgh 
Rutter,  John  C.     Bloomsburg 
Sargent,  Rufus    Reading 
Saynisch,  Lewis  *     Blossburg 
Seeger,  Joseph 
Scheurer,  P.     Hanover 
Schultz,  J.  T.  X     Claytonville 
Schultz,  Jonas  Y.     Colebrookdale 
Schucking,  Proctor     Chambersburg 
Schmidt,  Jacob 

Shields,  D.  x     Sewickly  Bottom 
Shearer,  John  H.     Wellsboro 
Shaw.   Alexander  R.     Chambersburg 
Searles,  Samuel     New  Castle 
Seymour,  N.  x     Erie 
Silby,  Dr.  x     Erie 
Skeeles,  I.  S.  x     Albion 
Skiles,  Francis  W.     Pittsburgh 
Smedley,  Robert  C.     Oxford 
Smith.  T.  K.  X     Carlisle 
Smith.  F.  S. 

Simpkins,  S.  *     Slate  Lick 
Speth.   Dr.  *     Lewistown 
Souci,  J.  M.  X     Canton 
Starkey,  George  R.     Reading 
.Stewart,  Isaac  *     Butler 
Stevenson,  Thomas  C.     Carlisle 
Sutton,  J.  L.     Lancaster 
Taudte,  Frederick  Birmingham 
Towner,  Enoch,  Jr.  x     Rome 
Towner,    Enoch  x     Towanda 
Thorne,  Joshua     Norristown 
Tyson,  Henry     Reading 
Valentine,  P.  E.     Cochranville 

Waage,    Dr.  x     Quakertown 
Weed,  Theodore  J.     Phoenixville 
\A'est,  Edwin     Honesdale 
Wesselhoeft,  William     Bath 
White.  Newell  *     New  Castle 
Williams,    George    C.     West   Chester 
Williams,  Theodore  S.     Germantown 
Williams,   Alban  *     Phoenixville 
Willis.    A.  X     Harrisburg 
Wood,  James  B.     West  Chester 
Wood,  Orlando  S.     Phoenixville 
Yeager,   M.  x     Hilltown 




By    Thomas    Lindsley    Bradford,    M.    D. 

Early  Introduction  of  Hahnemann's  System  in  the  West  and  Southwest — Virginia 
Societies — Allentown  Academy  bears  Good  Fruit — The  Pioneer  in  Virginia  a 
Layman — The  Caspari  Brothers — Campos — Hardy^ — Hobson — Atwood — Hughes — 
Other  Early  Practitioners  in  the  Old  Dominion.  * 

In  1835,  at  the  end  of  the  first  epoch  of  homoeopathy  in  the  United  States, 
its  practice  was  confined  to  New  York  and  Pennsylvania.  During  the  years 
between  1835  and  1844,  which  may  be  called  the  second  epoch  of  American 
homoeopathy,  it  had  been  introduced  in  Virginia  by  a  lay  practitioner  in  1830.' 

It  is  our  purpose  in  this  chapter  to  relate  something  of  the  story  of  the 
rapid  progress  of  homoeopathy  in  this  state,  and  to  show  the  influence  of 
Allentown  Academy  in  the  dissemination  of  the  doctrine  of  Hahnemann.  From 
the  time  when  Reichhelm  went  over  the  Allegheny  mountains,  the  progress  of 
the  system  of  mild  medication  was  indeed  marvelous.  It  will  be  remembered 
that  the  Mississippi  river  was  the  dividing  line  between  settlement  and  wil- 
derness. It  was  a  period  of  immigration  in  the  unknown  west.  Travel  was  by 
rivers  or  canals  or  roads,  and  even  by  trails.  Cincinnati  in  1835  had  a  popula- 
tion of  but  31,000.  In  1837  the  population  of  Chicago  was.  estimated  at  8,000, 
with  120  stores,  12  public  houses,  three  newspapers,  fifty  lawyers  and  thirty 
phvsicians.  In  Louisville  the  population  in  1840  v/as  but  21,000.  Iowa  was 
still  a  territory.  When  Reichhelm  went  to  Pittsburgh  that  city  had  a  popula- 
tion of  about  30,000.  But  the  growth  of  this  new  country  was  marvelous,  and 
the  growth  and  expansion  of  homoeopathy  throughout  the  land  must  be  to  the 
mind  of  the  thinker  a  most  conclusive  proof  of  its  truth. 


It  was  not  until  half  a  century  had  passed  after  homoeopathy  had  been 
introduced  in  Virginia  that  the  state  medical  society  began  its  existence.  The 
Halinemann  Medical  Society  of  the  Old  Dominion  was  organized  at  Richmond 
in  1880,  but  of  its  history  during  the  first  thirteen  years  of  its  existence 
little  is  known.  The  first  officers  were  Dr.  Joseph  V.  Hobson,  president ;  Dr. 
James  H.  Patton,  secretary.  The  society  met  annually  for  several  years,  after 
which  there  were  occasional  lapses  and  interest  in  its  afifairs  seemed  to  decline. 
A  reorganization,  however,  was  effected  in  the  latter  part  of  1893,  and  on 
December  13  a  number  of  physicians  met  in  Danville  and  re-established  the 
society  on  a  basis  so  secure  that  it  has  since  continued  and  been  the  means  of 
accomplishing  much  good  work  for  the  welfare  of  the  profession  in  the  state. 
The  officers  elected  in  1893  were  Dr.  M.  F.  Douglas,  president;  Drs.  Noah 
Jackson,  George  A.  Taber  and  Millson  R.  Allen,  vice-presidents ;  George  F. 
Bagby,  secretary ;  Charles  B.  Young,  treasurer ;  Drs.  A,  A.  Bancroft,  George 
F.  Bagbv,  Noah    Jackson,  H.  C.  Corliett,  W.   T.  Holiart,  W.   B.  Prvor  Jones, 


W.  S.  Lyon,  W.  P.  Moncure,  Charles  R.  Moore.  Clinton  Maynard,  N,  H.  Rid- 
dick  and  E.  Cone  Williams,  censors. 

The  West  Virginia  Homoeopathic  Medical  Society  was  organized  May 
19,.  1898,  at  Wheeling,  and  its  first  officers  were  'Dr.  M.  L.  Casselbury,  presi- 
dent; Drs.  C.  ^I.  Roger  and  J.  M.  Fawcett,  vice-presidents;  Dr.  C.  A.  Rob- 
erts, secretary;  Dr.  C.  H.  Wilsey,  treasurer;  Dr.  John  W.  Morris,  necrologist. 
The  second  meeting  was  held  at  Sisterville,  October  11,  1898.  This  society 
is  in  active  existence  and  holds  its  annual  meetings  in  different  cities. 


Virginia  was  the  third  state  into  which  homoeopathy  was  introduced. 
About  1830  a  lay  practitioner  established  himself  at  Norfolk,  and  his  name  was 
pronounced  Kuper.  He  remiained  for  a  year  or  two.  The  two  brothers,  Adolph 
and  Edward  Caspari,  who  were  students  at  the  Allentown  Academy,  were 
some  time  between  1832  and  1838  residents  at  Norfolk. 

In  1838  Dr.  F.  T.  Campos  went  to  Norfolk  and  in  1839  comrnenced  to 
practice  homoeopathy.  He  is  sai'd  to  have  graduated  in  medicine  in  Lisbon, 
Portugal,  and  to  have  practiced  several  years  in  Brazil.  He  enjoyed  a  good 
reputation  as  man  and  physician,  and  made  many  cures  by  the  new  method. 
He  was  active  in  the  epidemic  of  yellow  fever  during  the  summer  and  winter 
of  1855.     He  died  in  1857. 

Dr.  Thomas  I.  Hardy  practiced  in  Norfolk  at  the  same  period  as  Campos. 
In  Smith's  "Homoeopathic  Directory"  for  1857  both  names  are  given.  Dr. 
Hardy  died  October  31,  1886. 

Dr.  Robert  Shield  Perkins,  a  graduate  of  Hahnemann  Medical  College 
of  Philadelphia  in  1872,  commenced  practice  in  Norfolk  and  is  still  there. 

In  1858  Dr.  Joseph  Virginius  Hobson  began  the  practice  of  homoeopathy 
in  Richmond.  He  was  a  son  of  Joseph  and  Mary  Mumford  Hobson  and  was 
bom  in  Cumberland  county.  Va.,  November  11,  1810.  His  father  removed  to 
Powhattan  county,  purchasing  the  estate  of  Blenheim,  where  Joseph's  boyhood 
was  passed.  He  graduated  from  Hampden-Sydney  College  in  1828,  and 
entered  as  a  student  of  medicine  with  Dr.  Thomas  Nelson  of  Richmond.  He 
graduated  from  the  University  of  Pennsylvania  in  1832,  and  began  practice  at 
Cartersville,  Va.  He  spent  the  years  1839-40  in  Paris  in  study.  Returning, 
he  settled  at  Lynchburg  in  1840,  and  went  to  Powhattan  in  1847,  remaining  in 
practice  there  until  1858.  In  1856  his  attention  was  drawn  to  homoeopathy 
by  Henderson's  works  and  by  the  cure  of  a  case  by  Dr.  John  F.  Gray,  and 
this  led  to  investigation  and  adoption  of  the  homoeopathic  school  in  his  prac- 
tice. In  1858  he  removed  to  Richmond,  but  at  the  outbreak  of  the  war  he 
went  to  Blenheim,  resuming  practice  in  Richmond  at  the  close  of  the  war.  In 
1890  advancing  years  caused  him  to  retire  from  practice  and  he  returned  to 
Lynchburg,  where  he  remained  until  his  death,  October  10,   1895. 

Dr.  Aaron  H.  Atwood  went  to  Richmond  in  the  fifties  from  New  Hamp- 
shire. He  had  introduced  homoeopathy  into  Manchester  in  1845  ^^d  was  in 
partnership  with  Dr.  Emil  Custer,  but  ill  health  caused  him  to  go  to  Virginia, 
where  he  died. 

Dr.  Alfred  Hughes  began  the  practice  of  homoeopathy  in  Wheeling  in 
1 85 1.  He  was  born  there  September  16,  1824.  His  great-grandfather,  Felix 
Hughes,  came  from  Ireland  and  settled  in  Loudon  county  in  1732.  He  had 
four  sons,  one  of  whom,  James,  grandfather  of  Alfred,  was  a  famous  hunter. 
He  settled  in  Green  county.  Pa.,  then  in  Virginia,  and  married  a  Miss  Dur- 


ham  of  Jefferson  county,  in  1772.  At  his  death  he  owned  large  tracts  of  land 
in  Virginia,  Kentucky  and  Indiana.  He  was  among  the  first  white  settlers  in 
that  region.  He  left  three  spns  and  a  daughter.  One  son,  Thomas,  married 
Mary  Odenbaugh  of  Winchester.  Their  seventh  son  was  Alfred.  Young 
Hughes  graduated  at  the  Homoeopathic  Medical  College  of  Pennsylvania  in 
1853.  He  married  Mary  Kirby  Adrian  of  Wheeling,  November  i,  1849,  ^^^ 
began  to  practice  homoeopathy  at  Wheeling  amid  common  prejudice  and  a 
hard  fight,  but  succeeded  in  vindicating  his  cause.  When  the  cholera  of  1854 
appeared,  he  labored  night  and  day,  being  the  only  homoeopathic  physician  in 
the  city,  and  he  met  with  great  success  in  its  treatment.  Homoeopathy  was 
thus  firmly  established.  During  the  war  of  1861-1865,  he  espoused  the  cause 
of  the  south,  and  was  arrested  for  disloyalty  in  1861.  He  was  held  a  prisoner 
at  Camp  Chase,  near  Columbus,  Ohio,  for  eight  months,  when  he  was  exchanged 
for  a  brother  of  Dr.  Pancoast  of  Philadelphia,  and  was  allowed  to  go  with  his 
family  to  Richmond.  He  at  once  began  practice  and  again  had  to  fight  for 
homoeopathy,  but  soon  secured  a  good  clientage.  He  was  elected  to  the  legis- 
lature of  Virginia,  remaining  a  member  until  the  fall  of  Richmond.  On  Decem- 
ber 18,  1865,  he  removed  to  Baltimore,  where  he  built  up  a  practice.  He 
died  in  that  city  about  1876. 

Dr.  Walthall  located  in  Richmond.  Dr.  Arcoli,  an  Italian,  also  settled  in 
that  city.  Dr.  J.  H.  Patton,  a  graduate  in  1870  of  Hahnemann  Medical  College 
of  Philadelphia,  located  at  Richmond  soon  afterward. 

In  1857  Drs.  J.  B.  Doudall  and  R.  H.  Stabler  were  located  at  Alexandria ; 
Drs.  C.  H.  Connelly  and  F.  Pitcher  at  Fairmount ;  M.  L.  Casselburg  and  A. 
C.  Miller  at  Morgantown ;  F.  S.  Campos,  T.  I.  Hardy  and  Dr.  Walthall  at 
Norfolk;  Dr.  Daniel  Jaimey  at  Purcel's  Store;  Dr.  I.  P.  Clayton  at  Pierce- 
town ;  Drs.  A.  L.  Bilisoly,  L.  A.  Bilisoly  and  V.  B.  Bilisoly  at  Portsmouth ; 
Drs.  A.  H.  Atwood,  J.  F.  Gardiner  and  J.  B.  Walthall  at  Richmond ;  and  Drs. 
Blum  and  A.  Hughes  at  Wheeling. 

In  1870  there  were  but  two  homoeopathic  physicians  in  Richmond,  Drs. 
R.  Gardner  and  William  Q.  Mansfield,  and  in  the  whole  state  there  were  but 
thirteen.  In  1875  Dr.  Thomas  Hardy  and  Dr.  Robert  Shield  Perkins  were  in 
practice  at  Norfolk ;  Dr.  Eldridge  Lipj)incott  was  located  at  Petersburg ;  Dr. 
L.  A.  Bilisoly  was  at  Portsmouth,  and  Drs.  Joseph  Virginius  Hobson  and 
James  H.  Patton  were  at  Richmond.  In  1886  Drs.  William  L.  Morgan  and 
Charles  B.  Young  were  at  Lynchburg;  Drs.  Thomas  Hardy,  Robert  S.  Per- 
kins, Henley  N.  Riddick,  Frank  P.  Webster,  were  at  Norfolk ;  Drs.  William  B. 
Pryor  Jones  and  M.  J.  Lincoln  were  at  Petersburg;  Dr.  L.  Augustus  Bilisoly 
at  Portsmouth ;  Drs.  James  H.  Patton,  George  L.  Stone  and  George  A,  Taber 
were  at  Richmond. 

In  1899  there  were  thirty-one  homoeopathists  in  Virginia,  of  whom  eight 
were  located  in  Richmond,  viz. :  Drs.  George  F.  Bagley,  Harry  S.  Corey,  John 
W.  Hobart,  A.  L.  Marcy,  S.  Abagail  Roope,  George  L.  Stone,  George  A.  Ta- 
ber, Williams  E.  Cone.  In  1904  there  were  thirty  homoeopathic  physicians  in 
the  state. 

HoiJia'opafJiic  physit:iaiis  in  llri^iiiia  prcz'ioiis  to  i860.  The  date  preceding 
the  name  indicates  the  }ear  the  physician  began  the  practice  of  homoeopathy. 
The  character  *  indicates  that  tlie  ])ractitioner  originally  was  of  some  other 
school ;  the  character  x  indicates  that  physician  practiced  medicine  before  the 
date  given.  • 



1854  Atwood,  Aaron  H.  Richmond  1857 
1857  Bilisoly,  Antonio  L.     Portsmouth  1858 

1855  Bilisoly,  L.  Augustus  Portsmouth  1840 
1857  Bilisoly,  V.  B.  x  Portsmouth  1853 
T857  Blum,  Dr.  x  Wheeling  1850 
1853  Casselbury,  M.  L.  Morgantown  1830 
1857  Connelly,  C.  H.  x  Fairmount  1853 
1857  Clayton,  I.  P.  x  Piercetown  1857 
1857  Doudall.  J.  B  x  Alexandria  1852 
1833-4  Caspari,  Adolph  Norfolk  1857 
1839  Caspari,  Edward  Norfolk  1857 
1839  Campos,  F.  T.     Norfolk 

Gardiner,  J.  F.  x    Richmond 
Hobson,  Joseph  H.     Lynchburg 
Hardy,  Thomas  I.     Norfolk 
Hughes,  Alfred     Wheeling 
Janney,  Daniel     Purcels  Store 
Kuper,  Dr.     Norfolk 
Miller,    Alexander   C.     ^^lorgantown 
Pitcher,    F.  x     Fairmount 
Randel,  John  Massey     Norfolk 
Stabler,  R.  H.  x     Alexandria 
Walthall,  J.  B.  x    Richmond 




By  Thomas  Lindsley  Bradford,  M.  D. 

Gradual  Inlrodnction  of  Homoeopathy  in  the  West — Cope,  the  Pioneer  of  the  New 
System  in  Ohio — Beckwith's  Recollections  of  Sturm^Pulte,  the  Pioneer  and 
Founder  of  a  Great  School  of  Medical  Learning — Cholera  Plague  of  1849  and  Later 
Years — Homoeopathy  Attacked  by  the  Old  Enemy — Early  Homoeopaths  in  Cincinnati 
and  Cleveland — Attempts  to  Establish  a  Medical  College — Eclectic  Medical  Institute 
Establishes  a  Chair  of  Homoeopathy — Reminiscences  of  Early  Practitioners. 

Next  in  the  order  of  states  brought  under  the  beneficent  influence  of  the 
homoeopathic  system  of  medicine  was  Ohio,  the  "Buckeye"  state,  where  the 
doctrine  is  said  to  have  found  lodgment  in  1836  under  the  ministrations  of  one 
Dr.  Cope,  of  whom  httle  appears  to  be  known  except  that  at  the  time  men- 
tioned he  was  practicing  in  the  vicinity  of  Plymouth  in  Richland  county,  and 
that  he  was  credited  with  being  a  high  potentist,  administering  only  a  single 
pellet  and  repeating  the  dose  at  the  end  of  fourteen  days,  if  the  case  required 
such  "radical"  treatment.  Yet  tradition  says  that  the  worthy  doctor  accom- 
plished some  remarkable  cures  and  acquired  a  considerable  practice  in  the  region 
in  which  he  was  the  pioneer.  Tradition  has  it,  too,  that  sometime  during  the 
first  half  of  the  last  century  a  German  doctor  was  settled  in  Delaware  county, 
and  treated  his  patients  with  "very  little  pills,  and  whose  habit  was  in  typhoid 
cases  to  give  the  patient  one  dose,  and  then  return  at  the  end  of  a  week  to 
observe  how  it  was  working."  This  method  smacks  strongly  of  homoeopathic 
methods  of  three-quarters  of  a  century  ago.  and  there  is  little  doubt  that  the 
"German  physician"  whose  name  is  not  now  recalled  was  some  faithful  fol- 
lower of  the  strict  Hahnemannian  doctrine  as  then  understood  and  practiced. 

The  history  of  homoeopathy  in  the  "Buckeye"  state — every  loyal  Ohioan 
is  proud  of  the  synonym — from  first  to  last  is  a  subject  of  interesting  study,  and 
is  remarkable  in  that  the  first  disciple  of  the  new  doctrine  planted  its  seed  in 
the  state  only  ten  years  after  it  had  been  brought  to  America  by  Hans  Burch 
Gram.  Ohio  herself  had  laid  aside  the  territorial  character  and  entered  the 
sisterhood  of  states  only  a  little  more  than  thirty  years  before,  and  few  indeed 
of  the  counties  in  that  now  great  commonwealth  were  more  than  sparsely  set- 
tled, while  the  commercial  cities  for  which  the  state  i-s  now  noted  were  then 
little  larger  than  villages.  When  the  age  of  the  state  itself  is  considered,  dat- 
ing from  1803,  and  the  advent  of  the  first  representative  of  the  Hahnemannian 
school  of  medicine  a  little  more  than  thirty  years  afterward,  the  inference  is 
natural  that  homoeopathy  entered  Ohio  during  the  formative  period  of  its  his- 
tory and  that  the  subsequent  growth  of  each  was  in  even  step  until  both  became 
firmly  planted  on  solid  foundations.  But  in  the  civil  and  political  history  of  Ohio 
there  were  many  events  which  contributed  to  its  progress,  while  in  the  early 
history  of  homoeopathv  in  the  same  jurisdiction  every  conceivable  obstacle  was 
thrown  in  the  way  of  homoeopathic  practitioners  in  the  vain  endeavor  to  oppose 
the  progress  of  tlie  school  the  disciples  of  Hahnemann  had  chosen  to  represent; 


yet  even  in  this  period  of  adversity  the  httle  host  of  homoeopathic  pioneers 
was  not  without  friends,  and  an  educational  home  was  ofifered  them  in  the 
house  of  the  eclectic  school  in  Cincinnati.  The  chair  of  homoeopathy  in  the 
Eclectic  Aledical  Institute  was  not  long  continued,  but  its  establishment  was  an 
evidence  of  friendship  and  good  faith ;  it  was  a  foundation  sufficiently  strong  to 
build  upon,  and  the  representatives  of  the  homoeopathic  school,  preferring  to 
act  within  their  own  principles,  soon  afterward  set  about  the  task  of  founding 
a  college  for  themselves.  Their  first  endeavors  were  not  rewarded  with  the 
degree  of  success  they  deserved,  but  the  mistakes  of  early  experience  served  as 
beacon-lights  to  guard  agaitist  their  repetition  in  later  years.  And  the  purpose 
was  well  served,  for  in  1849  ^  college  of  homoeopathic  medical  instruction  was 
founded  in  Cleveland,  the  second  institution  of  its  kind  in  America.  It  has 
endured  to  the  present  time,  and  has  accomplished  as  much  good  work  in  the 
propagation  of  the  homoeopathic  gospel  in  the  west  as  any  similar  school  in 
the  land.  The  Cleveland  Homoeopathic  Medical  College,  as  now  known,  sec- 
ond in  seniority  only  to  Hahnem.ann  of  Philadelphia,  was  established  in  1849 
on  an  original  foundation,  and  was  not  the  outgrowth  of  any  institution  in  the 
east,  although  some  historians  have  traced  its  origin  to  old  Allentown  Academy. 

In  the  course  of  time  other  medical  colleges  were  founded  in  Ohio,  a  few 
of  them  to  fall  by  the  wayside  or  to  merge  in  those  more  strongly  supported, 
and  at  the  beginning  of  the  twentieth  century  there  are  two  principal  homoe- 
opathic colleges  in  the  state,  one  in  Cleveland  and  one  in  Cincinnati.  The  his- 
tory of  each  of  these  is  made  the  sttbject  of  extended  mention  in  another  depart- 
ment of  this  work. 

In  this  connection  it  is  interesting  to  note  the  gradual  increase  in  the  num- 
ber of  homoeopathic  physicians  in  Ohio.  In  1836  the  pioneer,  a  layman,  led 
the  way.  Twenty  years  later,  in  1857,  the  number  was  120;  1875,  422;  1885, 
498;  1899,  968;  and  in  1905  it  is  estimated  that  there  are  in  the  homoeopathic 
ranks  in  Ohio  a  total  of  one  thousand  practitioners. 

Ohio  has  been  both  faithful  and  prolific  in  the  work  of  homoeopathic  soci- 
ety organization,  and  in  that  respect  ranks  w'ith  the  foremost  states  of  the 
union.  A  brief  allusion  to  the  more  important  of  these  societies  is  proper  in 
this  connection,  not  for  the  purpose  of  exhaustive  narrative  but  as  a  necessary 
part  of  an  interesting  record. 


A  society  of  homoeopathic  physicians'  was  organized  in  Cleveland  as  early 
as  1846,  which  was  just  ten  years  after  the  system  had  been  introduced  in  the 
state.  Reports  of  the  organization  and  meagre  reports  of  the  society  are  found 
in  the  "  American  Journal  of  Homoeopathy,"  Vol.  i,  p.  46,  and  also  in  the 
Michigan  "  Journal  of  Homoeopathy  "  for  June,  1849.  The  old  society  was 
continued  only  a  short  time,  and  then  was  dissolved.  The  next  attempt  at  per- 
manent organization  was  made  in  1851,  at  a  meeting  held  in  Columbus  on 
September  23  of  that  year,  v/hen  the  work  previously  begun  was  improved 
upon  and  made  more  complete.  The  customary  constitution  and  by-laws  were 
adopted,  and  the  society  took  the  name  Ohio  College  of  Homoeopathic  Physi- 
cians. The  first  officers  were  Drs.  O.  A.  Blair,  president;  J.  H.  Coulter  of 
Columbus  and  John  Tifift  of  Norwalk,  vice-presidents ;  C.  A.  Leuthstrom  of 
Columbus,  secretary ;  G.  St.  C.  Hussey  of  Portsmouth,  corresponding  secre- 
tary ;  C.  D.  Williams  of  Cleveland,  H.  P.  Gatchell  of  Cincinnati,  J.  W.  Dennis 
of  Portsmouth,  Jacob  Bosler  of  Dayton  and  L.  K.  Rosa,  censors.    In  1852  and 


1853  meetings  were  held  in  Cleveland,  the  next  year  in  Columbus,  but  none 
were  afterward  held  until  1864,  when  the  homoeopathic  physicians  of  the  state 
met  in  convention  in  the  capital  city  of  the  state,  revived  the  dormant  organi- 
zation, and  brought  into  existence  the  Homoeopathic  Medical  Society  of  the 
State  of  Ohio.  The  officers  tlien  elected  were  as  follows :  Dr.  A.  O.  Blair  of 
Cleveland,  president ;  Drs.  E.  C.  Witherill  of  Cincinnati  and  W.  W.  Webster  of 
Dayton,  vice-presidents ;  Dr.  Charles  Cropper  of  Cincinnati,  secretary ;  Dr.  C. 
C.  White  of  Columbus,  treasurer ;  Drs.  A.  Shepherd  of  Springdale,  G.  H.  Blair 
of  Columbus,  Charles  Osterlin  of  Findlay,  T.  P.  Wolson  of  Cleveland,  Lewis 
Barnes  of  Delaware,  T.  M.  Miller  of  Stubenville  and  E.  C.  Beckwith  of  Zanes- 
ville,  censors.  At  first  the  society  met  annually  at  Columbus,  but  later  adopted 
the  rule  of  meeting  in  different  cities.  The  society  was  incorporated  in  1878. 
Membership,  about  275.    wSince  1865  transactions  have  been  published  annually. 

In  this  connection,  also, '  it  is  proper  that  some  mention  be  made  of  the 
several  sectional,  district  and  local  medical  societies  of  the  state,  although  the 
record  of  necessity  must  be  brief,  and  limited  to  mention  of  the  name,  field 
of  operation  and  date  of  organization  of  each.     The  record  follows : 

Homoeopathic  Medical  Society  of  Eastern  Ohio,  organized  April  2.  1873,  by- 
union  of  the  Homoeopathic  Medical  Society  of  the  Seventeenth  Congressional 
District  (organized  August  i,  1866)  and  the  Homoeopathic  Medical  Associa- 
tion of  Summit  and  Portage  Counties  (organized  June,  1871)  ;  Northwestern 
Ohio  Homoeopathic  Medical  Society.  June,  1889;  Ohio  Valley  Medical  Society, 
1901  ;  Miami  Valley  Homoeopathic  Medical  Society,  June  14,  i860;  Seven- 
teenth Congressional  District  of  Ohio  Medical  Society,  August  i,  1866;  Sum- 
mit and  Portage  Counties  Homceopathic  Medical'  Society,  June,  1871 ;  the 
Cleveland  Academy  of  Medicine  and  Surgery,  1872 ;  Cleveland  Academy  of 
Medicine,  February  4,  1891  ;  Cleveland  Medical  Association,  about  1865; 
Cleveland  Homoeopathic  Maternity  Society,  October  12,  1891  ;  Columbus  Clin- 
ical Club,  June  2,  1890;  Cincinnati  Homoeopathic  INIedical  Society,  1862;  Cin- 
cinnati Homoeopathic  Eyccum,  October  28,  1889;  Cincinnati  Homoeopathic 
Society ;  Cuyahoga  County  Homoeopathic  Medical  Society,  November,  i86s ; 
Dayton  City  Homoeopathic  Medical  Society,  1879;  Homoeopathic  Medical 
Society  of  Eastern  Ohio,  April  2,  1873  ;  Hahnemann  Society  of  Cincinnati, 
April  10,  1855;  Homoeopathic  Association  of  Cincinnati,  1849;  Homoeopathic 
Club  of  Cincinnati,  December,  1885;  Loraine  and  Medina  County  Homoe- 
opathic Medical  Society,  July  18,  1868;  Lucas  County  Homoeopathic  IMedical 
Society,  i860;  Miami  County  Homoeopathic  Medical  Society,  June  14,  i860; 
Montgomery  County  Homcieopathic  Medical  Society,  November  6,  1868; 
Muskingum  Valley  Homoeopathic  Medical  Society,  1867;  Northeastern  Ohio 
Homoeopathic  Medical  Society,  1864;  Perry  County  Homoeopathic  Medical 
Society,  October  26,  1870;  Philadelphos  Society;  Round  Table  Club,  August 
28,  1889;  Summit  County  Homoeopathic  Oinical  Society,  January  15,  1885; 
Toledo  Clinical  Societv,  1884;  Union  Homoeopathic  Medical  Society  of  North- 
ern Ohio,  June  6,  1868. 


Tile  establishment  of  homoeopathic  hospitals  in  Ohio  was  an  important  ele- 
ment of  the  early  endeavor  of  the  medical  profession,  and  engaged  the  attention 
of  lionKtopathic  ]iractitioners  almost  as  early  as  the  efforts  in  organizing  medi- 
cal societies.  This  subject  is  of  mucli  importance  in  the  history  of  homoeopathy 


in  the  state,  but  the  extent  to  which  it  demands  consideration  in  this  place  is 
questionable,  inasmuch  as  the  principal  institutions  of  this  character  are  in  a 
lari^e  measure  a  part  of  the  life  of  the  homrjeopathic  medical  collej^^es,  particu- 
larly in  the  large  cities  of  Cleveland  and  Cincinnati. 

Ihe  Cleveland  Homoeopathic  Hospital,  the  first  organized  hospital  in 
Cleveland,  Ohio,  v/as  opened  in  May,  1856,  by  S.  R.  Beckwith,  M.  D.,  who  was 
the  surgeon  for  the  Lake  Shore  and  the  Cleveland,  Columbus  and  Cincinnati 
railroads.  It  was  established  as  a  private  surgical  hospital  to  accommodate 
those  injured  by  the  railroads;  but  was  open  to  all  surgical  cases.  It  was 
situated  on  Lake  street,  and  accommodated  twenty  patients.  George  H.  Bet- 
tely,  M.  D.,  was  the  house  surgeon. 

In  i860  St.  Vincent's  Hospital  was  completed  and  opened  for  the  recep- 
tion of  patients.  Physicians  and  surgeons  of  both  schools  being  permitted  to 
treat  patients  therein,  there  seemed  no  necessity  for  the  separate  maintenance 
of  the  hospital  on  Lake  street,  and  con"sequently  it  was  closed.  St.  Vincent's 
Hospital  was  under  the  control  and  management  of  the  sisters  of  a  Catholic 
order  and  for  five  years  remained  the  only  hospital  in  Cleveland.  In  1865, 
however,  there  was  set  on  foot  a  project  for  the  establishment  of  a  Protestant 
hospital,  and  in  May  of  the  next  year  a  committee  of  three,  consisting  of  Dr. 
D.  H.  Beckwith,  Mr.  Horace  Brockaway  and  Mrs.  S.  F.  Lester,  was  formed 
for  the  purpose  of  obtaining  a  building  suitable  for  hospital  purposes. 

A  large  and  roomy  building  at  83  Wilson  street  was  selected  and  pur- 
chased at  a  cost  of  $8,000.  An  organization  was  effected  and  a  board  of 
trustees  formed,  and  these  gave  the  name  of  Wilson  Street  Hospital  to  the 
building.  Of  the  trustees,  one-half  were  chosen  by  adherents  of  the  old  school, 
the  remainder  by  those  of  the  homoeopathic  school.  The  board  of  trustees  was 
composed  of  Mrs.  Samuel  Williamson.  Mrs.  A.  B.  Stone,  Mrs.  Mary  Severance, 
W.  S.  Stanley,  T.  W.  Pelton,  Mrs.  Daniel  P.  Rhodes,  Mrs.  Peter  Thatcher, 
Mrs.  L.  M.  Hubbey,  Jacob  Lowman  and  H.  C.  Blossom.  The  medical  and 
surgical  staff  represented  both  schools  of  medicine  and  consisted  of  Drs.  A. 
Maynard,  A.  A.  Brooks,  H.  F.  Cushing,  D.  H.  Beckwith,  B.  P.  Brown  and 
George  H.  Blair. 

Within  a  very  few  weeks  a  group  of  ladies  interested  in  the  work  col- 
lected sufficient  funds  to  pay  for  the  building  and  its  thorough  equipment  for 
hospital  purposes.  For  some  time  complete  harmony  reigned  in  the  medical 
staff,  but  differences  began  to  show  themselves,  with  the  result  that  early  in 
1867  the  president,  Mr.  H.  B.  Hurlburt,  for  the  adherents  of  the  old  school 
of  medicine,  made  to  those  who  favored  the  new  school  a  proposition  to  either 
buy  or  sell  their  interests  in  the  hospital.  The  homoeopathic  adherents  with- 
drew from  the  hospital  and  later  united  with  the  Cleveland  Protestant  Homoe- 
opathic Hospital,  which  was  opened  for  patients  November  3,  1869. 

The  trustees  of  the  Wilson  Street  Hospital,  now  adherents  of  the  old  school 
of  medicin<?,  adopted  the  following  resolution :  "  Resolved,  That  in  the  future 
no  homoeopathic  phvsician  or  surgeon  shall  be  allowed  to  treat  any  patient, 
free  or  pay,  in  this  hospital."  This  resolution  was  in  force  for  nearly  twenty 
years,  its  immediate  effect  being  the  uniting  in  a  strong  bond  of  friendship 
the  homoeopathic  physicians  and  their  clientele. 

The  previous  year  Humiston  Institute  had  been  purchased  for  college 
and  hospital  purposes,  at  a  cost  of  $35,000.  This  hospital  was  under  the  con- 
trol of  the  homoeopathic  school  of  medicine,  but  patients  therein  had  the  privi- 


lege  of  any  treatment  they  preferred,  thus  giving  physicians  of  the  old  school 
the  right  of  entry. 

After  five  years  of  successful  operation  the  trustees,  deeming  it  advisable 
to  seek  a  new  location,  purchased  the  property  where  the  hospital  now  stands 
on  Huron  street,  February  4,  1873.  This  building  was  opened  for  the  recep- 
tion of  patients,  but  within  a  very  short  time,  however,  it  was  found  to  be 
inadequate  to  the  demand  made  upon  it,  and  in  May,  1878,  the  hospital  asso- 
ciation decided  upon  the  erection  of  a  new  structure.  As  a  means  to  this  end, 
the  ladies'  association  united  with  the  board  of  lady, managers  of  the  City  Hos- 
pital and  gave  a  great  charity  fair  and  loan  exhibition,  the  proceeds  of  which 
were  to  be  divided  between  the  hospitals.  This  was  a  great  success,  the  citizens 
of  Cleveland  having  come  forward  with  enthusiasm,  loaning  their  fine  paint- 
ings, statuary  and  works  of  art  in  the  effort  to  get  together  a  collection  to 
attract  and  interest  the  people.  The  collection  gathered  was  so  fine  that  the 
city  virtually  put  it  in  charge  of  the  police  and  fire  departments,  so  that  no 
harm  might  com.e  to  it.  The  net  proceeds  amounted  to  $12,816.54,  half  of 
which  was  awarded  the  homoeopathic  hospital. 

In  June,  1878,  the  trustees  appointed  a  building  committee,  consisting  of 
George  PL  Warmington,  Dr.  D.  H.  Beckwith,  Edward  Bingham  and  Capt.  A. 
Bradley.  Excavations  were  begun  in  April,  1879,  and  so  rapidly  did  the 
work  progress  that  during  the  following  year,  September  29th,  the  hospital 
was  dedicated  and  opened  to  receive  patients. 

The  new  building  acted  as  a  stimulus  in  many  directions,  the  effect  being 
shown  by  many  actions  which  attested  to  the  loyalty  and  generosity  of  the 
citizens  of  Cleveland  toward  homoeopathy  and  homoeopathic  institutions.  The 
work  of  the  hospital  increased  to  such  a  degree  during  the  next  decade  that 
additional  accommodations  were  found  to  be  imperative.  It  was  not,  however, 
until  1894  that  provision  was  made  for  a  new  building.  This  was  completed 
by  the  first  of  April,  1895.  It  is  a  large  four-story  building  connected  with  the 
main  building  by  a  covered  gallery,  and  is  very  fully  utilized  for  the  hospital 
needs.  In  it  are  the  sleeping  rooms  for  nurses  and  a  number  of  employees,  one 
entire  floor  being  taken  up  by  patients.  The  basements  contain  laundry, 
sterilizers,  store  rooms,  and  mortuary. 

During  the  past  ten  years  the  hospital  has  more  than  doubled  its  work.  It 
is  now  entirely  out  of  debt  and  has  an  endowment  of  $20,000;  the  estimated 
value  of  the  property  owned  by  the  hospital  corporation  is  $150,000.  Those  in 
charge  of  the  work  realize  that  the  present  building  is  entirely  inadequate  to 
the  demands  made  upon  it,  so  that  it  will  be  but  a  short  time  until  new  build- 
ings and  a  new  location  must  be  sought. 

The  Ohio  Hospital  for  Women  and  Children,  Cincinnati,  is  the  direct 
outgrowth  of  a  free  dispensary  which  was  opened  in  Cincinnati,  June  ii, 
1879,  by  Drs.  Ellen  M.  Kirk  and  Martha  M.  Howells.  assisted  by  thirty-five 
philanthropic  women,  who  united  in  an  organization  for  its  support  known  as 
the  Free  Dispensary  Association  for  Women  and  Children.  The  clinics  were 
increasingly  large  and  out  of  them  grew  the  need  of  a  hospital.  This  need 
stimulated  the  members  to  determined  effort  and  on  October  11,  1881,  the  Free 
Dispensary  for  Women  and  Children  became  the  Ohio  Hospital  for  Women 
and  Qiildren  by  an  act  of  incorporation.  May  9,  1882.  A  house  affording  suit- 
able accommodations  in  West  Ninth  street  was  rented,  equipped  and  formally 
opened  as  a  hospital  the  following  June.  In  a  few  years  this  house  proved  too 
small  for  the  growing  work  and  a  permanent  home  was  purchased  for  twenty 



thousand  dollars  in  December,  1888.  This  commodious  house,  No.  549  West 
Seventh  street,  was  opened  March  4.  1889.  The  object  of  this  institution  has 
been  to  offer  to  women  an  opportunity  to  consult  homoeopathic  women  physi- 
cians, and  to  women  physicians  clinical  advantages  and  experience.  The  train- 
ing of  nurses  has  been  a  prominent  feature  since  1887.  Some  three  thousand 
patients  have  been  received  in  its  private  rooms  and  wards.  The  hospital  dur- 
ing three  years  has  received  several  bequests  and  is  supported  outside  of  its 
income  from  private  patients  by  annual  dues  from  members  of  its  association, 
donations,  etc.  A  free  dispensar\-  has  always  been  an  adjunct  of  the  hospital 
and  thousands  of  the  needy  of  the  city  have  shared  its  benefits. 

The  medical  staff  consists  of  the  fol- 
lowing physicians :  Ellen  M.  Kirk,  dean ; 
Mary  E.  Minor,  Sophia  P.  Georgi,  Ida  E.  Mc- 
Cormick,  Ella  E.  Huntington,  Bertha  Van 
Houten  Anthony,  Florence  M.  Pollock. 

The  general  management  of  this  hospital  for 
women  by  women  is  vested  in  a  board  of  man- 
agers as  follows :  Mrs.  Robert  Hosea,  presi- 
dent; Mrs.  J.  D.  Park,  vice-president;  Mrs. 
Wm.  N.  Hobart,  second  vice-president;  Mrs. 
E.  D.  Albro,  secretary;  Mrs.  T.  B.  Colher, 
treasurer;  Dr.  Ellen  M.  Kirk,  dean;  Mrs.  Ellen 
Clarke,  Mrs.  E.  G.  Carpenter,  Mrs.  G.  W.  El- 
lard,  Miss  Lida  Galigher,  Mrs.  J.  J.  Hooker, 
Mrs.  W.  P.  Harrison,  Mrs.  Taylor  Latta,  Mrs. 
Langtrie,  Mrs.  A.  S.  Lowenberg,  Mrs.  G.  W. 
Oyler,  Mrs.  C.  D.  Robertson  and  Miss  Fanny 
E.  Turner. 

The  Toledo  Protestant  Hospital,  an  institution  under  homoeopathic  medi- 
cal supervision,  is  the  result  of  a  movement  begun  in  1874,  and  which  reached 
fruition  in  1877,  when  its  rooms  were  opened  for  patients.  It  was  incorpo- 
rated December  12,  1876,  and  is  under  the  medical  and  surgical  supervision  of 
the  Lucas  County  Homoeopathic  Medical  Society.  Originally  the  hospital  staff 
was  chosen  from  both  schools  of  medicine,  but  the  allopaths  refused  to  attend 
an  institution  w^her.e  homoeopathy  was  permitted  to  be  practiced  and  severed 
their  connection  with  it ;  upon  which  the  hospital  w^as  placed  under  homoe- 
opathic medical  supervision,  but  the  representatives  of  that  school  have  been 
considerate  of  allopathy,  and  have  admitted  its  representatives  to  the  privi- 
leges of  the  institution. 


Dr.  William  Sturm,  it  is  said  on  excellent  authority,  began  the  practice 
of  homoeopathy  in  Cincinnati  in  1839,  which  event  gives  him  precedence  in 
the  long  and  honorable  line  of  homoeopaths  who  followed  him  in  the  field 
in  after  years.  He  was  born  in  Saxony  in  June,  1796,  and  was  educated  in 
medicine  in  Germany,  a  pupil  of  Hahnemann,  the  founder  of  the  homoeopathic 
school.  Sturm  is  said  to  have  been  a  man  of  liberal  education,  and  in  medi- 
cine his  success  in  the  treatment  of  cases  of  an  acute  character  gave  him  an 
extensive  practice  and  proclaimed  his  name  and  fame  throughout  the  Ohio 
river  valley. 

The  second  disciple  of  homoeopathy  in  Cincinnati  was  Dr.  Joseph  H.  Pulte, 

Ohio  Hospital  for  Women  and 
Children,  Cincinnati. 


who  took  lip  the  practice  of  medicine  in  Cincinnati  in  1840,  an  incident  of 
travel  having  impelled  him  to  change  his  determination  to  visit  his  brother  in 
St.  Louis  and  undoubtedly  to-  practice  medicine  in  that  city ;  and  this  was  a 
fortunate  resolution  on  Pulte's  part  for  the  development  of  homoeopathy  in 
Ohio,  for  this  great  exemplar  of  the  Hahnemannian  doctrine  was  a  man  of 
learning,  a  physician  of  repute,  and  a  citizen  whose  every  walk  in  life  was 
<:orrect.  And  Pulte  in  later  years  was  the  founder  of  the  great  college  of  homce- 
opathic  medical  instruction  in  Cincinnati  which  bears  his  name  and  most 
worthily  promulgates  the  doctrines  he  first  expounded  in  that  city  more  than 
three  score  years  ago.  The  life  and  services  of  Dr.  Pulte  are  subjects  of  men- 
tion in  the  history  of  the  college  referred  to,  hence  need  no  further  commen- 
tary in  this  place. 

In  .1849  Asiatic  cholera  laid  its  scourge  upon  the  west,  and  during  its  prev- 
alence Pulte  with  a  few  other  capable  homoeopaths  proved  that  medicines  in 
attenuated  doses  administered  according  to  the  law  of  Hahnemann  could  in  a 
great  measure  lessen  its  ravages ;  and  while  certain  physicians  and  ministerial 
editors  were  inclined  to  cavil  at  the  success  of  the  homoeopaths,  the  people 
accepted  the  fact  and  the  new  doctrine  found  favor  throughout  the  entire 
region.  This  period  in  our  history  in  Ohio  was  marked  with  what  is  known  as 
the  "cholera  pamphlet  war"  in  Cincinnati.  The  plague  first  appeared  in  that 
city  in  1849,  ^^'^'^^  from  the  first  the  allopaths  made  reports  to  the  authorities, 
while  the  homoeopaths,  not  knowing  the  requirements,  failed  to  do  so ;  and 
for  this  the}'^  were  brought  to  bar.  Pulte  and  Ehrmann,  homoeopaths,  were 
tried  before  the  mayor,  but  were  dismissed,  the  health  board  not  being  law- 
fully organized.  However,  after  this  affair  both  Pulte  and  Ehrmann  made 
public  their  practice  and  its  results  during  the  continuance  of  the  epidemic. 

At  that  time  in  Cincinnati  there  lived  a  minister,  who  also  was  an  editor 
of  a  religious  p^per  called  the  "Methodist  Expositor,"  and  who  with  his  other 
attainments  was  an  allopathic  physician.  He  appeared  to  have  been  some- 
what exercised  in  his  mind  regarding  the  followers  of  Hahnemann  and  their 
practice  in  Cincinnati,  and  in  his  paper  he  attacked  the  report  of  Pulte  and 
Ehrmann,  and  also  attacked  homoeopathy  in  general,  using  language  and 
expressions  more  bitter  than  befitted  a  man  of  the  cloth.  In  one  of  his  lamen- 
tations he  quoted  scripture :  "If  the  trumpet  give  an  uncertain  sound  who 
shall  prepare  himself  to  the  battle."  The  worthy  editor  entitled  his  articles 
"Hoi-.ioeopathic  Trumpet,"  and  they  were  answered  by  Pulte  and  Ehrmann  in 
a  determined  yet  more  christianlike  spirit.  After  this  controversy  had  con- 
tinued some  time  an  association  of  citizens  was  formed,  called  the  Homoe- 
opathic Association,  and  a  committee  from  it  was  appointed  to  investigate  the 
matter  and  report.  This  committee  comprised  Alphonso  Taft,  B.  F.  Barrett, 
George  Carlisle,  Nathaniel  L.  Sawyer  and  George  Crawford.  After  making 
a  careful  examination  of  the  various  cases  treated,  the  committee  reported  at 
a  meeting  of  the  association  held  in  October,  1849,  ^^^'^  exonerated  Drs.  Pulte 
and  Ehrmann  from  blame  or  discredit,  at  the  same  time  recommending  that 
the  reverend  medico-editor  "promptly  correct  what  he  finds  to  be  incorrect  in 
his  published  statements  of  this  subject." 

The  homoeopathic  journals  of  the  time,  Shipman's  "  Northwestern  Jour- 
nal of  Homoeopathia,"  the  "  Quarterly  Homoeopathic  Journal,"  of  Boston,  the 
"  Southwestern  Homoeopathic  Journal,"  and  "  Review  and  the  American 
Journal  of  Homoeopathy,"  all  pu1)lished  editorials.  The  pamphlets  were  widely 


circulated,  and  there  is  no  doul)t  that  the  outcome  was  largely  of  benefit  to 
homoeopathy  in  the  west. 

Contemporary  with  Dr.  Pulte  in  the  early  history  of  homoeopathy  in  Cin- 
cimiati  was  Dr.  Benjamin  Ehrmann,  another  of  the  Allentown  graduates.  He 
had  drifted  west,  following  the  tide  of  emigration,  and  located  at  Chillicothe, 
and  in  1848  becoming  acquainted  with  Pulte  was  by  him  persuaded  to  go  to 
Cincinnati,  where  they  formed  a  partnership. 

Dr.  F.  A.  W.  Davis  went  to  Cincinnati  in  1846  to  spend  the  summer.  He 
met  Pulte  and  was  induced  to  study  homoeopathy.  During  the  cholera  epi- 
demic he  did  great  service,  opened  a  free  dispensary  and  treated  a  great  many 
poor  people  gratuitously.     He  afterward  went  to  Tennessee. 

James   G.   Hunt,  JM.   D. 

Dr.  James  George  Hunt  was  another  of  the  early  practitioners  in  Cin- 
cinnati. He  had  become  a  homoeopathist  during  the  cholera  epidemic  of 

Dr.  Adam  Aliller  practiced  homoeopathy  in  Cincinnati  about  1850  and  soon 
afterward  went  to   Ilhnois. 

Another  of  the  earlv  homoeopaths  in  Cincinnati  was  Edwin  C.  Witherill,. 
who  was  born  in  New  Hampshire  in  1821,  and  when  nine  years  old  his  par- 
ents moved  to  Auburn,  X.  Y.  At  sixteen  he  made  a  voyage  to  Liverpool,  antl 
on  his  return  taught  in  the  public  schools  and  studied  medicine,  receiving  his 
diploma  from,  a  medical  school  in  New  York  city.  He  practiced  in  Auburn 
and  Canandaigua,  and  then  was  appointed  to  the  chair  of  anatomy  and  physi- 
ology in  the  Western  Homoeopathic  College  at  Cleveland.     Before  accepting 


this  position  he  spent  some  time  in  the  hospitals  of  London  and  Paris.  He 
was  a  professor  in  the  college  from  1850  to  1853.  Later  on  he  went  to  Cin- 
cinnati where  he  remained  in  practice  until  his  death,  October  30,  1865. 

Dr.  Jesse  Garrettson  began  the  practice  of  homoeopathy  in  Cincinnati  in 
1849.  ^^  f'i^d  i"  that  city.  July  3,  1876.  His  brother,  Dr.  Joseph  Garrettson, 
was  with  him  during-  the  later  years  of  his  life. 

Dr.  George  W.  Bigler  located  in  Cincinnati  in  1850.  He  was  a  native  o£ 
Harrisburg,  Pa.,  and  originally  was  an  allopathic  physician,  but  becoming 
convinced  of  the  truth  of  homoeopathy  he  adopted  it  and  became  a  prominent 
practitioner  in  Ohio.  He  was  of  the  Swedenborgian  faith,  a  member  of  the 
American  institute  and  also  of  the  state  and  county  homoeopathic  societies. 
He  died  at  his  home  in  Cincinnati.  April  28,  1871. 

Dr.  William  Peck,  an  allopathic  physician  of  Cincinnati,  adopted  homoe- 
opathy in  1849.  He  was  the  son  of  Benjamin  and  Sarah  (Bachelor)  Peck, 
and  was  borrr  in  Sutton,  Mass.,  April  6,  1798.  He  graduated  from  Brown 
University  in  1820.  He  opened  an  office  in  Providence,  R.  L,  and  on  May 
21,  1823,  married  Jane,  daughter  of  Dr.  Samuel  Thane.  Two  years  later  he 
removed  to  New  Rochelle,  N.  Y.,  where  he  practiced  until  1831,  when  he 
located  in  Cincinnati.  Dr.  Ira  Barrows,  his  cousin,  of  Providence,  R.  L, 
induced  him  to  become  a  homoeopath.  He  joined  the  institute  in  1850.  and 
was  on  his  way  to  the  meeting  in  1857,  when  in  a  collision  on  the  Erie  railroad 
on  June  3,  he  was  instantly  killed.  Dr.  George  B.  Peck  of  Providence  is 
his  nephew. 

Dr.  Price,  another  allopathic  physician  of  Cincinnati,  became  a  convert 
about  1849. 

Homoeopathy  was  introduced  in  Cleveland  by  Dr.  R.  E.  W.  Adams  in 
1843.  f^6  remained  there  a  few  years  and  then  went  to  Illinois.  In  1844  Dr. 
Daniel  O.  Hoyt  went  to  Cleveland,  associating  himself  with  Dr.  Adams.  Dr. 
Hoyt  was  a  graduate  of  Dartmouth  College,  and  practiced  allopathy  for  several 
years  before  he  went  to  Cleveland,  where  he  took  up  homoeopathy.  He  prac- 
ticed for  over  thirty  years  in  Cleveland,  and  died  August  10,  1874,  aged 
eighty-seven  years. 

Dr.  John  Wheeler,  the  third  homoeopathic  physician  in  Cleveland,  com- 
menced to  practice  in  that  city  in  1845.  He  graduated  at  Dartmouth  College 
in  1817  and  practiced  as  an  allopath  in  Troy  from  1818  to  1845,  when  he 
became  a  convert  to  homoeopathv.  In  1845  he  located  in  Cleveland  and  re- 
mained there  until  his  death,  February  12,  1870,  aged  seventy-nine  years.  Dr. 
Wheeler  was  one  of  the  best  known  and  beloved  of  the  earlier  Cleveland  physi- 
cians. It  was  largely  through  his  persuasions  that  Dr.  David  Herrick  Beckwith 
was  converted  to  homoeopathv.  Dr.  Wheeler  was  for  many  years  president 
of  the  Cleveland  Hospital  College. 

Dr.  Edward  Caspari  practiced  for  a  time  at  Ravenna  in  1843.  He  after- 
ward went  to  Louisville,  Ky. 

Dr.  Schlagel,  a  Gorman  phvsician,  located  at  Amherst  in  1844,  and  from 
that  place  his  nractice  extended  to  Oberlin,  Elyria  and  other  towns. 

Dr.  Alexander  H.  Burritt  located  at  Burton  in  1840.  He  was  born  in 
Trey,  N.  Y..  April  17,  1805.  His  father,  Dr.  Elv  Burritt,  was  a  practitioner  in 
Troy  for  nearly  thirty  years.  His  partner  was  Dr.  Robbins.  Alexander  stud- 
ied medicine  with  his  father,  and  graduated  at  the  College  of  Physicians  and 
Surgeons  in  New  York  in  the  spring  of  1827.  He  practiced  allopathy  in 
Washington  county  until   1838,  aliout  which  time  his  friend  and  relative.  Dr. 



John  F.  Gray,  induced  him  to  investigate  the  homoeopathic  system  and  exam- 
ine its  merits.  He  visited  New  York  to  witness  the  success  of  Gray  and  Hull, 
and  soon  became  satisfied  with  the  new  medical  doctrine.  In  a  few  months  he 
located  in  Pennsylvania  and  was  the  pioneer  in  Crawford  county,  where  he 
devoted  himself  to  the  study  of  the  new  system.  He  practiced  at  Conneaut- 
ville  and  then  went  to  Burton.  In  1850  he  was  appointed  to  the  chair  of 
obstetrics  in  the  Western  Homceopathic  College,  but  ill  health  caused  him  to 
resign  his  professorship.  He  afterward  removed  to  Canandaigua,  N.  Y.,  and 
thence  to  New  Orleans,  where  he  remained  until  his  death.  He  was  still  in 
practice  in  1876. 

Dr.   David    Shepherd   l)egan    practice    in    Bainbridgc   in    1845,    where   he 

John  Wheeler,   M.   D. 

had  a  large  farm  and  combined  both  occupations.  He  died  in  June,  1887,  aged 
seventy-nine  years. 

Dr.  Alpheus  Morrill  located  at  Akron  in  1846,  remaining  there  two  years, 
after  which  he  went  to  Columbus  to  practice.  An  attack  of  intermittent  fever 
compelled  him  to  remove,  and  he  went  to  Concord.  N.  H.,  where  he  passed 
his  life.  He  died  in  1868.  Dr.  Crosby,  his  partner,  was  also  obliged  by  sick- 
ness to  leave  Akron  and  go  east. 

Dr.  B.  W.  Richmond  located  at  Chardon,  Dr.  Stevens  at  Windsor,  and 
Dr.  H.  Plimpton  at  Painesville,  in  1845. 

Dr.  G.  W.  Barker  opened  an  office  in  Cleveland  in  1848  and  a  few  months 
later  Dr.  Thomas  Miller  became  his  partner.  Soon  afterward  Dr.  Barker  went 
to  Detroit  and  Dr.  Miller  to  Missouri. 


In  1847  ^^1'-  CJcrhard  Saal  was  practicing  homoeopathy  in  Springfield. 
He  was  educated  in  Germany  and  came  to  America  in  1846.  In  1852  he  went 
to  Cincinnati  and  became  partner  of  Dr.  E.  C.  Witherill.  In  1872  he  held  the 
chair  of  clinical  medicine  in  Pulte  College.  He  died  May  4,  1875.  In  1852  he 
published  in  the  "'  American  AJagazine  of  Homceopathy  "  a  series  of  articles 
on  kinesitherapy. 

Dr.  Jacob  Liosler  commenced  to  practice  honujeopathy  in  Dayton  in  1848, 
and.  assisted  in  organizing  the  state  societies.  He  died  at  the  age  of  seventy- 

Dr.  Henry  L.  Sook  began  the  practice  of  homoeopathy  in  1853  at  Pom- 
ero}-.  He  says :  "  The  first  homoeopathic  medicine  I  ever  saw,  and  I  believe 
the  first  time  1  ever  heard  of  it,  was  in  1844.  A  friend  of  mine  had  brought 
a  small  case  and  book  from  Ithaca,  N.  Y.  Of  course,  like  other  simpletons,  I 
attempted  to  make  sport  of  the  little  pills,  but  afterward  being  convinced  of 
their  superiority,  studied  the  system  in  opposition  to  all  friends  and  relations 
excepting  the  one  first  named.  I  had  a  course  of  lectures  at  Cleveland  the 
winter  of  1852-53  and  commenced  the  practice.  After  eight  years  I  returned 
and  graduated."  After  remaining  three  years  at  Pomeroy  he  went  to  Steu- 
benville.  In  1869  he  located  at  Newark,  and  joined  the  institute  that  same 

Dr.  N.  H.  Maiiter  began  the  practice  of  homoeopathy  at  Elyria,  the  county 
town  of  Lorain  county,  in  1848.  He  had  been  practicing  medicine  about  twen- 
ty-five years.  In  1852  Dr.  H.  P.  Gatchell  made  a  trip  through  Ohio,  visiting 
the  physicians  who  were  interested  in  homoeopathy  and  writing  a  series  of  edi- 
torial letters  to  the  "  American  Magazine  of  Homoeopathy  and  Hydropathy," 
of  which  he,  with  Dr.  Pulte,  was  joint  editor.  One  of  his  articles  says:  "  Dr. 
Manter,  one  of  the  oldest  physicians  in  that  section,  has  been  practicing  medi- 
cine in  Elyria  for  some  twenty  or  twenty-five  years.  Of  a  superior  educa- 
tion, literary  and  medical,  he  soon  obtained  an  extensive  practice.  But  hav- 
ing been  attracted  by  the  reputation  of  homoeopathy  some  two  or  three  years 
since,  to  give  it  an  examination,  and  having  derived  some  benefit  from  it  in  his 
own  person,  he  has  abandoned  his  former  destructive  practice,  and  now  demon- 
strates by  superior  success  the  merits  of  homoeopathy."  Dr.  Manter  died 
about  1866  or  1867.     Dr.  Rosa,  Jr.,  was  at  that  time  his  partner. 

Dr.  John  Tifft,  of  Norwalk,  practiced  allopathy  for  many  years,  but  in 
1852,  through  the  influence  of  Dr.  Horatio  Robinson  of  New  York,  he  took  up- 
homoeopathy.  Dr.  D.  H.  Beckwith  was  his  partner  at  Norwalk  for  three 

Dr.  J.  Beeman,  who  had  been  an  eclectic  physician  in  Birmingham,  became 
a  homoeopath  in  1851.  He  said:  "In  testing  the  homoeopathic  law  and  in 
availing  myself  of  its  valuable  application  when  tested,  I  have  only  acted  in 
accordance  with  the  principles  inculcated  in  my  medical  education.  I  received 
that  at  an  eclectic  college  from  professors  who  were  free  to  investigate,  whose 
maxim  was  to  'prove  all  things,  and  to  hold  fast  that  which  is  good.'  Their 
graduates,  therefore,  unlike  the  graduates  of  allopathic  schools  in  general, 
were  untrammelled,  (joverned  by  the  principles  there  taught,  I  have  ever  felt 
free  to  receive  truth  from  every  source.  Nor  have  I  sufifered  myself  to  be  blind- 
ed by  the  influence  of  custom  or  the  desire  for  popularity.  I  have  respected  no 
error  because  it  is  old — I  have  rejected  no  truth  because  it  is  new.  Antiquity 
or  popularity  count  for  nothing  with  me  in  estimating  the  value  of  systems  of 

^T'  )m'  ( ii'  IK  ).\i(i':(ji'ATiiv 

(•ii\r'i"(':u  !.\ 

1  c.Mci-".!  I'AT.M  \     I  x    OHIO — (fox'i  I  xri:i) ) 


Purpose  of  the  Homccopathic  Society  of  Cincinnati — Hill  of  the  Eclectic  Medical  Insti- 
tute of  Cincinnati  Converted  to  Homoeopathy — Shepherd,  the  Pioneer  in  Hamilton 
County — Reminiscences  of  Early  Physicians — Pulte,  the  Founder.  Scholar  and  Phy- 
sician— The  Western  College  of  Homoeopathic  Medicine. 

The  period  from  1840  to  1852  in  the  history  of  Ohio  homoeopathy  is 
important.  The  Homoeopathic  Society  of  Cincinnati  was  con-'ixiscd  larp^ely  of 
laymen  and  had  a  thousand  members  whose  purpose  w^ns  to  vindicate  homoe- 
opathy and  to  uphold  the  truth  reoarding  the  cholera  epidemic  :  to  petition  the 
assembly  of  1849  ^o^  ^"  ^^ct  establishing-  a  homoeopathic  college;  to  promulgate 
the  lectures  by  Storm  Rosa  in  184Q;  to  organize  a  college  at  Cleveland  in 
1850;  and  to  promote  the  advancement  of  the  system  throughout  the  towns  of 
the  state.  On  September  2.  185 1.  a  convention  of  the  homoeopathic  physicians 
of  Ohio  was  called  to  meet  at  Colttmbus  and  organize  a  state  society.  The 
occasion  witnessed  several  interesting  events.  Dr.  Benjamin  L.  Hill,  who  had 
been  a  member  of  the  faculty  of  the  Cincinnati  Eclectic  Institute,  avowed  his 
conversion  to  homoeopathy  and  gave  his  reasons,  which  were  afterward  pub- 
lished in  a  series  of  articles  in  the  "  Magazine  of  Homoeopathy."  Dr.  Hill  was 
born  December  8.  1813.  For  some  years  he  was  professor  of  anatomy  and 
surgery  in  the  Eclectic  Medical  Institute,  Cincinnati,  and  was  one  of  the 
founders  of  the  Western  Homoeopathic  College  at  Cleveland.  He  was  profes- 
sor of  the  principles  and  practice  of  surgery  in  that  school,  and  also  gave  a 
course  of  lectures  in  the  St.  Louis  Homoeopathic  College  in  i860.  He  was 
the  author  of  a  \vork  on  eclectic  surgery,  published  in  iS^^o,  and  in  conjunction 
with  Dr.  J.  G.  Hunt,  published  a  work  on  homoeopathic  surgery,  issued  in 
Cleveland  in  18^5.  In  1859  ^''^  published  a  small  domestic  book  called  "  Epi- 
tome of  the  Homoeoi;)athic  Healing  Art.''  which  became  popular  and  which 
passed  through  eighteen  editions.  .  In  1863  he  was  appointed  bv  President  Lin- 
coln, consul  to  Xicarngua.  where  he  passed  one  year,  when  his  health  became 
impaired  and  he  returned.  He  also  served  two  terms  in  the  Ohio  legislature. 
He  removed  from  Cincinnati  to  Berlin  in  1852.  and  practiced  until  a  short 
time  before  his  death,  when  he  went  to  Marysville.  California,  where  he  died. 
May  13,  1871. 

The  pioneer  homoeopath  of  Hamilton  cotmty  was  Dr.  Alfred  Shepherd. 
He  g^raduated  at  the  Eclectic  Medical  In.stitute  in  March.  1849,  settled  at 
Springdale,  and  commenced  the  practice  of  homoeopathy.  He  was  the  only 
homoeopathic  physician  at  that  time  between  Cincinnati  and  Dayton.  A  few 
years  later  he  removed  to  Glendale.  He  joined  the  American  Institute  of 
Homoeopathv  in  1865.     His  death  occurred  in  May,  1891. 

F.  H.  Rheiwinkle  succeeded  Dr.  B.  F.  Ehrmann  at  Chillicothe  in  1849, 
and  practiced  homceopathy  there  two  years  when  he  abandoned  medicine  for 

Dr.  Adolph  Bauer,  one  of  the  Allentown  coterie  who  practiced  for  a  time 

Seven  Old  Fellows. 


at  Lynn  township,  Pa.,  and  graduated  from  the  academy,  was  born  and  edu- 
cated in  Germany.  He  located  in  Cincinnati  in  1848,  where  he  acquired  a 
large  practice  and  where  he  passed  his  Hfe.  He  died  suddenly  October  13, 
1867,  aged  61  years.  He  joined  the  American  Institute  of  Homoeopathy  in 

Isedorich  Ehrmann,  brother  of  Benjamin,  was  lx)rn  in  Jaxsthausen  and 
received  his  medical  education  in  Germany.  He  arrived  in  New  York  in  the 
spring  of  1833,  settling  at  first  at  Carlisle,  Pa.  He  later  went  to  Baltimore, 
Md.  In  1857  he  was  in  practice  in  Buffalo,  N.  Y.,  and  afterward  located 
in  Cincinnati.    He  died  June  7,  1890. 

J.  W.  Leech  was  for  a  time  located  at  Xenia.  In  i860  he  settled  in 

Ephraim  Craig  Beckwith  was  born  in  Bronson,  Huron  county,  Ohio,  De- 
cember 6,  1824.  In  1851  he  attended  his  first  course  of  lectures  in  the  medical 
department  of  Michigan  University.  In  1853  he  graduated  at  the  Geneva, 
N.  Y.,  Medical  College.  The  next  year  he  located  at  Marietta,  Ohio,  in  part- 
nership with  Dr.  A.  J.  Sawyer.  In  1856  he  married  Fanny  Forest.  After  ten 
years  of  practice  he  removed  to  Zanesville  where  he  remained  for  twelve 
years.  In  1873  he  took  charge  of  the  sanitarium  at  College  Hill,  Ohio.  This 
position  on  account  of  ill  health  he  relinquished  in  1874  and  went  to  Columbus, 
where  he  remained  in  practice  mitil  his  death,  November  21,  1880.  He  was 
a  member  of  the  American  Institute  of  Homoeopathy  and  of  the  state  societies. 

Arthur  T.  Bissell  located  at  Toledo  in  1848.  He  was  professor  in  the 
Western  College  in  1852.  He  removed  to  New  York  and  engaged  in  manu- 
facturing. S.  S.  Lungren  settled  at  Toledo  in  1862  and  took  Dr.  Bissell's 
office  apartments.    Dr.  Lungren  died  March  6,  1892. 

In  1849  ^^-  John  Gilman  located  at  Cleveland,  where  he  remained  but  a 
few  years.  With  several  others  he  started  the  "  Northern  Ohio  Medical  and 
Scientific  Examiner."     It  was  not  long  continued. 

In  1852  Dr.  Kyle,  an  old  school  graduate,  was  practicing  homoeopathy  at 

Dr.  George  Hill,  brother  to  Benjamin,  graduated  from  the  Western  Homoe- 
opathic College.  February  26,  1853.  He  located  at  Berlin  Heights  where  he 
practiced  until  his  death. 

Dr.  E.  W.  Cowles  commenced  the  practice  of  homoeopathy  at  Cleveland 
in  1845.  He  was  a  graduate  of  Jefferson  Medical  College  of  Philadelphia 
and  a  convert  to  homoeopathy.  He  had  been  practicing  since  1832,  or  earlier, 
as  an  allopath. 

Dr.  Robert  Albert  Snow  was  the  first  homoeopathic  student  in  Cleveland, 
studying  with  Dr.  Wlieeler.     After  graduating  he  went  to  New  York. 

Dr.  Henry  Wigand  located  at  Ravenna  in  1846,  later  went  to  Sandusky, 
from  there  to  Springfield,  and  later  located  in  Dayton.  In  185 1  he  published 
the  Dayton  '"  Heraid'of  Health." 

Charles  D.  Williams  located  in  Cleveland  in  1846.  He  aided  in  the  organ- 
ization of  the  homoeopathic  college  and  was  professor  of  principles  and  practice 
of  homoeopathy.     He  went  to  St.  Paul,  Minn.,  in  i860. 

In  August.  1850,  Lewis  Dodge  came  from  Detroit  and  located  in  Cleve- 
land, and  later  filled  the  chair  of  materia  medica  in  the  college. 

William  Webster  was  born  in  Monroe  county,  Ohio,  January  12,  1827. 
His  father.  Dr.  Elias  Webster,  was  a  pioneer  homoeopathic  physician.  He 
had  been  an  allopath  in  Pennsylvania,  and  later  in  Butler  county,  Ohio.     He 



was  a  descendant  of  Noah  Webster,  the  lexicographer.  His  mother,  Mary 
Kain,  was  the  daughter  of  an  Ohio  pioneer.  Dr.  Webster  was  educated  at  the- 
Ohio  Wesleyan  University,  and  also  at  Farmer's  College,  where  he  graduated 
in  1848.  He  then  entered  the  Cincinnati  Eclectic  Institute,  graduating  in  1851. 
He  moved  to  Middletown,  Ohio,  where  he  began  the  practice  of  allopathy,, 
but  he  had  listened  to  the  lectures  of  Dr.  Rosa,  and  they  had  impressed  him. 
He  made  trials  of  homceopathy,  and  in  two  or  three  years  adopted  the  new  sys- 
tem.. Dr.  Webster  remained  nine  years  at  Middletown,  but  in  1858  went 
to  Dayton.  At  that  time  there  were  but  two  homoeopathic  physicians  in  Day- 
ton, Dr.  Bosler  and  Dr.  Wigand,  and  Webster  bought  out  Wigand.  He- 
remained  in  Dayton  the  rest  of  his  life.  He  had  three  sons,  two  of  whom 
are  physicians.  He  was  a  member  of  the  institute  and  of  the  state  and  county 
societies.     His  death  occurred  May  22,  1894. 

Dr.  Horatio  P.  Gatchell  was  a  graduate  of  Bowdoin  College  in  Brunswick, 
Maine.  He  studied  for  the  ministry  and  as  late  as  1843  '""^  was  a  preacher  of  the 

gospel.  He  subsequently  studied  med- 
icine, and  in  1849-50  was  a  professor 
in  the  Eclectic  Medical  Institute  of 
Cincinnati.  At  that  time  he  was  in- 
vestigating homoeopathy.  In  1850  he 
became  associated  with  Dr.  Pulte  in 
the  "American  Magazine  of  Homoeop- 
athy." In  185 1  he  became  professor 
of  pathology  and  practice  in  the 
Cleveland  Homoeopathic  College.  In 
1865  he  was  connected  with  the  Hahn- 
emann Medical  College  of  Chicago. 
He  established  a  sanitarium  at  Ken- 
osha, Wis.,  and  later  removed  to  Ashe- 
ville,  N.  C,  where  he  remained  until' 
his  death,  March  27,  1885.  In  May, 
1852,  Dr.  Gatchell  writes:  "When 
last  year  I  wrote  you  from  Painesvillc 
I  was  here  as  a  visitor,  now  I  write 
from  under  my  own  rooftree ;  then  I 
was  engaged  in  private  practice  in  Cin- 
cinnati ;  now  I  am  laying  the  founda- 
tions of  an  infirmary  upon  one  of  the 
most  salubrious  spots  in  the  western- 
Dr.  George  William  Barnes  graduated  at  the  Western  Homoeopathic  Col- 
lege in  1852.    In  1869  he  went  to  California. 

Dr.  Hamilton  Ring  graduated  at  the  Homoeopathic  Mcvlical  College  of 
Pennsylvania  in  1851.  He  then  located  at  Urbana.  He  writes:  "Homoe- 
opathy had  few  supporters  in  Urbana  in  the  beginning  of  1852,  three  or  foui" 
families  only  being  prepared  to  rely  upon  it  in  cases  of  severe  sickness.  Two 
physicians  had  been  here  for  very  short  periods  a  year  or  two  before,  but  had 
not  found  the  encouragement  to  remain  they  wished.  During  1852  my  income- 
from  practice  was  but  $300;  in  1853  only  $450.  From  year  to  year  the  prac- 
tice has  steadily  increased,  except  during  the  war  period,  when  the  field  was: 
in  charge  of  two  men  who  neglected  the  interests  of  practice.     With  the  excep- 

Alfrcd  Shepherd,  iM.  D. 


lion  of  the  period  between  1857  and  1865,  durini;  which  period  1  practiced 
homoeopathy  at  Port  Gibson,  Miss.,  I  have  resided  in  L'rbana."  Dr.  Ring  died 
on  November  12,  1884. 

In  1854  or  1855  Dr.  T.  W.  Cuscaden,  a  graduate  of  the  Eclectic  Medical 
Institute,  located  in  Lebanon,  Warren  county,  and  was  the  first  homoeopathic 
physician  in  that  locality.  Although  it  was  said  that  he  could  not  remain, 
he  did  so  until  his  death  in  1861.  Dr.  Charles  Cropper  went  to  Lebanon  in 
January,  1861,  remaining  there  until  1863,  when  he  went  to  Cincinnati.  He 
practiced  there  until  1869,  when  he  returned  to  Lebanon.  He  was  born  at 
Lexington,  Ky..  September  16,  1826,  graduated  from  Eclectic  Medical  Insti- 
tute in  1854.  In  1864  he  founded  the  "  American  Homoeopathist,"  which  was 
published  three  years. 

r.enjamin  Ehrmann  was  a  native  of  Wurtemburg,  Germany,  born  in  the 
village  of  Jaxsthausen,  March  3,  1812.  His  father  and  grandfather  were  physi- 
cians and  both  practiced  medicine  in  his  native  village.  As  has  been  stated, 
he  came  to  America  when  a  young  man,  attended  lectures  in  Philadelphia, 
graduated  at  Allentown  Academy,  and  then  located  at  Harrisburg,  where  he 
married.  Later  on  he  determined  to  follow  the  western  emigration  and  lived 
for  a  time  at  Chillicothe,  where  he  practiced  for  a  short  time  in  1848,  but  becom- 
ing acquainted  with  Dr.  Pidte,  he  was  persuaded  to  remove  to  Cincinnati  and 
there  formed  a  partnership  with  Pulte.  Then  came  the  terrible  epidemic  of 
cholera  in  1849  and  the  two  made  a  reputation  most  enviable,  despite  of  the 
envy  of  the  opposing  medical  school  that  sought  to  destroy  the  "ignorarit  Ger- 
man fanatics."  Ehrmann  was  one  of  the  early  members  of  the  American  Insti- 
tute of  Homoeopathy,  joining  in  1846.  He  was  a  Swedenborgian,  as  were 
many  of  the  older  homoeopathists.  His  last  illness  was  of  short  duration  and 
he  died  March  15.  1886,  in  his  75th  year.  He  left  six  children,  of  whom  two 
sons  became  practicing  physicians  in  Cincinnati. 

James  George  Hunt  was  born  in  Cincinnati  September  2,  1822.  He 
attended  Woodward  College,  Cincinnati,  and  Yale  College.  He  studied  medi- 
cine with  Dr.  F.  V.  Morrow,  the  founder  of  the  Eclectic  Medical  College  of 
Cincinnati.  On  graduating  he  was  offered  the  professorship  of  chemistry  in  a 
medical  school  recently  established  in  Memphis,  but  declined  it  and  became 
partner  with  Dr.  Morrow  in  the  spring  of  1849.  The  same  year  he  married 
Sarah  E.  Palmer.,  During  the  prevalence  of  the  cholera  epidemic.  Dr.  Hunt 
made  his  first  experiments  in  homoeopathy,  and  his  success  was  such  that  he 
soon  began  its  practice.  In  1855,  with  Dr.  B.  L.  Hill,  he  pubhshed  a  book 
on  the  homoeopathic  practice  of  surgery,  which  had  ^  ready  sale.  The  same 
year  he  was  elected  to  the  chair  of  surgery  in  the  Western  "College  of  Homoe- 
opathic Medicine.  He  was  for  a  time  connected  with  "  The  Homoeopathist," 
a  journal  started  by  Dr.  Cropper.  In  1872,  wath  Dr.  Alonzo  Bishop  of  Ithaca, 
N.  Y.,  Dr.  Hunt  established  a  sanitarium  at  the  White  Sulphur  and  Tar 
Springs,  near  Cloverport,  Ky.     He  died  a  few  years  later. 

William  Owens  commenced  to  practice  homoeopathy  in  Cincinnati  in 
1849.  He  was  born  in  Warren,  Trumbull  county,  April  24,  1823;  went  to 
Cincinnati  in  1837;  attended  Woodward  College,  and  then  entered  a  drug 
store.  He  volunteered  for  service  in  the  Mexican  war  and  was  in  several  bat- 
tles. At  the  close  of  the  war  he  returned  to  Cincinnati  and  began  to  study 
medicine,  graduating  in  1849.  In  the  fall  of  that  year  he  began  the  practice 
of  liomoeopathy  and  became  demonstrator  in  the  institute.  Later,  he  held  the 
same  position  in  the  Western  College  of  Homoeopathy  at  Cleveland.     In  1855 



he  took  charG:e  of  a  water  cure  establishment  at  Granville.  In  i86i  he  raised 
a  company  ni  cavalry  and  was  appointed  first  lieutenant,  and  later  was  pro- 
moted captain.  He  also  acted  as  assistant  surgeon  and  quartermaster.  After 
the  war  he  returned  to  Cincinnati  to  practice.  On  May  12,  1853,  he  married 
Sarah  E.  Wilcox  of  Cincinnati.  June  i,  i865>  he  was  appointed  a  pension 
examining  surgeon  for  Hamilton  county.  He  was  also  professor  of  anatomy 
in  Puite  Medical  College. 

Dr.  Storm  Rosa  was  born  in  Coxsackie.  Green  county,  N.  Y.,  July  18, 
1 79 1.  He  studied  medicine  with  Dr.  Doubleday,  of  Catskill,  Dr.  Taw  Green, 
of  Chenango  county,  and  Dr.  Clyde,  of  Broome  county,  N.  Y.  After  three 
vears  study  he  was  examined  by  the  board  of  censors  of  Senaca  county,  and 

William  Owens,  M.  D. 

was  granted  a  license  March  9,  1816.  Pie  then  located  in  Madison,  Ohio,  prac- 
ticed there  until  October,  18 18,  when  he  removed  to  Painesville.  While  in 
Madison  he  married  Sophia  Kimball,  by  whom  he  had  two  children,  Lemuel 
K,  and  Catherine  Rosa.  Lemuel  became  a  homoeopathic  physician.  In  1841 
Dr.  Rosa  began  to  investigate  homoeopathy  at  the  suggestion  of  friends  who 
had  been  using  homoeopathic  medicine  with  success.  He  received  the  assis- 
tance of  Dr.  Barlow,  of  New  York,  and  Dr.  Pulte,  of  Cincinnati,  who  supplied 
him  with  books  and  medicines.  In  1843  he  formally  adopted  the  system.  Dr. 
E.  M.  Hale  thus  writes  of  him :  "  When  the  Eclectic  Medical  College  of  Cin- 
cinnati was  organized,  it  was  understood  by  the  legislature  that  chartered  it 
and  the  original  faculty  that  it  w-as  to  be  organized  upon  the  broadest  basis  of 
ture  eclecticism.  Drs.  Morrow,  Plill,  Gatchcll  and  other  able  men  were  mem- 
bers of  the  faculty,  and  Dr.  Rosa  was  selected  bv  the  h(inKTeopathists  of  Ohio 



as  a  suitable  per.Min  to  occupy  the  chair  of  theory  and  practice  of  homoeopathy. 
His  labors  in  that  ctjlle^e  mark  an  era  of  homteopatliy  in  the  west.  They  gjave 
an  impetus  to  the  system  that  is  felt  even  to  this  dav.  He  began  one  course 
of  lectures,  which  had  the  effect  of  converting  not  only  one-third  of  the  class, 
but  two  of  his  most  prominent  eclectic  colleagues  in  the  faculty.  Drs.  Hill  and 
Gatchell.  This  was  a  result  not  relished  by  the  eclectic  school  and  Dr.  Rosa 
was  deposed  from  his  position." 

The  trustees  formally  abolished  this  chair  August  22.  1850.  A  trustee 
published  a  letter  to  the  "  American  Journal  of  Homoeopathy  "  for  October, 
1850,  in  which  he  said  that  as  there 
were  many  errors  in  homoeopathy, 
and  as  the  students  were  already 
overburdened  with  study,  and  as  the 
professors  were  quite  competent  to 
teach  the  doctrines  of  homoeopathy 
as  much  as  necessary,  a  special 
homoeopathic  professorship  was  of 
no  utility,  especially  as  there  had 
been  considerable  opposition  in  the 
ranks  of  the  homoeopathic  school. 

When  the  Western  College  of 
Homoeopathic  Medicine  was  opened 
in  Cleveland  in  the  fall  of  1850,  Dr. 
Rosa  was  tendered  the  chair  of  ob- 
stetrics and  diseases  of  women, 
which  position  he  occupied  for  sev- 
eral years.  When  the  St.  Louis 
Homoeopathic  College  was  estab- 
lished he  was  offered  the  chair  of 
theory  and  practice,  but  declined. 
He  presided  over  the  first  meeting 
of  homoeopaths  held  in  Ohio,  at  Bur- 
ton, and  there  were  but  nine  phy- 
sicians present.  Dr.  Rosa  died  at 
Painesville,  May  3,  1864. 

Lemuel  K.  Vosa  was  born  in  1827.  He  graduated  at  the  Eclectic  Medical 
Institute  of  Cincinnati,  and  soon  afterward,  1849,  associated  in  practice  with 
Dr.  Adam  Miller  of  Cincinnati,  with  whom  he  remained  a  year.  In  the  spring 
of  1850  he  became  associated  with  Dr.  H.  P.  Gatchell.  His  health  was  now 
feeble,  he  having  for  some  time  been  subject  to  pulmonary  hemorrhage.  He 
returned  to  his"  father's  home  and  attempted  to  practice  with  Dr.  Manter, 
of  Elyria,  but  was  again  obliged  to  give  it  up.  He  died  February  29.  1854, 
aged  twenty-seven  vears. 

Dr.  David  Herrick  Beckwith  was  born  at  Bronson,  Feb.  13,  1826,  and 
read  medicine  with  Dr.  John  Tifift,  of  Norwalk,  from  1846  to  1849:  attended 
lectures  at  Cleveland  Medical  College  in  1847-48,  and  graduated  from  the 
eclectic  and  homoeopathic  departments  of  the  Eclectic  Medical  Institute  of 
Cincinnati  in  1849.  ^^  1850-51  he  attended  the  first  course  of  lectures  at  the 
Eastern  College  of  Homoeopathic  Medicine,  and  received  an  honorary  degree 
in  the  latter  vear.  He  became  a  partner  with  Dr.  TiiTt  at  Norwalk.  remaining 
there  until  1852,  when  he  removed  to  Marietta,  being  the  first  homoeopathist 

Storm  Rosa,  M.  D. 

U   H.  BKCKwn-H.  M.  I).  J.  C.  SANnKKS.  M    I.  !  rank  Kra.-t.  M.  D.  H.  F.  B.GOAr.  M.  D. 

J.  R.  HORNER.  M.  IJ.  <-   "■  ^2VAY,  M.  n. 

U    H.  Vi.  IS,  M,  D. 
H.  B.  Van  Norman.  M   D.  <>•  ^    I'ai.mkr,  M.  I) 

W.  A.  Phiu.ihs,  M.  D.  H.  H.  Baxter,  M.  D. 

H.  D.  Bishop,  M.  D. 

G.  J.  Jones.  M.  D. 



there.  In  1853  '^^  located  at  Zanesville,  and  in  1861  settled  in  Qeveland. 
During  the  first  two  years  of  practice  he  used  allopathic  medicines  largely, 
testing  homoeopathy.  His  attention  was  first  called  to  it  while  a  student.  In 
the  Cleveland  Lyceum  the  topic  was  presented :  "Resolved,  That  Homoeop- 
athy is  the  greatest  humbug  of  the  age."  Dr.  Beckwith  was  appointed  on 
the  negative  side,  which  compelled  him  to  investigate  the  principles  of  the 
new  school.  He  consulted  Drs.  John  Wheeler  and  C.  D.  Williams,  who  loaned 
him  homoeopathic  books  and  assisted  him  in  understanding  the  doctrines  of 
Hahnemann.  The  debate  lasted  for  five  hours  and  was  decided  in  the  nega- 
tive. In  185 1  and  1852  Dr.  Beckwith,  with  others,  who  had  entire  control  of 
the  county  buildings,  tested  thoroughly  the  comparative  merits  of  homoeopathy 
and  allopathy  in  scarlet  fever  and  dysentery.  The  result  was  so  much  in 
favor  of  homreopathy  that  the  old  use  of  drugs  was  abolished.  Dr.  Beck- 
with is  a  representative  man  among  the  Ohio  homceopathists.  He  is  a  mem- 
ber of  the  American  Institute  of  Homoeopathy,  an  organizer  of  the  state 
society  and  member  of  various  county  societies.  He '  is  still  in  practice  in 

In  the  year  1846  the  first  homoeopathic  pharmacy  in  Ohio  was  opened 
in  Cleveland  by  B.  H.  Bartlett,  at  the  corner  of  Superior  street  and  public 
square.  In  1845,  J-  ^-  DeSilver  opened  a  pharmacy  in  Cincinnati.  He  was 
agent  for  the  Leipsic  pharmacy.  In  July,  1849,  Dr.  H.  F.  Davis  opened  a 
pharmacy  in  the  same  city  and  at  the  same  time  conducted  a  free  dispensary 
for  cholera  patients.  He  sold  out  to  Dr.  Parks  in  the  summer  of  185 1.  In 
the  Cincinnati  "  Journal  of  Homoeopathy  "  he  advertises  that  "  having  bought 
Dr.  Davis'  pharmacy  and  entirely  resigned  out-door  practice  will  prepare 
prescriptions  at  the  pharmacy.''  This  pharmacy  was  sold  in  1863  to  G.  W. 
Smith  and  A.  F.  Worthington,  who  dissolved  partnership  in  1873.  In  Febru- 
ary, 1892,  Boericke  &  Tafel  bought  out  Mr.  Worthington.  Dr.  S.  Bailey 
opened  a  small  pharmacy  in  Toledo  in  1865,  and  Dr.  G.  Wolfif  conducted  a 
pharmacy  at  Zanesville  in  1886.  A  Mr.  Hernig  had  a  pharmacy  at  Wheeling 
at  one  time,  and  T.  L.  A.  Greve  had  one  in  Cincinnati. 

William  Fiske  conducted  a  homoeopathic  drug  store  in  Cleveland  about 
1850,  and  later  took  John  Hall  as  partner.  On  January  i,  1853.  ]\Ir.  Fiske 
left  the  firm  and  Mr.  Hall  continued  the  business  for  a  time  and  was  then 
succeeded  by  his  son,  John  B.  Hall.  In  1865  he  sold  out  to  Drs.  D.  H.  Beck- 
wuth  and  N.  Schneider.  On  January  i,  1867,  Dr.  T.  P.  Wilson  entered  the 
firm.  In  1866,  Dr.  Beckwith  bought  the  pharmacy,  taking  as  partner  Mr. 
L.  H.  Wilte,  who  in  1869  bought  out  Dr.  Beckwith  and  became  sole  pro- 

In  1851,  Drs.  B.  Ehrmann,  Adam  Miller  and  G.  W.  Bigler  established 
^'  The  Cincinnati  Journal  of  Homoeopathy."  It  was  issued  by  the  Society  of 
Homoeopathic  Ph}  sicians  in  Cincinnati. 

Homoeopathic  physicians  in  Ohio  previous  to  i860.  The  date  preceding 
the  name  indicates  the  year  the  physician  began  the  practice  of  homoeopathy. 
The  character  *  indicates  that  the  practitioner  originally  was  of  some  other 
school ;  the  character  x  indicates  that  ph}sician  practiced  medicine  before  the 
■date  given. 

1843  Adams,  R.  E.  W.     Cleveland  1857  Bauer,  Ad.,  Jr.  x     Cincinnati 

1857  Appleby,  Dr.  x     Dayton  1847  Barker,  G.  W.     Cleveland 

1858  Arnott,   Mrs.  C.     Amherst  1857  Bartow,  A.  C.  x     Lancaster 
1840  Bauer,  Adolph     Cincinnati  1845  Bartlett,  B.  H.     Cleveland 



185 1 






185 1 
185 1 



1 840 

Barber,  Dr.  x    Zanesville 

Barnes,  George  W.     Mount  Vernon 

Barnes,  L.  x     Delaware 

Barry,  Mrs.  E.  H.  x     Cleveland 

Beach,  S.  A. 

Beeman,  J. 

Beckwith,  David  H.     Cleveland 

Beckwith,  Ephriam  C.     Cleveland 

Beckwith,  I.  B.     Norwalk 

Beckwith,  Seth  R.     Cleveland 

Beck,   W.  X     Cincinnati 

Bigler,   George  W.     Cincinnati 

Bigelow,  F.  X    Toledo 

Bissell,  Arthur  F.    Toledo 

Blair,  Alonzo  O.  x     Columbus 

Blair,  Giles  S.  *     Galion 

Blair,  George  H.     Columbus 

Blakeney,  J.  T.  x     Somerset 

Bliss,  A.  A.  X     Columbus 

Bottsford,  O.  K.  x     Wellsville 

Bosler,  Jacob  x     Dayton 

Boyle,  Dr.  x     Dayton 

Brainard,  Jehu     Cleveland 

Brush,  A.  X     Cincinnati 

Burritt,  Alexander  H.     Burton 

Bush,  R.  B.  X     Cadily 

Bryce,  Dr. 

Cain,  William     Ravenna 

Caspari,  Edward     Ravenna 

Chase,  H.  H.  x     Painesville 

Coman.  Isaac  W.     Jefferson 

Cope,  Dr.     Plymouth 

Cook.  Helen 

Coburn.  S.  H.  x     Adrian 

Coulter,   James    H.  x     Columbus 

Gushing,   Charles   F.     Cleveland 

Connolly,  P.  J.  x     Massillon 

Cowles.  E.  W.     Cleveland 

Crosby,  Dr.  x     Akron 

Cropper,  Charles     Cincinnati 

Cuscaden,  T.  W.     Lebanon 

Davis,  Frederick  A.  W.  *     Cincinnati 

Davis,  H.   F.     Cincinnati 

Davis,  H.  J.  X     Cincinnati 

Davis.  John     Greenfield 

Dawayer.   A.   I.  x     Norwalk 

Detweiler.  Wm.  M.  River  Styks  P.  O. 

Dennis,  J.  W. 

De  Silver 

Diller,  J.  M.  x     Ashland 

Drake,  S.  L.  x     Cleveland 

Dodge,  Lewis     Adrian 

Ehrmann,   Benjamin   F.     Chillicothe 

Ehrmann,   L  *     Cincinnati 

Edson,  Mrs.  S.  A.  x     Cleveland 

Fall.  John  C.  *     Springfield 

Ferris,  O.  *     Upper  Sandusky 

Flowers,  F.   L.  *     New  Lexington 

Fuller,  Dr.  x     Fairfield 

Fulton,  S.  J.  x     Toledo 

Garrettson,    Jesse     Cincinnati 

Garrcttson,  Jos.  x     Cincinnati 












85  T 



Gatchell,  Horatio  P.  *     Cleveland 
Gaylord,  Edward  P.     Toledo 
Gilman,  John     Cleveland 
Gilson,  E.  D.  x     Ohio  City 
Gray,  W.  W.  x     Cleveland 
Goff,  Philip  H.     Geneva 
Goodrich,   W.    B.  x    Hiram 
Gorgas,  Charles  R.  *     Wooster 
Gross,  E.  F.  x     Marion 
Harris,  Dr.  x     Mansfield 
Hawk,  J.  A.  X    West  Lebanon 
Hamisfar.  C.  H.  *     St.  Marys 
Herrick,  C.  B. 
Hering,  H.  x     Steubenville 
Hill,   Benjamin  L.  *     Berlin  Hts. 
Hill,   George   L.     Berlinville 
Hollingsworth,  Z.     Oregon 
Holcombe,  William  H.  *     Cincinnati 
Hoyt,  Daniel  O.  *     Cleveland 
Howells,     X    Urbana 
Hunt,  James   G.     Cincinnati 
Hussey,  C.  St.  C. 
Johnson,  J.  M.  x     Cleveland 
Kinsell,  D.  R. 
Keys,  D.  C.  x     Oberlin 
Koch,  W.  X     Zanesville 
Kissey,  J.  x     Oregon 
Kramer,  D.  T.  x     Sandusky 
Kyle,  Dr. 
Leech,  J.  W. 

Leach,  William  C.  x    Xenia 
Linton,  J.  G.  x     Hamburgh 
Macy,  Benjamin  C.  *     Elyria 
Massey,  Isaiah  B.  *     Sandusky 
Manter,  N.  H.     Elyria 
Miller,  Adam  *     Cincinnati 
]\liller,    Thomas  *     Cleveland 
Myers,  Jacob     x     Ashland 
Morrill,  Alpheus    *     Akron 
Niess,  J.  X     Canton 
Northrup,  D.  W.  x     Sherman 
Oesterlin,  Charles  *     Findlay 
Owens,  William  *     Cincinnati 
Parks,  John  M.  x     Cincinnati 
Peckham,    George    F.  *    Rawsonville 
Pearson,  Clement    Wellsville 
Pearson,  William  x     Dayton 
Prentiss,  A.  N.     Jefferson 
Peck,  William     Cincinnati 
Plymouth.  A.  H.     Painsville 
Podzoe,  Father     Somerset 
Price,  William  x     Cincinnati 
Prowell,  Dr. 

Pritchard,  J.   A.  *     Eaton 
Pulte,  Joseph  H.     Cincinnati 
Prctsch,  Curt     Wellsville 

Rheiwinkle,  F.  H.     Chillicothe 
Ring,  Hamilton     Urbana 
Richmond,  R.   W.     Charlton 
Rodger s,  George  B.  *     Chagrin  Falls 
Rosa,  Storm     Painesville 



iS^y  Rosa.  Lemuel   K. 

1X54  Rush,  Robert  B.     Springfield 

iS_|6  Saal.  Gerhard     Springfield 

1X55  Sanders,   John   Chapin     Cleveland 

1X57  Sapp,   G.    W.  X     Tiffin 

1X57  Sachse,  H.  S.  x     Chillicothe 

1X43  Schlagel,     Amherst 

1X57  Sceale,  Dr.  x     Cincinnati 

1857  Schueler,   G.  x     Cleveland 

1857  Schell,  D.  X     Canton 

1849  Shepherd,    Alfred     Springdale 

1845  Shepherd,  David  *     Bainbridge 

1857  Smith,  H.  L.  x     Mount  Vernon 

1857  Smith,  E.  W.  x     Higginsport 

1844  Snow    Ralph   A.     Cleveland 

1853  Sook,  Henry  L.  *     Pomeroy 

1854  Spangler.  R.  W.     Chillicothe 
Stanley,  Nelson 

1851  Starr,  Calvin     Springfield 

1857  Steemm,  C.  W.  x     Piqua 

184s  Stevens,  D.     Windsor 

1839  Strum,  William     Cincinnati 

1857  Stockton.  C.   L.  x     Painesville 

1857  Straw.  J.  X     Cincinnati 

1857  Stohl.  F.  X     Ganges 

Stokes,  Dr. 

1857  Storm,  I.  W.  X     Cincinnati 

1857  Storm,  George  x 

857  Sturges,  J.  J.  X     Cleveland 

857  Sweeney,  E.  I.  x     Nelson 

8^7  Swany,  I.  x     Charlton 

857  Teller,  E.  R.  x     Newark 

857  Thompson,  W.  x     Solon 

852  TifTt,  John     Norwalk 

853  Townsend,  Enoch  W.  *     Warren 
857  Turrell,  G.  x     Cleveland 

857  Turrell,  G.  Y.  x     Cleveland 

855  Vail,  George  W.  *    Arlington 

857  Watson,  J.  X    Lexington 

853  Wakeman,  John  A.*     Portsmouth 

853  Webster,   William  *     Middletown 
857  Werner,   J.  x     Canton 

845  Wheeler,  John  *  Cleveland 
857  Wheelan,  G.  x  Columbiana 
857  Wheat,  J.  N.  x     Oberlin 

857  Whitney.  Sullivan  x     Cleveland 

854  White,  Cornelius  C.     Marion 
847  Whipple.   A.     Dry  Ridge 

852  Witherill.  Edwin  C.     Cincinnati 

857  Wilson,  Thomas  P.     Lanesville 

840  Williams,    Charles    D.  *     Cleveland 

855  Wilmot,  Silas  G.  *    Rawsonville 

846  Wigand,  Henry     Ravenna 
857  Wolfard,  H.  L.  x    Wooster 
857  Wooley,  P.  H.  X     Newburgh 
857  Worley,  H.  P.  x     Cleveland 




By  Thomas  Lindsley  Bradford,  M.  D. 

Condition  of  Medicine  in  Louisiana  in  Martin's  Time — The  Southern  Honitieopathic 
Medical  Association — Charity  Homoeopathic  Hospital — Dr.  Joseph  Martin,  the  Pio- 
neer Homoeopath  in  Louisiana — Taft,  the  Second  Practitioner — Reminiscences  of 
Other  Early  Homoeopathic   Practitioners. 

Authentic  historical  accotmts  state  that  homoeopathy  first  found  lodgment 
in  Louisiana  in  1836,  in  which  year  the  system  was  also  introduced  in  the 
states  of  Ohio  and  Maryland.  The  people  of  the  far  south  took  kindly  to  the 
new  doctrine,  and  welcomed  its  pioneers  with  the  warm  impulses  of  their  na- 
tures ;  and  while  the  allopathic  school  refused  to  countenance  the  disciples  of 
Hahnemann,  they  did  not  carry  their  opposition  to  the  extreme  length  of  bit- 
terness with  which  they  greeted  the  homoeopaths  in  many  of  the  states  farther 

The  story  of  the  planting  and  subsequent  growth  oi  homoeopathy  in  Lo'Uis- 
iana  is  not  wholly  unlike  that  of  other  states,  yet  for  some  reason  not  easy 
of  explanation  the  school  never  acquired  great  or  even  proportionate  strength 
in  the  region  under  consideration,  and  this  despite  the  fact  that  the  physical 
afflictions  of  mankind  in  the  south,  the  peculiar  maladies  with  which  the 
southerners  have  been  periodically  visited,  yield  more  readily  to  homoeopathic 
treatment  than  to  that  of  the  old  school.  This  has  been  proven  time  and  again. 
The  people,  too,  always  have  been  ready  to  welcome  the  general  outspreading 
of  homoeopathy,  but  the  young  practitioners  fresh  from  the  college  have  set 
their  faces  in  another  direction,  choosing  the  more  densely  populated  states 
and  the  large  commercial  centers  as  the  field  of  professional  activity.  In  1878, 
twenty-five  years  after  Martin,  the  former  French  ship  surgeon,  first  treated 
in  New  Orleans  with  the  little  doses,  there  were  only  seventeen  homoeopathic 
practitioners  in  the  state,  and  ten  years  later  the  number  had  decreased  to 
eight.  In  1904  there  were  twenty-six  homoeopathic  physicians  in  the  state, 
twelve  in  New  Orleans  and  fourteen  in  the  sparsely  settled  parishes  outside 
of  that  city. 


In  1880  the  less  than  twenty  homoeopathic  practitioners  of  the  state  met  in 
the  city  of  New  Orleans  and  organized  a  medical  association  under  the  name 
of  Hahnemann  Medical  Association  of  Louisiana.  This  body  soon  became 
decadent  and  was  succeeded  in  1885  ^7  the  Southern  Homoeopathic  Medical 
Association.  The  latter  society  has  enjoyed  a  continuous  existence  to  the 
prese-it  time,  although  a  re-organization  was  affected  in  1890.  The  annual 
meeting  is  held  in  New  Orleans  in  January,  with  bi-monthly  meetings  for 
ordinary  purposes  in  the  same  city.  The  membership  in  1903  was  twenty- 
two  physicians. 

Societe    Hahnemaimienne    De    La    Novelle    Orleans    was    oroanized    some- 

HISTORY  OF  H0^[n<:Olv\THV  1S»' 

time  between   1858  and   i860.     It  published  a  monthly  paper  called  "  L'llo- 
moion,"  which,  like  the  society  itself,  was  soon  discontinued. 

The  Charity  Homoeopathic  Hospital  of  New  Orleans  was  founded  in 
1892  by  the  homoeopathic  profession  and  its  friends  in  the  city,  and  was 
the  direct  outgrowth  of  a  refusal  of  certain  hospital  authorities  to  permit 
homoeopathic  treatment  of  a  patient  in  that  institution.  The  incident  hap- 
pened in  1891,  and  the  new  hospital  was  established  in  March  of  the  next 
year.  It  was  a  worthy  enterprise,  founded  for  an  equally  commendable  pur- 
pose, yet  its  life  was  short,  due  to  a  want  of  proper  interest  in  its  affairs, 
hence  its  "  passing  "  was  only  a  natural  consequence. 


Homoeopathy  was  introduced  in  Louisiana  about  the  same  time  as  in 
Ohio.  Dr.  Joseph  Martin,  a  physician  connected  with  the  French  navy,  vis- 
ited New  Orleans  and  became  enamoured  of  that  brilliant  city.  Returning  to 
France,  he  was  converted  by  Dr.  Tournier,  who  practiced  homoeopathy  in 
Lyons  as  early  as  1834.  Alartin  returned  to  America  and  located  in  New 
Orleans  in  1836.  Dr.  Flolcombe  says  Martin  was  the  first  man  who  practiced 
homoeopathy  in  the  southern  states,  and  that  he  practiced  in  New  Orleans 
until  his  death,  in  1861.  The  next  pioneer  was  a  layman  named  Formel,  who 
had  been  an  old  soldier  of  the  "  Empire  "  and  who  practiced  with  great  zeal. 

The  French  and  American  people  were  at  that  time  entirely  separated 
from  each  other,  and  the  American  residents  knew  but  little  of  the  French 
practitioners.  The  first  homoeopathic  physician  who  established  a  practice 
among  the  Americans  was  Dr.  Robert  Glass,  of  Flopkinsville,  Ky.,  who  from 
1840  to  1844  spent  the  winters  in  New  Orleans  and  practiced  the  system  of 
Hahnemann.  About  the  same  time  two  German  physicians,  Drs.  Kiefer  and 
Luyties,  were  for  a  short  time  in  practice. 

In  1845,  ^^-  Gustavus  M.  Taft,  of  Hartford,  Conn.,  went  south.  He 
was  born  in  Dedham,  Mass.,  December  7,  1820;  read  medicine  with  Dr.  Josiah 
F.  Flagg,  of  Boston;  graduated  at  the  University  of  New  York  in  1842,  and 
began  practice  in  Hartford,  being  the  second  practitioner  of  homceopathy  in 
that  city.  His  health  failed  and  he  went  to  New  Orleans  in  November,  1845. 
Dr.  Holcombe  says  he  was  an  elegant  and  accomplished  gentleman,  a  thor- 
oughly educated  physician,  and  to  fascinating  address  he  added  the,  charm  of 
fine  personal  appearance.  He  acquired  an  immense  business,  and  his  sudden 
death,  August  10,  1847,  ^^'^s  regarded  as  a  public  calamity.  Dr.  Taft  was 
one  of  the  original  members  of  the  American   Institute  of  Homoeopathy. 

Another  of  the  early  homoeopathists  was  Dr.  Alexander  Hamilton  Bur- 
ritt,  who  went  to  New  Orleans  in  July,  1854,  and  of  whom  further  mention 
is  rnade  in  the  history  of  early  homoeopathy  in  Ohio.  Another  noteworthy 
practitioner  was  Dr.  L.  V.  M.  Taxil,  who  had  been  an  allopathic  professor  in 
France.  He  located  in  New  Orleans  previous  to  1857,  and  in  1859  estab- 
lished a  French  monthly  journal,  "  L'Homoion,  "  an  organ  of  Hahnemannian 
doctrine.  While  attending  professional  duties  Dr.  Taxil  was  severely  injured, 
having  been  run  over  by  a  street  car,  from  the  effects  of  which  he  died.  Aug- 
ust 6,  1864,  aged  sixty-eight  years.  Dr.  Taxil  received  his  medical  degree 
from  the  Western  Homoeopthic  College  m  1858. 

Another  of  the  French  homoeopathists  was  Dr.  Louis  Caboche,  who  set- 
tled in  New  Orleans  about  1856.  He  also  published  a  paper,  "  Le  Practicien 
Homoeopathique",  a  monthly  commenced  in  1857  and  continued  one  year.     In 


1861  he  edited  "  L'Homoion,  "  which  was  the  organ  of  the  Societe  Hahne- 
mannienne  of  New  Orleans.  He  died  of  typhoid  fever  in  November,  1863, 
aged  seventy-two  years. 

Alexis  Leon  was  born  in  Philadelphia  in  April,  181 5.  After  practicing 
a  few  years  in  that  city  he  removed  to  New  Orleans,  where  he  remained  twelve 
years.  He  was  practicing  homoeopathy  previous  to  1851.  He  went  to  New 
Orleans  about  1844  and  left  there  in  1856  for  New  York,  where  he  established 
himself  in  practice.  Under  the  direction  of  Dr.  E.  E.  Marcy,  he  gave  him- 
self treatment  and  greatly  recovered  his  health.  During  the  summer  of  1866, 
the  fear  of  cholera  in  New  York  caused  the  physicians  to  be  overworked  and 
Dr,  Leon  was  affected.  In  August  he  was  taken  ill  and  died  at  Long  Branch, 
N.  J.,  September  2,  1866.  He  joined  the  American  Institute  of  Homoeopathy 
in  1846. 

Dr.  J.  Vail  was  practicing  homoeopathy  in  New  Orleans  as  early  as  1853. 
In  a  letter  he  said:  "We  had  in  1853  and  1854  five  homoeopathic  physicians 
in  full  practice;  this  year  (1855)  we  have  four  more.  For  the  three  years  the 
yellow  fever  prevailed  here  our  loss  has  been  six  per  cent.  " 

The  homoeopathic  pioneer  in  Mobile  was  Dr.  James  Gridley  Belden,  who 
was  born  in  Moscow,  N.  Y.,  September  22,  1822.  He  took  a  course  at  Har- 
vard Medical  School,  studied  a  year  with  Dr.  Winslow  Lewis,  of  Boston, 
two  years  with  Dr.  Taft,  of  Hartford,  Conn.,  and  graduated  at  the  College  of 
Physicians  and  Surgeons  in  New  York  in  March,  1846.  The  same  year  he 
went  to  Mobile,  Alabama,  remained  there  a  year  and  then  located  in  New 
Orleans.  His  attention  was  called  to  homoeopathy  by  seeing  its  good  results 
in  the  cases  of  friends,  and  making  a  study  of  it,  he  soon  became  convinced  of 
its  truth  and  openly  adopted  it  in  practice.  In  1852  he  married  Arabella 
Trent,  of  Buffalo,  N.  Y.     He  died  July  6,  1896,  at  New  Orleans. 

In  1855  Dr.  Richard  Angell  went  to  New  Orleans  to  take  charge,  in  con- 
junction with  his  son,  of  the  Orphans'  Home.  He  bought  out  Dr.  Luyties' 
pharmacy  the  same  year.  He  was  born  in  London,  England,  March  16,  1804. 
After  a  year  devoted  to  the  study  of  pharmacy  he  attended  the  Middlesex 
Hospital,  then  under  the  supervision  of  his  uncle,  Thomas  Chevalier,  surgeon 
to  George  IV.  Afterward  he  came  to  America,  locating  in  Washington,  D. 
C,  where  he  studied  medicine  with  Drs.  Sewall  and  McWilliams  of  Columbia 
Medical  College,  from  which  he  graduated  in  March,  1826,  having  held  for 
three  years  previously  the  position  of  pharmaceutist  and  house  surgeon  in 
the  Corporation  Asylum  and  Hospital.  He  engaged  in  country  practice  in 
Mississippi  until  1843,  when  he  went  to  Louisville,  Ky.  While  there  he  be- 
came a  homoeopathist  and  adopted  it  in  his  practice.  His  wife's  ill  health 
compelled  a  return  to  the  south  in  1847,  ^^'^^  ^^^  practiced  in  Huntsville,  Ala., 
until  1855,  when  failing  health  unfitted  him  for  active  work.  He  then  went 
to  New  Orleans  and  died  there  June  10,  1879,  at  the  age  of  seventy-five  years. 

Dr.  Samuel  Minter  Angell  was  the  son  of  Richard  Angell,  and  was  born 
in  Jefferson  county.  Miss.,  August  2,  1833.  He  began  the  study  of  medicine 
with  his  father  at  Huntsville,  Ala.,  and  attended  lectures  at  the  Cincinnati 
Eclectic  Medical  Institute  in  1854-55.  The  next  year  took  a  course  at  the 
Medical  School  of  Louisiana  (Tulane  University).  In  1856-57  he  attended 
the  Homoeopathic  Medical  College  of  Pennsylvania,  where  he  graduated  in 
1857,  and  he  also  graduated  from  an  allopathic  college  at  Louisville,  Ky.  He 
settled  in  New  Orleans  in  practice  with  his  father  in  1858,  and  the  partnership 
lasted   for  twenty  years   until   the   father's  death.      During  the   yellow   fever 


epidemic  of  1878.  Dr.  Aiip:cll  became  well  known  for  his  successful  treat- 
ment. He  died  in  New  Orleans,  October  5,  1895,  leaving  a  widow,  two 
daughters  and  two  sons. 

Dr.  Adolphe  Cartier,  an  old  school  practitioner  of  New  Orleans,  became  a 
convert  to  homoeopathy  about  1845.  I"  Sinith's  "  Homoeopathic  Directory  " 
for  1857  the  names  of  A.  Cartier,  F.  Cartier,  Dr.  Bailey,  L.  A.  Bianchini,  F. 
W.  Ferris  and  J.  Alathieu  are  given  as  practicing  homoeopathy  in  New  Or- 
leans. Dr.  D.  S.  Oliphant  was  practicing  in  New  Orleans  in*  1857.  An  in- 
teresting letter  from  him  may  be  found  in  the  "  Family  Journal  of  Homoeo- 
pathy" for  October,  1854,  regarding  the  yellow  fever  in  Mississippi  in  1853. 
At  that  time  Dr.  Oliphant   was  living  in   Natchez.      He  says :    "  During  the 

Wm.  H.  Holcombe,  M.  D. 

height  of  the  epidemic  I  remained  at  Natchez  assisting  in  attendance  on  the 
more  critical  cases  of  }ellow  fever  occurring  in  homoeopathic  families.  For 
several  years  I  had  abandoned  medical  practice  on  account  of  feeble  health ; 
and  had  not  the  urgency  of  the  case  impelled  me,  I  should  have  remained  an 
indifferent  spectator  of  the  struggle  between  the  several  schools  of  medicine. 
But  the  calls  of  my  friends  for  aid  at  this  trying  crisis  forced  me  to  active 
duty;  and  gratitude  to  Dr.  Davis  for  his  kind  attention  to  me  personally  dur- 
ing a  relapse  of  yellow  fever,  mduced  me  to  give  him  all  the  aid  I  could  as 
nurse  and  assistant  in  his  cases.  "  In  the  midst  of  this  duty  Dr.  Oliphant  was 
called  to  Jefferson  county,  thirty-six  miles  distant,  where  the  epidemic  was  so 
severe  that  the  planters  had  banded  together  for  mutual  aid.  The  few  homoeo- 
pathic families  living  there  preferred  that  treatment,  and  it  was  their  appli- 
cation to  Drs.  Davis  and  Holcombe  that  induced  Dr.  Oliphant  to  go  there. 


WM.     II.     IIOLCDMBK,    M.    D. 

The  one  man  whose  name  always  will  be  associated  with  the  growth  of 
homoeopathy  in  the  south,  the  Hering  of  southern  homoeopathy,  is  William 
Henry  Holcombe,  physician,  author,  poet,  humanitarian.  He  was  born  in 
Lynchburg,  Va.,  May  29,  1825.  His  grandfather  was  Colonel  Philemon 
Holcombe,  who  ran  away  from  Hampden  College  and  enlisted  at  the  begin- 
ning of  the  revolutionary  war,  serving  through  it.  He  was  an  officer  in 
Harry  Lee's  famous  regiment  and  acted  as  aide-de-camp  to  General  LaFay- 
ette  at  the  seige  of  Yorktown. 

Dr.  Holcombe's  father  was  Dr.  William  J.  Holcombe.  a  successful  physi- 
cian of  Madison,  Ind.,  with  whom  the  young  man  studied  medicine.  He  at-  • 
tended  one  year  at  Washington  College,  Va.,  and  had  just  prepared  to  enter 
the  junior  class  at  Yale  College  when  his  parents  liberated  their  negroes 
and  removed  to  Madison.  He  took  a  scientific  course  in  Washington 
College,  Lexington,  Va.,  attended  medical  lectures  at  the  Univer- 
sity of  Pennsylvania  in  1845-47,  and  graduated  there  in  the  latter 
3'ear,  After  practicing  three  years  with  his  father  in  Madison,  he 
went  to  Cincinnati,  Ohio,  where  he  resided  from  1850  to  1852.  While 
there  he  became  a  convert  to  the  teachings  of  Swedenborg,  and  also  to  homoeo- 
pathy. He  practiced  in  Natchez,  Miss.,  from  1852  to  1855  and  then  he  re- 
moved to  Waterproof,  La.  In  1864  he  v/ent  to  New  Orleans  and  lived  in  that 
city  until  his  death,  excepting  a  short  time  spent  in  Cincinnati  in  1886.  In 
1852  he  married  Rebecca  Palmer,  of  Cincinnati,  who  was  interested  in  medi- 
cine and  was  seen  in  the  doctor's  office  nearly  as  frequently  as  himself.  He 
was  a  voluminous  writer  both  of  medical  articles  and  books.  He  also  published 
several  volumes  of  poems  and  one  novel.  His  first  pamphlet,  "  The  Scientific 
Basis  of  Homoeopathy,  "  was  issued  in  1851,  and  was  of  great  value  in  mak- 
ing converts  to  the  new  medical  system.  The  manuscript  of  his  last  book, 
"The  Truth  About  Homoeopathy,  "  was  found  in  his  desk  after  his  death.  In 
1853,  during  the  yellow  fever  epidemic.  Dr.  Holcombe  and  Dr.  F.  A.  W;  Davis 
were  appointed  physicians  to  the  Mississippi  State  Hospital,  and  although 
powerful  efforts  were  made  in  the  legislature  to  expel  them  from  office  the 
committee  which  investigated  the  matter  reported  favorably  and  they  were 

Dr.  Holcombe  became  a  member  of  the  xAmerican  Institute  of  Homoeo- 
pathy in  i860,  and  also  was  a  member  of  various  other  medical  societies.  His 
books  on  non-medical  subjects  were  "  Our  Children  in  Heaven,  "  "  The  Sexes 
Here  and  Hereafter,  "  '•'  In  Both  Worlds,  "  "  The  Other  Life,  "  and  a  work 
of  poetry  called  "  Southern  Voices.  "  Dr.  Holcombe  died  November  28,  1893. 

Another  of  the  pioneers  of  homoeopathy  in  Louisiana  was  Dr.  James  D. 
Bratt,  son  of  Edward  Bratt,  of  Pittsburgh,  Pa.,  and  a  graduate  in  1852  of  the 
HonKxoi)athic  Medical  College  of  Pennsylvania.     IJe  died  September  22,  185s. 

In  the  directory  of  1857  ap])ear  the  names  of  Dr.  Booth,  at  Newell's 
Ridge;  Dr.  Couel,  ac  Catahoola  Parish;  Dr.  L.  H.  Dorsay,  at  Kirk's  Ferry; 
Dr.  Gab,  at  Carrollton ;  Dr.  Postlcthwaite,  at  Carroll  Parish ;  Dr.  L.  Stempel, 
at  Star,  and  Dr.  Wirz,  at  Milliken  Bend,  but  no  data  are  obtainable  of  them. 

In  T853  Dr.  Luyties  established  a  homoeopathic  pharmacy  in  New  ( )'■- 
leans,  and  in  185s  sold  out  to  Dr.  Richard  Angell.  In  1856  Drs.  Leon  and 
Burritt  established  a  pliprniacv  in  New  Orleans  and  carried  on  business  fo'-  a 
short   time.      Dr.   dc    YWlvucuvv    kept    a    small   pharmacy   in    the  city    for   six 



months.  About  1860  l^r.  J.  A.  D'Hemicourt  opened  a  pliarmacy,  which  was 
closed  in  1875.  after  his  death.  In  Xovcmber,  1877,  I^'Ocricke  &  Tafel  estab- 
lished a  branch  pharmacy  in  the  city  and  placed  it  under  the  charge  of 
Mr.  T.  Engelbach.  who  on  A  larch  i,  1884.  bouj^^ht  and  has  since  continued  it. 

A  French  society  was  formed  in  Xew  Orleans  in  1858,  and  was  con- 
tinued for  a  short  time.  The  New  Orleans  Relief  Association  was  continued 
during  the  yellow  fever  epidemic  of  1878.  It  furnished  food,  nurses  and 
homoeopathic  medicines  to  the  sick.  The  Hafmemann  Medical  Association  of 
Louisiana  was  organized  in  1880,  but  was  discontinued  in  1885. 

Homoeopathic  physicians  in  Louisiana  previous  to  i860.  The  date  pre- 
ceding the  name  intlicates  the  >ear  ihe  physician  began  the  practice  of  homceo- 
pathv.  The  character  *  indicates  that  the  practitioner  originally  was  of  some 
other  school ;  the  character  x  indicates  that  the  physician  practiced  medicine 
before  the  date  given. 

1844  Angell,  Richard  *     New  Orleans  1858 

1857  Angell,  Samuel  M.     Xew  Orleans  1857 

1857  Bailey,  Walter  *     New  Orleans  1840 

1846  Belden,  James  G.  *     New  Orleans  .  1^52 

1857  Bianchini,  L.  A.  x     New  Orleans  1840 

1857  Booth,   Dr.  X     Newells  Ridge  1S46 

1852  Bratt;  James  D.     Waterproof  1853 

1840  Burritt,  Alexander  H.     New  Orleans  ;  "57 

1857  Burritt,  Mrs.  x     New  Orleans  r  '36 

1850  Cartier,  Adolphe  *       New  Orleans  '"57 

1850  Cartier.    F.     New   Orleans  1857 

1856  Caboche,  L.     New  Orleans  i   57 

1857  Couel,  Dr.  x  Catahoola  Parish  '-^44 
1857  Dorsey,  L.  H.  x  Kirks  Ferry  '  -8 
i860  D'Hemicourt,  J.  A.  New  Orleans  i  57 
i860  Delcroi.x.  P.  New  Orleans  i  'j 
1857  F"erris,   F.   W.  x     New   Orleans 

Formel,  Dr.     New  Orleans 
Gab.   Dr.  .x     Carrollton 
Glass.  Robert     New  Orleans 
Holcombc,  William  H.    *  New  Orleans 
Kiefer,   Dr.     New  Orleans 
Leon,  Alexis     New  Orlean^ 
Luyties,   Dr.     New   Orleans 
Mathieu,  J.  x     New  Orleans 
Martin,  Joseph     New  Orleans 
Oliphant,   D.  S.  x     New  Orleans 
Postlethwaite  x     Carroll    Parish 
Stempel,  L.  x     Star  P.  O. 
Tait.  Gustavus  M.     New  Orleans 
Taxil.  L.  V.  M.     New  Orleans 
Vail,  J.  X     New     Orleans 
Wirz.   H.  X    Alilliken  Bend 




By  Thomas  Lindsley  Bradford,  M.  D. 

The  Maryland  Homceopathic  State  Medical  Society — Other  Societies — Fehx  R.  Mc- 
Manus.  the  Pioneer — His  Life  and  Experiences — Schmidt,  the  Prussian  Convert — 
I^aynel,  the  German,  and  Busch,  the  Saxon — Cyriax,  Hardy  and  Geiger — List  of 
Early  Practitioners. 

The  pioneer  of  homoeopathy  in  Maryland  was  a  native  of  the  state  and, 
withal,  a  physician  of  excellent  ability,  perfectly  conscientious,  and  of  suffi- 
cient determination  of  character  to  withstand  the  opposition  of  the  forces  of 
the  Medical  and  Chirurgical  Faculty,  as  the  oro^anized  allopathic  profession 
in  the  state  always  has  been  known. 

Dr.  Shower's  historv  of  the  Southern  Homoeopathic  Medical  College  and 
Hospital  of  P)altimore  m  another  chapter  of  this  work  gives  an  interesting 
account  of  early  homoeopathv  in  Baltimore,  and  also  presents  a  faithful  nar- 
rative of  the  conditions  existing  in  tlie  state  when  the  first  homoeopaths  en- 
tered the  field.  In  1875  there  were  fifty-seven  homoeopathic  practitioners  in 
Maryland,  thirty-five  of  whom  were  in  Baltimore.  ' 


The  society  of  the  name  above  given  dates  its  history  from  the  year 
1887,  and  was  the  outgrowth  of  the  Medical  Institute  of  Homoeopathy,  estab- 
lished in  1882,  while  the  latter  was  the  direct  successor  of  the  still  older  Mary- 
land Homoeopathic  Society  of  Baltimore  City,  which  was  incorporated  in  1875, 
and  was  a  state  society  notwithstanding  the  local  character  implied  by  its 
name.  The  society  last  mentioned  was  organized  in  Baltimore  on  December 
16,  1875,  at  which  time  a  constitution  was  adopted,  and  officers  were  elected  as 
follows :  Dr.  Elias  C.  Price  of  Baltimore,  president ;  Dr.  Thomas  F.  Pomeroy 
and  Dr.  Fl.  R.  Fetterhoff,  both  of  Baltimore,  vice-presidents ;  Dr.  H.  A.  Un- 
derwood of  Baltimore,  secretary ;  Dr.  Jacob  Schmidt  of  Baltimore,  treasurer ; 
Dr.  J.  B.  Crane  of  Bel  Air,  George  Fechtig  of  Flagerstown  and  Dr.  A.  A. 
Roth  of  Frederick,  censors.  The  society  held  annual  meetings  with  fair  reg- 
ularity until  1882,  and  was  then  dissolved.  On  November  15  of  the  same 
year  a  meeting  of  homoeopathic  physicians  of  the  state  was  held  in  Baltimore 
and  organized  the  Maryland  Institute  of  Homoeopathy,  with  these  officers: 
Dr.  Elias  C.  Price  of  Baltimore,  president ;  Dr.  George  T.  Shower  of  Balti- 
more, vice-president ;  Dr.  O.  Edward  Janney  of  Baltimore,  secretary  and 
treasurer;  Dr.  Eldridge  C.  Price  of  Baltimore,  historian;  Drs.  Flora  A.  Brew- 
ster, A.  R.  Barrett  and  William  B.  Turner,  censors.  This  society  met  semi- 
annually in  Baltimore  and  continued  its  existence  until  April  11,  1887,  when 
it  adjourned  sine  die.  It  was  immediately  succeeded  bv  the  present  society, 
which  dates  its  history  from  the  day  mentioned.  The  first  officers  were  Dr. 
Joseph  Lloyd  Martin,  president;  Drs.  N.  W.  Kneass  and  E.   Sears, 



vice-presidents;  Dr.  Irving  Miller,  secretary;  Dr.  Thomas  Shearer,  treasurer; 
Drs.  N.  W.  Mark,  E.  S.  Conlyn  and  H.  Wilbur,  censors.  This  society  has 
maintained  an  active  and  useful  existence  to  the  present  time,  and  numbers 
about  seventy-five  members. 

The  Baltimore  Homoeopathic  Medical  Society  was  organized  at  Baltimore 
September  24,  1874,  and  was  continued  until  1883,  when  it  was  dissolved. 

The  Medical  Investigation  Club  of  Baltimore  was  organized  November 
5,  1881,  with  five  members,  for  the  especial  purpose  of  promoting  the  investi- 
gation of  medical  and  scientific  subjects,  and  social  intercourse  of  those  who 
united  with  it.  In  this  respect  the  club  had  fulfilled  an  important  mission  in 
the  homoeopathic  professional   life  of  Baltimore   and  generally   has  been  the 

Thomas  Shearer,  M.  D. 

means  of  accomplishing  much  good.  Its  methods  are  wholly  democratic  and 
its  meetings  are  occasions  of  social  enjoyment. 

The  Homoeopathic  Clinical  Society  of  Maryland  and  the  District  of  Co- 
lumbia was  organized  October  i,  1890,  a  union  of  the  Homoeopathic  Society 
of  Maryland  and  the  Homoeopathic  Medical  Society  of  the  District  of  Co- 

The  Maryland  Homoeopathic  Hospital  of  Baltimore  was  opened  October 
9,  1890.  Its  history  is  sufficiently  mentioned  in  connection  with  that  of  the 
college  of  which  it  forms  a  part. 



Dr.  Felix  R.  McManus,  to  whom  is  accorded  the  honor  of  having  first 
carried  the  gospel  of  Hahnemann  to  the  Marylanders,  was  born  in  Baltimore, 
i\[ay  30,  1807.  He  was  educated  chiefly  at  Georgetown  University,  and  later 
was  a  student  in  medicine  at  the  Baltimore  Infirmary.  He  took  his  degree 
in  medicine  at  the  University  of  Maryland  in  April,  1829,  and  began  practice 
in  Baltimore  in  that  year,  but  in  1837  the  (to  him)  unaccountable  loss  of  a 
patient  so  disturbed  his  mind  m  regard  to  the  settled  rule  of  pr'actice  of  that 
school  that  he  instinctively  turned  ni  another  direction  in  the  hope  of  arriving 
at  some  satisfactory  conclusion  respecting  the  evident  mistakes  of  that  school's 
methods,  and  at  the  same  time  to  provide  himself  with  more  rational  and  sane 
means  of  cure.  It  was  then  that  his  attention  was  called  to  homoeopathy  by 
one  of  the  Catholic  clergy ;  he  was  led  to  investigate,  and  investigation  brought 
him  into  a  new  light  in  the  world  of  medicine. 

'*  I  claim  the  honor  of  having  been  the  first  physician  of  Maryland  who 
attempted  such  investigation,  "  said  Dr.  McManus  in  writing  the  story  of 
homoeopathy  in  iiis  native  state.  And  again  he  says :  "  Homoeopathy  here,  as 
well  as  elsewhere,  had  a  '  hard  road  to  travel,'  as,  in  all  other  places,  nothing 
but  its  success  could  vindicate  its  adoption;  and  now  it  enjoys  a  proud  and  en- 
viable position." 

This  most  worthy  pioneer  of  homoeopathy  lived  to  good  old  age,  and  died 
in  his  native  city  March  3,  1885.  He  was  a  charter  member  of  the  American 
Institute  of  Homoeopathy,  and  for  manv  years  was  a  conspicuous  figure  in  the 
assemblages  of  his  professional  brethren.  The  story  of  his  early  experiences 
ahva\s  found  willing  listeners,  and  he  was  looked  upon  as  the  father  of  his 
school  in  Maryland  as  long  as  he  lived.  At  a  meeting  of  the  institute  held  at 
Milwaukee  in  1880  he  narrated  the  history  of  his  early  practice  and  of  his 
conversion  to  homceopathy,  and  the  published  accounts  of  his  story  have  been 
drawn  upon  to  ilkistrate  in  this  chapter  something  of  the  life  of  the  practi- 
tioner of  Hahnemann's  doctrine  during  the  second  quarter  of  the  last  century. 

Dr.  McManus  frequently  expressed  regret  that  there  was  so  little  organ- 
ization among  his  professional  brethren  m  Maryland,  and  in  one  of  his  public 
addresses  he  annoimced  that  the  state  was  without  either  college  or  hospital 
and  that  no  homteopathic  publication  was  issued  from  within  its  borders. 
The  worthy  old  veteran  lived,  however,  to  participate  in  the  organization  of  a 
flourishing  state  society  and  to  witness  the  establishment  of  others ;  and  had 
he  lived  five  more  years  his  desire  to  witness  the  establishment  of  a  college 
of  homoeopathic  medical  learning  would  have  been  gratified,  for  in  1890  th.-: 
Southern  Homoeopathic  Medical  CoJlege  and  Hospital  was  founded  and 
entered  upon  its  useful  career.  This  institution,  however,  is  made  the  subject 
of  more  extended  mention  in  another  department  of  this  work. 

Dr.  McManus  frequently  narrated  the  story  of  his  conversion  to  homoe- 
opathy. He  secured  Hering's  "  Domestic  Physician,  "  with  thirty  or  forty 
remedies,  and  bought  a  box  containing  one  hundred  and  seventeen  remedies, 
prepared,  as  he  supposed,  in  Leipsic.  He  mentioned  several  cures  with  the 
thirtieth  potencies,  of  which  he  once  spoke  as  follows:  "  I  saw  an  announce- 
ment in  a  paper  of  a  homreopathic  physician  by  the  name  of  Radclifife,  and 
at  that  time  I  had  a  very  singular  case,  and  I  did  not  know  what  to  do  with 
it.  It  was  a  case  that  1  defined  to  be  neuralgia,  rheumatic  pain  or  rheuma- 
tism.    The  neuralgia  was  intermittent  neuralgia.     The  lady  was  nineteen  years 

HISTORY  OF  IK  ).M(i:()PATHY  197 

of  age,  very  sensitive  in  her  organization  and  in  her  nervous  system.  Every 
day  at  two  o'clock  after  an  intermission  of  six  weeks,  she  was  taken  with  what 
she  called  a  needle  pain.  She  felt  as  if  a  needle  were  stuck  into  her  heart, 
and  that  was  immediately  followed  by  a  convulsion  which  lasted  from  thirty 
minutes  to  two  or  three  hours.  I  commenced  the  treatment  on  the  tonic  plan ; 
I  commenced  with  sulphate  of  qumine.  Still  the  pain  came  on  at  two  o'clock. 
1  gave  the  medicine  faithfully  for  two  or  three  days  but  it  had  no  result. 
Then  I  resorted  to  a  preparation  of  arnica  flowers  and  a  solution.  Finally  I 
anticipated  the  paroxysm  by  sinapisms  anteriorly  and  posteriorly.  These 
were  applied  to  the  heart.  I  thought  by  the  time  we  began  to  irritate  the  sur- 
face it  would  produce  some  effect ;  this  was  counter  irritation.  I  thought 
by  this  plan  I  might  break  up  the  paroxysms.  I  did  not  know  what  to  do. 
I  saw  this  advertisement  and  said.  I  do  not  know  Dr.  Radcliffe ;  nobody  can 
tell  me  who  he  is ;  I  will  go  and  see  him.  I  went  and  told  him  the  object  of 
my  visit.  I  asked  him  if  he  had  ever  treated  such  a  case.  He  said,  *  No.' 
He  was  a  very  intelligent  man  and  very  agreeable  in  his  presence,  bearing  and 
conversation.  He  listened  to  my  story  patiently  and  after  hearing  me  said, 
*  Doctor,  I  think  a  dose  of  spigelia  the  thirtieth  will  cure  that  case.'  '  One 
dose  of  spigelia,'  said  I,  'you  do  not  mean  the  Maryland  pink  root?'  'Yes,' 
he  replied,  '  I  will  give  you  a  dose.'  It  was  then  ten  o'clock  in  the  morning. 
'  What  will  I  do  with  it? '  said  I.  His  reply  was:  '  You  put  this  powder  on 
the  tongue  of  th.e  patient.'  I  saw  him  pour  out  the  pellets  in  a  little  sugar  of 
milk.  I  had  the  curiosity  to  take  up  the  bottle ;  it  bore  the  mark,  '  Spigelia, 
30.'  I  left  the  house  and  thought  to  myself  that  man  must  be  a  fool,  and 
yet  he  told  it  to  me  with  that  kind  of  assurance  that  would  baffle  suspicion.  I 
thought,  if  this  dose  of  spigelia  will  cure  her,  I  will  try  it.  I  went  to  see  the 
young  lad>  about  ten  o'clock  and  I  put  the  powder  of  spigelia  on  the  end 
of  her  tongue.  I  thought  to  myself  it  was  a  real  piece  of  folly,  but  I  told  her 
I  would  come  again  in  the  afternoon.  I  was  very  busy,  but  told  her  I  would 
go  to  the  'house  about  five  o'clock.  Now^  you  must  recollect  that  this  patient 
had  not  missed  a  paroxysm  for  six  weeks.  Her  mother  met  me  at  the  door. 
She  was  standing  on  the  portico  and  she  raised  her  hand  and  said :  '  Mary 
missed  her  pain  to-day.' 

"  'Missed  her  pain.     Had  she  any  spasm?'     'Not  at  all,  come  in.' 

"  I  Avent  in.  The  girl  was  sitting  up.  The  first  thing  I  did  was  to  feel 
her  pulse.  '  Well,  Mary,  how  do  you  feel?  '  She  answered,  '  I  feel  better  than 
I  have  for  a  long  time.  I  think  it  is  because  I  missed  this  pain.'  'Had  you 
no  symptom  of  it?  '  '  No,  '  she  said,  '  I  never  had  any 'premonition  at  all,  until 
it  came  like  a  needle  sticking  in  my  heart.  But  to-day  I  had  nothing  of  it.' 
I  looked  at  the  girl  and  1  looked  at  myself.  What  conclusion  could  I  come  to? 
It  must  be  the  effect  of  the  spigelia.  I  waited  without  seeing  Dr.  Radcliffe 
until  the  morrow,  and  at  five  o'clock  I  went  to  see  the  girl,  who  felt  remark- 
ably well.  That  night  I  went  to  see  the  doctor.  '  Well, '  he  said,  '  did  that 
powder  have  any  effect  upon  that  young  woman?' 

■■  I  said,  'Really  I  do  not  know  how  to  answer  that  question.  I  called  at 
four  or  five  in  the  afterno-Dn  and  the  girl  had  neither  pain,  spasm  nor  con- 
vulsion, and  I  called  to  see  her  this  afternoon  and  she  had  neither  the  one  nor 
the  other.' 

■■  '  \\'ell,  sir,  vou  told  me  that  if  I  would  cure  that  case — and  I  have  cured 
it  with  one  dose  of  medicine — that  you  would  believe  in  homoeopathv.'  '  Well, 
doctor,  if  1   tell  vou  that  I  believe,  vou  will  sav  that  I  am  a  verv  visionarv 


man.  How  could  one  dose  cure  that  girl  after  I  had  done  so  much?  How 
could  one  dose  do  it  ? '  He  replied,  '  the  dose  of  spigelia  that  I  gave  was 
what  the  girl's  case  required,  and  what  you  did  amounted  to  nothing.'  " 

Notwithstanding  the  fact  that  Dr.  McManus  rightfully  laid  claim  to 
pioneership  in  the  practice  of  homoeopathy  in  Maryland,  his  honor  in  that 
respect  must  be  shared  with  Rev.  Jacob  Geiger,  a  Maryland  pastor  of  German 
extraction  and  Pennsylvania  parentage  and  birth,  who  had  frequently  been 
brought  under  the  beneficent  teachmgs  of  Allentown  Academy  and  thus  ac- 
quired a  fair  understanding  of  the  principles  of  Hahnemann's  school  of  medi- 
cine. In  1836,  contemporary  with  Dr.  McManus,  Rev.  Geiger  took  up  the 
practice  of  medicine  in  connection  with  the  pastoral  charge  of  his  flock,  and 
continued  both  until  the  time  of  his  death  in  1848.  This  allusion  to  Pastor 
Geiger's  medical  endeavors  is  important  when  it  is  mentioned  that  nine  of  his 
descendants  were  graduates  of  homoeopathic  colleges  and  practitioners  of 

In  this  connection  also  it  may  be  stated  that  Dr.  Shower's  history  of  the 
Southern  Homoeopathic  Medical  College  and  Hospital  credits  one  Dr.  Schwartz 
with  being  the  first  regular  homoeopathic  physician  in  the  city  of  Baltimore, 
and  1837  as  the  year  of  his  beginning  practice.  However,  he  stayed  in  the 
city  only  one  vear.  Much  that  is  interesting  in  relation  to  early  homoeopathy 
in  Maryland  may  be  found  in  Dr.   Shower's  narrative. 

Dr.  Jacob  Schmidt  located  in  Baltimore  in  1843.  He  was  born  in  Kreutz- 
nach,  Prussia,  June  29,  181 3.  He  was  educated  in  the  government  gymna- 
sium, and  at  nineteen  entered  the  engineer  corps.  At  the  expiration  of  his 
time  of  service,  and  after  an  examination,  he  was  promoted  to  the  rank  of 
officer  in  the  reserve  corps  of  the  Prussian  army.  In  1836  he  came  to  the 
United  States,  where  he  found  employment  in  the  department  of  coast  survey. 
Prostrated  bv  illness  in  Philadelphia,  he  was  attended  by  Dr.  F.  Hussmann, 
assistant  to  Hering,  and  by  him  was  persuaded  to  abandon  his  profession  and 
study  medicine.  He  was  received  into  the  Hering  household,  where  for  three 
years  he  studied,  at  the  same  time  attending  lectures  at  the  University  of 
Pennsylvania.  In  1843  he  received  the  degree  of  the  Allentown  Academy. 
The  next  year  he  assisted  in  organizing  the  American  Institute  of  Homoe- 
opathy. About  this  time  he  married  a  sister-in-law  of  Dr.  Hering,  Johanna 
Hussmann,  and  being  invited  bv  Dr.  Haynel,  he  went  to  Baltimore,  where 
he  established  a  practice  and  where  he  resided  until  his  death  March  20,  1880, 
aged  67  years.  In  1867  he  received  the  degree  of  the  Homoeopathic  Medical 
College  of  Pennsylvania. 

Another  of  the  Baltimore  pioneers  was  Dr.  Adolph  Ferdinand  Haynel. 
He  had  been  a  personal  student  of  Hahnemann's.  Speaking  of  the  journey 
of  Hahnemann  from  Leipsic  to  Coethen,  Hartmann  says :  "I  was  not  with 
them,  having  left  Leipsic.  Hahnemann  took  two  of  his  pupils  with  him, 
Dr.  Haynel  and  Dr.  Mossdorf.  Haynel  led  the  life  of  a  true  nomad ;  was  at 
Berlin  at  the  first  invasion  of  the  cholera ; 'then  at  Merseberg;  finally  visited 
me  in  1830  in  Leipsic,  where  he  provided  himself  with  a  large  stock  of  homoe- 
opathic medicines  with  the  intention  of  going  to  North  America."  Dr.  Haynel 
died  at  Dresden,  August  28,  1877,  aged  81.  He  was  an  inmate  of  Hahne- 
mann's family  for  more  than  ten  years,  and  proved  a  number  of  remedies  for 
him.  About  1835  he  came  to  America,  and  resided  first  in  Reading,  Pa., 
then  in  Philadelphia.  In  1845  lie  lived  in  New  York  and  still  later  at  Balti- 
more, from  whence  he  returned  to  Furope  several  years  previous  to  his  death. 


Grey  sa)s  tlial  lia\nel  established  himself  in  Ijaltimore  as  a  homoeopathist  as 
early  as  1838. 

Dr.  Lewis  Btisch  was  born  in  Gotha,  Saxony,  in  1808,  and  practiced  allo- 
pathy there  from  1829  to  1831,  and  homoeopathy  from  1833  to  1836.  He  then 
left  Germany,  came  to  America,  and  landed  at  Baltimore.  He  practiced  there 
a  short  time  and  then  he  went  to  Adams  county,  Pa.  He  was  located. at 
Hollidaysburg  as  early  as  1842,  remained  there  until  1859.  He  went  to  Hunt- 
ington county,  and  from  thence  to  Altoona. 

Dr.  E.  C.  Bernard  Cyriax  was  born  in  Gotha,  Germany,  August  11,  1820. 
He  graduated  in  medicine  in  1837,  at  Gotha,  and  went  to  America  in  1843, 
locating  in  Baltimore.  Here  he  was  led  to  examine  homoeopathy,  and  finally 
to  accept  it;  after  1846  he  practiced  it  openly.  In  1847  he  went  west,  locat- 
ing in  Springfield,  111.  He  practiced  with  Dr.  F.  Kuechler,  the  firm  being 
the  pioneers  of  homoeopathy  in  that  locality.  In  December,  1848,  he  returned 
to  Baltimore,  w^here  he  remained  until  1857,  when  he  again  went  to  Illinois, 
locating  in  Atlanta,  Logan  county.     In  1861  he  removed  to  Cleveland,  Ohio. 

Dr.  James  E.  Hardy  was  born  in  Norfolk,  Va.,  October  31,  1842.  He 
graduated'  at  the  University  of  Edinburgh,  returned  to  America,  and  in  1868- 
69  attended  lectures  at  the  Hahnemann  Medical  College  of  Philadelphia,  from 
which  he  graduated.    He  then  returned  to  Baltimore  to  practice. 

Rev.  Jacob  Geiger  introduced  homoeopathy  in  Carroll  county  in  1836, 
and  Dr.  Radclifi'e  introduced  it  in  Washington  county  in  1841. 

The  first  hom.oeopathic  pharmxacy  in  Baltimore  was  opened  by  John 
Tanner  in  1850.  Dr.  Tanner  in  connection  with  his  pharmacy  also  practiced 
medicine.  He  had  been  cured  by  homoeopathy  when  a  young  man  after  the 
allopaths  had  given  him  up.  He  went  to  Leipsic  in  1840,  establishing  a 
homoeopathic  pharmacy  there.  Ten  years  later  he  went  to  Baltimore.  He 
sold  to  Dr.  Amelia  A.  Hastings,  a  woman  graduate,  and  in  April,  1865,  she 
sold  to  Dr.  Elias  C.  Price.  He  kept  the  establishment  two  and  a  half  years, 
then  selling  to  Dr.  Boone,  who  in  turn  sold  to  Dr.  F.  E.  Boericke  in  1868.  In 
T869  the  proprietors  were  Boericke  &  Tafel,  who  have  since  continued  the 

Homccopathic  physicians  in  Maryland  previous  to  i860.  The  date  pre- 
ceding the  name  indicates  the  year  the  physician  began  the  practice  of  homoe- 
opathy. The  character  *  indicates  that  the  practitioner  originally  was  of 
some  other  school ;  the  character  x  indicates  that  the  physician  practiced  medi- 
cine before  the  date  given. 

1S57  Arnold,    Dr.  x     Baltimore  1853  Lungren,    Samuel    S.  *     Hagerstown 

1857  Buckner,    Dr.  x     Baltimore  1846  Martin,    Joseph    L.     Baltimore 

183.3  Busch,    Louis  *     Baltimore  1836  McManus,   Felix  R.  *    Baltimore 

1846  Cyriax,   E.    C.   Bernard  *    Baltimore  1856  McManus,   F.   S.     Baltimore 

1861  Doran,    Charles   R.  *    Hagerstown  184S  Middleton,    John    D.    Baltimore 

Dysen,    R.     Nanjemoy  1857  Miller,    Dr.     Baltimore 

1835  Ehrmann,    Francis     Hagerstown  1850  Rayborg,    C.    H.     Baltimore 
1840  Ehrmann.    Frederick     Baltimore  1841  Radcliffe,    Dr.     Washington    Co. 

1836  Geiger,    Jacob    (Rev.)     Cumberland  1852  Randel,   John    Massey    Randelia 
1854  Geiger,    Theodore    S.     Manchester  1839  Schmidt,    Jacob     Baltimore 

1851  Geiger,    Charles    A.     Manchester  1838  Tanner,    John     Baltimore 

1851  Hammond,    INIilton  *     Baltimore  1857  Welner,    M.  x     Baltimore 

1820  Haynel,    Adolph    F._    Baltimore  1857  Wisman    A.  x     Fredericktown 

1857  Howe,   Dr.  x     Baltimore  1857  Worman,    A.    D.  x     Fredericktown 




By  Thomas  Lindsley  Bradford,  M.  D. 

The  First  Prescriber  of  Homoeopathic  Doses  in  Connecticut — Early  Planting  and 
Subsequent  Growth  of  Homoeopathy  in  the  State — Societies  and  Hospitals — The  Tay- 
lors, Father  and  Son — New  Milford  First  to  have  a  Homoeopathic  Physician — The 
I'afts  in  Hartford — John  Schue — Introduction  of  the  New  System  in  the  Counties — 
Pioneers,  Early  Practitioners  and  Reminiscences — List  of  Old  Practitioners. 

The  doctrine  of  homoeopathy  first  gained  a  foothold  in  Connecticut  in 
1837.  when  Dr.  Federal  Vanderburgh  on  a  social  visit  to  New  Milford  was 
called  to  professionally  attend  the  wife  of  an  old  school  physician.  This  was 
the  beginning  of  the  new  system  in  the  region  under  consideration,  and  the 
immediate  results  of  Vanderburgh's  treatment  was  the  recovery  of  his  patient 
and  the  conversion  of  her  husband  to  the  teachings  and  practice  of  Hahne- 
mann, which  previous  to  that  time  he  had  ridiculed.  As  evidence  of  the  sub- 
sequent growth  of  the  homoeopathic  system  in  the  state  it  may  be  said  that 
in  1857,  twenty  years  after  Vanderburgh's  missionary  effort  there,  forty-two 
physicians  of  that  school  were  in  practice.  In  1876  the  number  had  increased 
to  sixty-three,  in  1875  to  eighty-four,  in  1882  to  one  hundred  and  nineteen, 
and  in  1904  to  one  hundred  and  fifty-three ;  and  to-day  there  is  no  county 
and  hardly  a  single  town  that  has  not  at  least  one  homoeopathic  physician. 
And  this  is  not  all ;  in  less  than  fifteen  years  after  Vanderburgh's  first  cure, 
the  hardly  more  than  two  score  homoeopathic  practitioners  took  steps  to  organ- 
ize their  forces  for  mutual  protection  and  advantage  and  proceeded  to  form 
a  state  medical  society. 


The  first  society  of  homeopathic  physicians  in  Connecticut  was  formed 
in  Hartford,  November  17,  1851,  and  was  known  as  the  Connecticut  Institute 
of  liDmrieopathy.  At  this  meeting  seven  pioneers  of  the  new  system  were 
in  attendance.  They  were  Drs.  Jeremiah  T.  Dennison,  of  Fairfield ;  W.  W. 
Rodman,  of  Waterbury ;  W.  C.  B,ell,  of  Middletown ;  C.  H.  Skiff  and  E.  T. 
F^oote,  of  New  Haven;  and  C.  A.  Taft  and  George  S.  Greene,  of  Hartford. 
Dr.  Dennison  was  elected  president,  Dr.  Rodman  vice-president.  Dr.  Greene 
secretary,  and  Dr.  Skiff'  treasurer.  At  the  same  time  the  constitution  and  by- 
laws were  presented  and  adopted.  At  a  meeting  held  June  10.  1864,  a  reor- 
ganization was  effected,  and  the  society  was  incorporated  under  the  name  of 
Connecticut  Homoeopathic  Medical  Society.  A  new  constitution  was  adopted 
in  1880.  Since  1891  the  annual  transactions  have  been  published,  as  also  have 
several  of  the  important  addresses  by  presidents.  On  November  18-19,  1901, 
the  society  celebrated  its  semi-centennial  at  Hartford.  Addresses  were  made 
by  distinguished  physicians  of  various  states,  and  the  occasion  was  otherwise 
enlivened  with  social  entertainments.  In  1904  the  membership  of  the  society 
numbercil  one  hundred  arid  five. 


'Die  New  Haven  Homoeopathic  Medical  Society  was  organized  Febru- 
ary 24,  1887,  at  the  residence  of  Di.  C.  B.  Adams  in  the  city  of  New  Haven. 
The  societv  is  not  incorporated. 

Grace  Homoeopathic  ^Medical  Society  of  New  Haven  was  incorporated 
June  21,  1889,  and  at  once  became  an  active  organization  in  promoting  the 
interests  of  the  homoeopathic  profession  in  Connecticut, 

Grace  Homoeo])athic  Hospital  at  Hartford,  the  first  institution  of  its  kind 
in  the  state,  originated  in  a  movement  started  in  1888  and  consummated  in 
the  formal  openmg  which  took  place  in  September,  1892.  The  hospital  asso- 
ciation was  incorporated  by  the  legislature  in  1888,  and  the  state  appropri- 
ated $20,000  for  the  benefit  of  the  hospital  on  condition  that  a  like  sum  be 
raised  by  subscription.  This  was  accomplished,  and  with  the  fund  thus  created 
the  trustees  purchased  the  old  Mallory  property  on  West  Chapel  street.  The 
building  was  arranged  for  its  new  occupancy,  and  was  furnished  through  the 
agency  of  the  women's  hospital  board,  the  society  of  the  King's  Sons  and 
Daughters  and  the  Ladies'  Aid  Society.  The  hospital  property  is  valued  at 
$100,000.  The  institution  is  supported'  by  state  aid,  pay  patients  and  volun- 
tary contributions.     The  training  school  for  nurses  w^as  established  in  1895, 

As  has  been  stated,  the  first  homoeopathic  prescription  in  Connecticut 
was  made  by  Dr,  Federal  Vanderburgh.  In  1837  Dr,  George  Taylor's  wdfe 
was  threatened  with  consumption,  and  her  husband  and  other  physicians  had 
prescribed  remedies  without  relief.  About  that  time  Vanderburgh,  an  old 
friend  of  Dr.  Taylor's,  visited  New  Milford,  and  learning  of  the  sickness  of 
Mrs.  Taylor,  proposed  prescribing  homoeopathically  for  her.  Dr.  Taylor,  an 
allopath,  at  last  consented  to  this,  and  contrary  to  his  expectation,  his  wife  im- 
proved and  eventually  was  restored  to  heaith.  Dr.  Taylor  then  began  to 
investigate  homoeopathy  and  to  test  it  until  about  1839  or  1840,  when  he  be- 
came a  convert  to  its  practice.  He  was  born  in  New  Milford  in  1802,  and 
graduated  from  the  medical  department  of  Yale  College  in  1824,  at  once 
beginning  practice  in  his  native  town.  When  his  allopathic  friends  realized 
that  he  was  practicing  the  new  medical  system,  he  was  dismissed  from  the 
medical  society  and  further  consultations  with  him  were  refused.  He  was 
the  first  homoeopathic  physician  in  Connecticut,  and  practiced  for  many  years 
in  New  Milford. 

Charles  Taylor,  the  son  of  George  Taylor,  graduated  at  Geneva  Medical 
College  and  in  1852  practiced  with  his  father  at  New  Milford.  He  repre- 
sented his  town  in  the  general  assembly  four  years  and  held  other  offices.  He 
died  July  4,  1890. 

Hartford  was  the  second  town  in  Connecticut  in  which  homoeopathy  w^as 
introduced.  In  1842  Dr.  Gustavus  M.  Taft  located  there.  He  was  born  in 
Dedham,  Mass.,  December  7,  1820,  read  medicine  with  Dr.  Josiah  Flagg  of. 
Boston,  and  later  with  Drs.  Hull  and  Gray  of  New  York.  He  graduated  at 
the  University  of  New  York  in  1842,  and  at  once  began  to  practice  in  Hart- 
ford. His  health  failed  and  he  went  south,  locating  in  New  Orleans  in  Novem- 
ber, 1845.  He  died  of  yellow  fever  August  10,  1847,  aged  twenty-seven 

Dr.  Cincinnatus  A.  Taft,  brother  of  Gustavus  M.  Taft,  graduated  from 
the  College  of  Physicians  and  Surgeons  of  New  York  in  1846,  and  settled  in 
Hartford  the  same  year.  He  had  studied  with  his  brothers  and  was  the  third 
homoeopathic  physician  to  locate  in  Hartford  and  the  seventh  in  the  state.  He 
became  one  of  tlie  leading  physicians  of  Connecticut.     He  died  June  26,  1884. 


Dr.  John  Schue,.  the  next  of  the  Hartford  pioneers,  was  a  native  of  Ger- 
many, born  in  1815,  and  came  to  New  York  in  1839.  He  entered  the  office  of 
Drs.  Hull  and  Gray  to  learn  English  and  study  homoeopathy.  He  graduated 
at  the  College  of  Physicians  and  Surgeons  in  1842,  practiced  in  New  York 
until  1844,  then  went  to  Hartford  and  formed  a  partnership  with  Dr.  Gus- 
tavus  M.  Taft.  He  remained  there  m  practice  until  his  death,  September  25, 
1856.  He  joined  the  institute  in  1846.  Dr.  Schue  lost  his  wife  in  1855, 
which  so  depressed  him  that  he  himself  died  soon  afterward.  ■ 

Dr.  Gardner  S.  Browne  commenced  to  practice  in  Hartford  about  1867, 
and  died  there  December  29,  1876.  He  was  a  graduate  of  the  University  of 
New  York.  Dr.  George  Starr  Green  graduated  at  the  University  of  New 
York  in  1848.  He  became  partner  with  Dr.  A.  Cook  Hull  in  Brooklyn,  where 
he  began  the  practice  of  homoeopathy  in  1849.  He  removed  to  Hartford, 
January  i,  1851.  Dr.  Harvey  Cole  came  from  Pittsfield,' Mass.,  and  located 
in  Hartford  in  1868.  Dr.  James  D.  Johnson  opened  an  office  in  Hartford  in 
1869.  Hg  was  a  graduate  of  Bellevue  Hospital  Medical  College.  Drs.  Irving 
M.  Lyon  and  S.  Giles  Tucker  were  in  practice  there  in  1870.  Dr.  M.  P.  Hay- 
ward,  a  graduate  of  the  Homoeopathic  Medical  College  of  Pennsylvania,  also 
practiced  in  Hartford  for  a  short  time,  going  thence  to  Ohio.  In  1856  Dr. 
H.  T.  Brownell  and  Russell  Caulkins  were  located  in  Hartford.  In  1857,  there 
were  six  homoeopathic  physicians  m  the  city;  in  1870,  seven;  in  1882,  eleven, 
and  in  1904,  nineteen. 

Dr.  Edward  Wilberforce  Kellogg  was  born  at  Avon,  Conn.,  November 
29,  1840,  and  at  the  age  of  twelve  years  went  to  Philadelphia  to  attend  school. 
He  returned  home  in  a  few  years  and  entered  the  high  school  at  Collins- 
ville,  from  which  he  graduated.  At  this  time  he  had  no  thought  of  medicine, 
but  was  devoting  his  attention  to  musical  study.  Early  during  the  war  of 
1861-65,  he  enlisted,  and  while  awaiting  orders  near  New  London,  he  was 
offered  a  position  as  hospital  steward  at  Fort  Trumbull.  Dr.  Isaac  G.  Por- 
ter was  surgeon  at  this  hospital  and  young  Kellogg  was  associated  with  him 
for  three  years  as  assistant  and  pupil.  He  was  honorably  discharged  in 
November,  1865,  and  then  entered  Bellevue  Hospital  Medical  College,  but 
after  a  year  matriculated  at  the  New  York  Homoeopathic  Medical  College, 
where  he  graduated  in  1867.  He  located  at  Danbury,  remained  there  one  year 
and  then  went  to  Southington,  where  he  practiced  until  1871.  In  May,  1871, 
he  removed  to  Hartford.  On  March  7,  1867,  he  married  Hilah  A.  Dart  of 
New  London.  In  1857  there  were  in  Hartford,  Drs.  Gardner  S.  Browne,  F. 
Brownell,  H.  T.  Brownell,  Russell  Caulkins,  George  S.  Green  and  Cincin- 
natus  A.  Taft. 

The  pioneer  homoeopath  in  New  Haven  and  the  fourth  physician  of  that 
school  in  the  state,  was  Dr.  Charles  H.  Skiff,  who  was  born  at  Spencertown, 
Columbia  county,  N.  Y.,  May  17,  1808,  and  graduated  at  the  Berkshire  Medi- 
cal School,  September  5,  1832.  He  married  Rachel  McKinstry  of  Livingston, 
N.  Y.,  October  17,  1833.  He  began  the  practice  of  homoeopathy  in  Spencer- 
town in  1840,  and  removed  to  Albany  in  1842.  He  went  to  New  Haven  in 
1843  ^i^d  remained  there  until  his  death,  December  11,  1875. 

Dr.  Daniel  W.  North rup  was  the  fourth  homoeopath  in  the  state,  having 
begun  practice  at  Sherman,  Fairfield  county,  in  1843.  I^r.  Daniel  Holt,  an- 
other pioneer  in  New  Ha.ven,  was  born  at  Hampton,  July  2,  1810.  He  was 
educated  at  Ashford  and  Amherst  academies  and  in  1831  entered  the  scien- 
tific department  of  Yale.     Later  on  he  studied  medicine  with  Dr.  Hiram  Holt 


of  Pomfret,  and  graduated  from  the  Yale  Medical  School  in  1835.  He  located 
at  Glastonbury,  where  he  acquired  an  extensive  practice.  He  received  a 
prize  from  the  Connecticut  Medical  Society  for  an  essay  on  scarlatina,  and 
was  author  of  several  noteworthy  papers.  In  1845  he  was  appointed  to  prepare 
a  paper  for  the  state  medical  society.  Homoeopathy  soon  attracted  his  atten- 
tion and  he  employed  the  opportunity  to  demonstrate  its  absurdity.  After  care- 
ful study,  and  experimenting-  with  its  remedies,  he  became  convinced  of  its 
truth,  and  then  published  his  essay  "  Views  of  Homoeopathy  or  Reasons  for 
Examining  and  Admitting  it  as  a  Principle  in  Medicine."  This  was  pub- 
lished in  New  Haven  in  1845.  During  this  year  he  went  to  New  Haven  and 
studied  homoeopathy  with  Dr.  Skiff,  and  afterward  practiced  it,  making  fre- 
quent trips  to  New  York  to  consult  with  Gray,  Hull,  Vanderburgh,  Joslin, 
Wells  and  others.  Because  of  his  change  in  faith  he  was  expelled  from  the 
New  Haven  Medical  Association,  but  afterward  three  of  his  prosecutors 
adopted  homoeopathv.    In  1845  Dr.  Holt  went  to  Lowell,  Mass. 

Dr.  Elial  ToddFoote  was  born  in  Greenfield,  Mass.,  in  May,  1796.  He 
studied  medicine  with  Dr.  Samuel  Guthrie  of  Sherburne,  N.  Y.,  and  was 
licensed  by  the  Qienango  County  Medical  Society  in  181 5.  He  went  to  Chau- 
tauqua county,  locating  in  what  was  afterward  Jamestown,  but  which  then  had 
no  name.  In  June,  1818,  he  was  chairman  of  a  meeting  of  physicians  of 
the  county  called  to  organize  the  Chautauqua  County  Medical  Society,  and 
was  the  first  president  of  that  body.  In  1827  he  became  a  permanent  member 
of  the  New  York  Medical  Society.  Before  he  left  New  York  Dr.  Foote  had 
become  interested  in  homoeopathy  as  practiced  by  Dr.  Alfred  W.  Gray,  brother 
of  Dr.  John  F.  Gray,  and  he  became  a  homoeopath  in  1840.  It  is  not  known 
just  when  he  located  in  New  Haven.  He  became  a  member  of  the  American 
Institute  of  Homoeopathy  in  1850.  When  the  Connecticut  Homoeopathic  Med- 
ical Society  was  reorganized  in  1864  Dr.  Foote  delivered  the  inaugural  ad- 
dress, which  was  largely  historical  regarding  homoeopathy  in  the  state.  He 
died  at  New  Haven  November  17,  1877. 

Charles  Cheney  Foote,  son  of  Dr.  Elial  Foote,  was  born  in  Jamestown, 
N.  Y.,  September  6,  1825,  graduated  at  Union  College  in  1849,  read  medicine 
with  his  father,  and  in  1850  attended  medical  lectures  at  the  College  of  Physi- 
cians and  Surgeons  of  New  York.  He  also  attended  lectures  at  Jefferson 
Medical  College  of  Philadelphia,  graduating  there  in  185 1.  He  began  to 
practice  in  New  FTaven,  and  for  two  years  was  associated  with  his  father. 
He  died  November  9,  1871. 

Dr.  Paul  C.  Skiff  was  in  practice  in  New  Haven  in  1870.  He  was  a 
graduate  of  Yale.  Dr.  Charles  W.  Skiff,  his  son,  graduated  from  the  New 
York  Homoeopathic  Medical  College  in  1861,  practiced  with  his  father  in 
Brooklyn,  and  returned  with  him  to  New  Haven  in  1862.  He  remained  but 
a  short  time  in  practice.  In  1861  Dr.  W.  W.  Rodman  located  in  New  Haven. 
In  1857  there  were  but  four  homoeopaths  in  that  city;  in'  1870,  six;  in  1878, 

Dr.  Oscar  Sceitz  began  the  practice  of  homoeopathy  in  New  London  in 
1845.  Dr.  Nathaniel  Otis  Harris  practiced  there  from,  1854  to  1857,  when  he 
went  to  East  Haddam.  He  graduated  at  the  New  York  L^niversity  Medical 
College  in  1854  and  went  at  once  to  New  London,  remaining  until  1857,  when 
he  located  in  East  Haddam.     He  studied  homoeopathy  with  Dr.  J.  T.  Evans. 

In  1847  Dr.  Lucien  H.  Morton  opened  an  office  at  Bridgeport  and  was 
the  homoeopathic  pioneer  m  Fairfield  county.   He  was  a  graduate   of  Berk- 


shire  Medical  College.  Dr.  Charles  Taylor  practiced  in  Bridgeport  for  one 
year  and  went  to  New  Milford. 

In  1859  ^^-  Charles  E.  Sanford  went  to  Bridgeport  from  Bristol.  He 
was  born  in  North  Haven,  May  31,  1830,  and  gradnated  from  Yale  Medical 
School  in  1853.  He  studied  mecUcine  with  his  brother-in-law,  Dr.  G.  A. 
Moody  of  Plain ville.  After  graduation  he  returned  to  Plainville,  entering  into 
partnership  with  his  preceptor  and  remained  there  two  years.  In  1855  he 
married  Anna  F.  Neale  and  about  that  time  entered  mercantile  pursuits  in 
New  York,  but  soon  returned  to  his  profession.  During  his  stay  in  New  York 
Dr.  Sanford  became  acquainted  with  homoeopathy  and  was  impelled  while 
living  with  an  old  friend  in  Brooklyn  to  investigate,  resulting  in  his  complete 
conversion  to  its  principles.  In  1870  Dr.  Sanford  wrote:  "My  present  ad- 
dress is  Bridgeport,  where  I  have  resided  since  1859.  Previous  to  that  time 
1  practiced  medicine  in  Plainville  and  Bristol.  1  began  to  practice  homoe- 
opathy in  1858." 

Dr.  James  H.  Osborne  was  located  at  Bridgeport  in  1870.  He  gradu- 
ated from  the  New  York  Homoeopathic  College  in  1867.  Dr.  Oliver  Brew- 
ster Taylor  graduated  at  Harvard  Medical  School  in  1842,  and  began  the 
practice  of  homoeopathy  in  1848  at  Dana,  Mass.  In  1849  ^"^^  went  to  i'dan- 
chester,  where  for  many  years  he  was  the  only  homoeopathic  physician. 

Dr.  William  Campbell  Bell  was  an  early  practitioner  at  Middletown.  He 
was  born  in  Chester,  Mass.,  September  6,  1806,  and  attended  school  at  Ches- 
ter and  Westfield  academies.  He  studied  medicine  in  Chester  under  Drs.  Hor- 
ace Ballard  and  T.  K.  DeWolf,  and  afterward  with  Dr.  T.  Childs  at  Pitts- 
field.  He  attended  medical  lectures  at  Woodstock,  Vt.,  and  at  Pittsfield,  Mass., 
graduating  from  the  Berkshire  Medical  College  in  1833.  He  began  allopathic 
practice  at  Austerlitz,  N.  Y.,  and  after  ten  years  adopted  the  homoeopathic 
system.  In  1850  he  located  at  Housatonic,  Mass.,  where  he  remained  six 
years,  then  he  removed  to  Middletown,  where  he.  remained  for  over  forty 
years.  In  1833  he  married  Charlotte  Maria  Boise,  of  Chester.  Dr.  Bell  re- 
tired from  practice  in  the  spring  of  1891  and  went  to  live  at  Blandford,  Mass., 
where  he  died  October  12,  1894.  Drs.  G.  W.  Burroughs  and  G.  B.  Smith 
practiced  in  Middletown  for  a  time.  Dr.  Aaron  S.  Osborne  and  Julius  Gnod- 
inger  were  practicing  in  Middletown  in  1878. 

Dr.  George  Pitkin  Cooley  was  practicing  homoeopathy  in  Bristol  as  early 
as  1854.  He  was  born  in  Manchester,  November  28,  1830,  the  son  of  Dr. 
William  Cooley  of  Hartford  county.  In  1850  he  became  a  student  of  Dr. 
Gustavus  A.  Taft  of  Hartford,  attended  lectures  at  the  New  York  Homoe- 
opathic Medical  College,  and  at  the  Homoeopathic  Medical  College  of  Penn- 
sylvania during  the  session  of  1853-54.  He  received  a  special  degree  from 
that  college  in  1862.  In  1854  he  entered  into  practice  at  Bristol,  but  after 
four  years  removed  to  New  Britain,  where  he  located  permanently.  In  April, 
1865,  he  married  Lucy  A.  Peck  of  New  York. 

Dr.  James  H.  Austin  practiced  homoeopathy  in  Bristol  as  early  as  1850. 
He  was  born  in  Suffield,  Conn.,  in  1824,  began  the  study  of  medicine  when 
about  twenty  years  old,  and  graduated  at  the  Berkshire  Medical  College  in 
1847.  He  located  at  Bristol  in  1.848,  and  for  ten  years  was  faithful  to  the 
medical  system  in  which  he  was  educated.  He  is  said  to  have  embraced 
homoeopathy  about  1858.  He  died  March  2^,  1873.  In  1870  Dr.  Edward  P. 
Woodward  was  in  practice  at  Bristol. 

Dr.   Asa   W.   Brown  located   at  Mvstic  Bridge,   New  London  countv.  in 


1855.  He  was  born  in  Sterling:,  Windham  county,  Conn.,  September  28,  1813, 
studied  at  Brooklyn  Academy,  j^raduated  at  the  Western  College  of  Homoe- 
opathic Medicine  in  1853.  practiced  two  years  at  Centreville,  R.  I^  and  then 
settled  at  Mystic  Bridge,  where  he  remained  until  1873,  when  he  removed 
to  Providence,  R.  I. 

Rev.  Moses  Hill  introduced  homoeopathy  in  Norwalk,  Fairfield  county, 
in  1855.  In  1870  Dr.  Mosman  was  the  only  homoeopath  in  Norwalk,  and  in 
1875,  Dexter  Hitchcock  and  Nathan  A.  Mosman  were  practicing  there.  In 
1882,  A.  H.  Baldwin,  G.  S.  Comstock  and  Dexter  Hitchcock  were  practicing 
in  that  city.  Dr.  Mosman  graduated  in  medicine  in  New  York  in  1861,  and 
soon  afterward  located  at  Norwalk.  In  1879  ^""^  went  to  New  York  city. 
Dr.  Dexter  Hitchcock  graduated  from  the  New  York  Homoeopathic  Medical 
College  in  1873,  settling  soon  afterward  in  Norwalk.  He  joined  the  institute 
in  1873.  He  has  for  manv  vears  been  referred  to  as  "Dr.  Hitchcock  of  Nor- 

Dr.  William  E.  Bulkeley  was  for  many  years  associated  with  the  history 
of  homoeopathy  in  Danburv'.  He  was  born  in  Colchester,  Conn.,  October  9, 
1796.  At  the  age  of  eighteen  he  went  to  West  Virginia,  taught  school,  and 
studied  medicine  with  a  prominent  physician  of  that  region.  Having  earned 
enough  money  to  pay  his  way  he  attended  medical  lectures  at  Yale  College. 
Dr.  Bulkeley  practiced  as  an  allopath  four  years  in  Berkshire  county,  Mass., 
and  twenty  years  in  Hillsdale,  Columbia,  county,  before  he  located  in  Dan- 
bury,  and  about  1853  began  the  practice  of  liomoeopathy.  He  joined  the 
American  Institute  of  Homoeopathy  in  1859.  ^^  remained  in  Danbury  until 
his  death,  June  14,  1870.  In  1870  his  son,  Dr.  J.  C.  Bulkeley,  was  associated 
in  practice  with  him. 

In  1857,  Dr.  R.  W.  Rockwell  wa's  practicing  in  Danbury.  In  1875  there 
were  in  practice  in  that  city,  Drs.  William  Bulkeley,  Rev.  D.  M.  Hodge  and 
Sophia  Penfield ;  in  1882,  Drs.  Bulkeley,  S.  M.  Grifitin,  Sophia  Penfield  and 
O.  L.  Jenkins.  Dr.  Rockwell  went  to  Danbury  in  1856,  and  afterward  re- 
moved to  Brooklyn. 

Dr.  Henry  E.  Stone,  a  graduate  of  Castleton  Medical  College  in  1847, 
removed  from  Otego,  N.  Y.,  to  Fair  Haven,  New  Haven  county,  in  1857. 
He  was  born  in  Danbury,  July  20,  1820,  and  in  1840  his  family  went  to  Otego, 
N.  Y.  In  Otego,-  Dr.  Solomon  Green,  a  leading  physician  of  the  place, 
became  interested  in  young  Stone  and  induced  him  to  study  medicine.  Hav- 
ing graduated  at  Castleton,  he  commenced  practice  at  Otego  with  his  pre- 
ceptor. His  attention  was  directed  to  homoeopathy  by  Dr.  I.  S.  Huett,  of 
JMilwaukee,  and  for  two  or  three  years  he  investigated  and  finally  embraced 
its  methods.  Remaining  in  Otego  until  the  spring  of  1856,  he  sold  his  prac- 
tice to  Dr.  Warren  and  located  in  Fair  Haven,  Conn.,  where  he  afterward 
resided,  and  where  he  <lied  January  27,  1886.  Dr.  Stone  married  Amanda 
Cunningham  of  Otego,  September  3,  1851. 

Dr.  Lester  Keep  had  been  practicing  homoeopathy  in  Fair  Haven  prior 
to  1857.  I^e  was  born  in  Lee,  Mass.,  September  6,  1797,  was  educated  there, 
and  fitted  for  college  by  Rev.  Alvan  Hyde.  In  the  fall  of  1821  he  entered  Will- 
iams College,  but  soon  afterward  financial  troubles  made  it  necessary  for  him 
to  earn  his  way.  until  in  his  junior  vear  when  certain  students,  he  among' 
them,  were  caught  at  "college  pranks,"  and  were  suspended  for  three  weeks. 
Pie  then  abandoned  his  college  course  and  entered  the  office  of  Drs.  Child  and 
Batclielder.    of    I'ittsficld.    and    lu'came   a   member   of   the    Berkshire    ^Medical 


Institution,  a  branch  of  Williams  College,  then  in  its  second  year.  There  he 
remained  three  years,  supporting  himself  by  services  to  the  college  and  assist- 
ing his  preceptors  who  were  of  the  faculty.  While  awaiting  the  means  to 
graduate  he  received  an  offer  of  assistance  from  Dr.  Luther  Ticknor,  of  Salis- 
bury, in  return  for  services  that  he  could  render  in  practice.  Dr.  John  Del- 
amater  being  called  to  the  chairs  of  anatomy  and  surgery  in  the  Medical  Col- 
lege at  Fairfield.  N.  Y.,  induced  Keep  to  go  with  him  as  demonstrator  and 
prosector.  At  this  school  he  graduated  in  1828.  For  a  year  afterward  he 
associated  with  Dr.  Jefferson  Church,  of  Springfield,  Mass.,  but  left  him  to 
attend  Dr.  Tully's  lectures  on  materia  medica  and  therapeutics  at  the  Yale 
Medical  School..  Dr.  Keep  settled  in  Fair  Haven,  and  while  his  practice  was 
growing  he  opened  a  pharmacy  and  maintained  it  in  connection  with  the  vil- 
lage postoffice  for  several  years.  Business  matters  occasionally  called  him  to 
New  York,  and  on  one  of  his  visits  there  met  an  old  friend,  Dr.  Ticknor,  who 
had  become  a  homceopath,  and  through  whose  ministrations  Keep  himself 
was  induced  to  abandon  the  old  school  of  practice  for  that  founded  by  Hahne- 
mann. This  was  in  1839,  ^^  which  time  Dr.  Keep  was  a  member  of  the  New 
Haven  County  Medical  Society,  the  New  Haven  City  Association  of  Physi- 
cians, and  a  fellow  of  the  Connecticut  State  Medical  Society.  He  sold  his 
drug  store,  resigned  from  the  societies,  and  announced  himself  a  homoeopath. 
He  joined  the  American  Institute  of  Homoeopathy  in  1848.  He  continued  to 
practice  in  Fair  Haven  until  i860,  when  he  moved  to  Brooklyn.  In  1873  he 
suffered  an  attack  of  apoplectic  paralysis,  and  though  he  largely  recovered  from 
the  stroke,  he  did  not  aeain  return  to  active  practice.  He  died  August  20, 
1882.  Drs.  J.  Lester  Keep  and  S.  H.  Keep  are  sons  of  Dr.  Lester  Keep's 
second  marriage. 

Dr.  G.  Herrick  Wilson,  a  graduate"  of  the  Berkshire  Medical  College  in 
1849,  after  practicing  in  North  Adams  and  Conway,  Mass.,  located  in  West 
Meridan.  Conn.,  in  1857.  In  1869,  Dr.  E.  C.  Newport,  a  graduate  in  1868 
of  the  New  York  Homoeopathic  Medical  College,  went  from  Holyoke,  Mass., 
to  West  Meriden.  About  the  same  time.  Dr.  L.  E.  Phelps,  from  Michigan, 
opened  an  ofiice  there.  In  1882  Drs.  C.  J.  Mansfield,  E.  A.  Wilson  and  G. 
H.  Wilson  were  in  Meriden,  and  in  1857  Dr.  W.  N.  Dunham  was  located 

Dr.  Henry  Isham  introduced  homoeopathy  into  New  Britain  before  1857. 
He  died  in  1868,  and  in  the  next  year  Dr.  Charles  Vishno,  a  graduate  in  1866 
of  the  New  York  Llomoeopathic  Medical  College,  located  there,  but  afterward 
went  to  Hartford.  In  1875,  Drs.  G.  P.  Cooley,  Leander  P.  Jones,  L.  M. 
Smith  and  J.  S.  Stone  were  located  in  New  Britain.  In  1882,  Drs.  Cooley, 
Goodrich,  Seymour  and  Stone  were  practicing  there. 

Dr.  William  Woodbridge  Rodman  introduced  homoeopathy  into  Water- 
bury.  Lie  was  born  in  Stonington,  Conn.,  in  April,  1817,  graduated  at  Yale 
in  1838,  and  entering  Jefferson  Medical  College  of  Philadelphia  received  his 
degree  there  in  1844.  In  November  of  that  year  he  began  practice  in  Water- 
bury,  but  in  1848  became  convinced  of  the  truth  of  homoeopathy  by  careful 
study  and  practical  use  of  its  remedies,  and  adopted  it  in  his  practice.  He 
was  in  consequence  expelled  from  the  Connecticut  Medical  Society.  In  1861 
he  removed  to  New  Haven. 

Dr.  Flam  Clark  Knight  graduated  from  the  Berkshire  Medical  College 
in  1845,  and  located  at  Slatersville,  R.  I.  His  conversion  to  homoeopathy  and 
introduction   to  Waterbury    are   best   told   in   his   own   words    (1870)  :    "My 


attention  was  called  to  homoeopathic  practice  during  the  last  year  of  my  medi- 
cal studies  by  coming  in  contact  with  two  homoeopathic  students  in  the  same 
class  with  myself.  But  I  gave  no  serious  attention  to  the  subject  till  1852. 
About  this  time  the  old  school  medical  journals  were  constantly  ridiculing  the 
new  system  of  practice.  I  thought  to  myself  if  there  was  no  better  arguments 
against  homoeopathy  than  mean  ridicule,  and  silly  at  that,  there  must  be  some- 
thing in  it,  and  I  would  examine  for  myself.  Accordingly  I  applied  to  Dr. 
Amory  Gale,  then  of  Woonsocket,  R.  I.,  and  asked  his  advice  and  assistance, 
which  he  readily  gave  by  lending  me  books  and  otherwise.  After  about  a 
year  of  studv  and  experimental  practice,  I  removed  to  Middleborough,  Mass., 
early  in  1853.  There  I  was  the  first  one  to  locate  and  successfully  introduce 
homoeopathy.  There  I  found  a  few  families  who  had  been  treated  homoe- 
opathically  by  Dr.  J.  T.  Harris,  of  East  Bridgewater,  and  Dr.  Barrows,  of 
Taunton,  Mass.  They  formed  a  nucleus  around  which  I  soon  built  up  a  good 

"  In  1857  having  a  little  more  of  the  western  fever  than  was  for  my  good, 
I  moved  to  Ouincy,  111,  but"  not  finding  everything  to  my  satisfaction,  returned 
to  New  England  after  about  two  years  and  a  half.  In  i860  Dr.  W.  \V.  Rod- 
man left  Waterbury  for  New  Haven,  and  the  June  following  I  took  his  place 
here,  where  I  still  remain.  I  was  alone  here  till  after  the  severe  injuries  I  re- 
ceived in  November,  1865.  In  1867  Dr.  Tripp  came  here  and  remained  a  little 
less  than  a  year.  He  w^as  followed  by  Dr.  H.  R.  Brown,  who  remained  some- 
thing over  two  years.  x\t  the  present  time  homoeopathy  is  represented  by 
myself  and  Dr.  Charles  Rodman."  Dr.  Knight  was  a  member  of  the  old  Mas- 
sachusetts Fraternitv.  He  joined  the  American  Institute  of  Homoeopathy  in 
1867.     He  died  suddenly  at  Woodbury,  March  21,  1888. 

Dr.  Henry  R.  Brown,  a  graduate' in  1867  of  the  New  York  Homoeopathic 
Medical  College,  located  first  at  Waterbury,  but  soon  went  to  Leominster, 
Mass.  Dr.  Charles  Shepard  Rodman,  a  son  of  Dr.  W.  W.  Rodman,  located 
at  Waterbury  in  i86q.  He  was  a  graduate  of  the  College  of  Physicians  and 
Surgeons.  He  was  still  there  in  1878.  but  in  1882  there  were  only  Drs.  E.  O. 
Gregory  and  George  P.  Swift  practicing  homoeopathy  in  that  city.  South- 
ington,  Hartford  county,  was  represented  in  homoeopathy  by  Dr.  Lucy  A. 
Hudson  as  early  as  1856.  In  1866  Dr.  Timothy  D.  Wadsworth,  a  graduate 
in  1866  of  the  New  York  Homoeopathic  Medical  College,  located  there,  re- 
moving to  St.  Louis,  Mo.,  in  1868.  He  w-as  succeeded  by  Dr.  Edward  W. 
Kellogg.  Dr.  Noah  Bvington  was  practicing  there  in  1870.  In  1882  Dr. 
James  H.  Osborne  and  C.  H.  Peterson  were  the  only  homoeopaths  in  that  city. 

In  1856  Drr,.  S.  M.  Fletcher  and  A.  Frank  w-ere  in  practice  at  Norwich, 
New  London  county.  Subsequently  Dr.  Fletcher  went  to  Westerly,  R.  I.,  and 
Dr.  Frank  to  Milton,  Vt.  Dr.  Jerome  Harris  practiced  at  Norsvich  and  went 
from  there  to  Woonsocket.  In  1865  Dr.  Anna  Manning  graduated  at  the 
New  York  Medical  College  for  Women,  and  located  at  Norwich  for  a  short 
time.  In  1867  Dr.  Herbert  IMartin  Bishop,  a  graduate  of  Yale,  w^ent  to  Nor- 
wich. He  was  born  in  New  London.  January  15,  1844.  studied  with  Dr.  O. 
Sites  and  graduated  at  Yale  Aledical  School  in  1865.  He  was  commissioned 
assistant  surgeon  of  the  First  Connecticut  cavalry,  and  was  in  service  through 
the  last  campaign  of  the  war.  Returning,  he  determined  to  study  homoeopathy, 
and  after  attending  lectures  at  the  New  York  Homoeopathic  Medical  College, 
graduated  in  1867.  In  March  of  that  year  he  settled  at  Norwich.  In  January, 
1869,   he   married    Ella    E.    Spalding.    He   joined   the    American    Institute  of 



Homoeopathy  in  1869.  In  1875  there  were  in  practice  there  Drs.  Herbert 
Martin  Bishop,  Jonathan  E.  Linnell  and  Samuel  Gibbs  Tucker;  in  1882,  Drs. 
Bishop,  Edward  H.  and  Jonathan  E.  Linnell,  John  Arnold  Rockwell  and  C. 
E.  Stark. 

Dr.  Albert  W.  Phillips  located  in  Birmingham  in  1861,  the  year  in  which 
he  graduated  from  Hahnemann  College  of  Chicago.  He  was  a  native  of  New 
York.  He  took  the  place  of  Dr.  Horace  Bowen,  who  formerly  practiced  in 

Dr.  Charles  W.  Ensign,  a  graduate  of  the  College  of  Physicians  and  Sur- 
geons in  1844,  located  the  same  year  at  Tariff ville.  He  was  born  in  West 
Hartland.  He  was  highly  esteemed  among  the  allopathic  fraternity,  being  a 
member  of  its  societies  until  1855,  when  he  became  a  homoeopath  and  was  then 
expelled  for  "  quackery."'  He  lived  in  Tariffville  until  his  death.  At  Strat- 
ford Dr.  Geliwitz  practiced  for  a  time,  then  went  to  New  York.  In  1857  Drs. 
Chauncey  Ayres  and  J.  P.  Mackins  were  in  practice  at  Stamford.  In  1875 
Drs.  Ayres,  George  F.  Foote  and  John  F.  Grififin  were  there;  in  1882,  Drs. 
Ayres,  Foote,  Phillips  and  C.  E.  and  E.  E.  Rowell.  Dr.  Foote  for  fifteen 
years  conducted  a  private  asylum  for  the  insane  and  for  victims  of  the  opium 

In  1857  Dr.  R.  B.  Bruce  was  located  at  Birmingham  ;  Dr.  S.  S.  Clark  at 
Plainville ;  Dr.  Jermiah  T.  Denison  at  Fairfield ;  Dr.  C.  Faill  at  Litchfield ; 
Dr.  C.  Gaylor  at  New  Milford;  Dr.  J.  E.  Lucas  at  Thompsonville ;  Dr.  C. 
Northrup  at  Sherman ;  Dr.  T.  Roberts  at  New  Canaan ;  Dr.  William  H.  Sage 
at  L^nionville ;  and  Dr.  Vail  at  Litchfield. 

The  first  homoeopathic  pharmacy  in  the  state  was  called  the  Good  Samari- 
tan drug  store  and  pharmacy.  It  was  opened  in  Hartford  by  Dr.  Blake, 
who  sold  to  Dr.  Preston,  and  he  in  turn  to  Dr.  George  Curtis.  On  September 
5,  1881,  Dr.  Curtis  sold  to  William  C.  Messenger,  who  conducted  the  store 
for  three  years.  In  1857  Dr.  Gardner  S.  Browne  conducted  a  pharmacy  in 

Honiocopatliic  physicians  in  Con-nccficnt  preznons  to  i860.  The  date  pre- 
ceding the  name  indicates  the  year  the  physician  began  the  practice  of  homoe- 
opathy. The  character  *  indicates  that  the  practitioner  originally  was  of  some 
other  school ;  the  character  x  indicates  that  the  physician  practiced  medicine 
before  the  date  given. 

1857  Ayres,    C.  x     Stamford  1857 

1850  Austin,   James   H.  *     Bristol  1855 

1843  Bell.    William    C.  *     Middletown  1857 

1857  Bulkeley,   J.    C.  x     Danbury  1856 

1837  Bulkeley,   W.   E.  *     Danbury  1851 

Burroughs,    G.   W.     Middletown  1840 

1857  Bruce,   R.  B.  x     North    Bennington         1857 

1857  Browne,    Gardner    S.  x     Hartford  1857 

1856  Brownell,    H.    T.  x     Hartford  1857 

1857  Brownell,    F.  x     Hartford 

1853  Brown,   Asa   W.     Mystic    Bridge  1853 
Bowen,    Horace     Birmingham 

1856  Caulkins,  Russell  x  Hartford  i849 
1850  Cole,  Harvey    Hartford  1854 

1854  Cooley,   George   P.     Bristol  1857 

1857  Clark,  S.  S.  x  Plainville  1855 
1850  Denison,  J.  T.  *  Fairfield  1845 
1854  Dunbar,    William    N.     IMeriden  1857 

Erving,    J.    F.  x     Hitchcockville 

Ensign,    Charles    W.  *     Tarriffville 

Faill,    C.  X     Litchfield 

Fletcher,    Samuel    M.     Norwich 

Foote,  Charles  C.     New  Haven 

Foote,   Elial  Todd  *     New   Haven 

Frank,  A.  x     Norwich 

Gaylor,   G.  x     New  Milford 

Geliwitz,   G.  x     Stratford 

Gnodinger,  Julius 

Green,    George    S.  *     Hartford 

Griffin,  S.  M. 

Harris,    Jerome  *     Norwich 

Harris,   Nathaniel  O.     East   Haddam 

Hayward.   Milton    P.     Hartford 

Hill,    Moses    (Rev.)     Norwalk 

Holt,   Daniel  *     New   Haven 

Hudson,    Luc}'^    A.  x     Southington 



i.S^7  l-^Iiam,    Henry  x     Now    llritain 

Jenkins,  ().   L. 

i<S,vj  Keep.    Lester  *     l-'air    Haven 

tS5j  Knight,    Elam    C.  *     Waterbury 

I1S57  Lueas,   J.    E.  x     'i'iiompsonville 

I.St 3  Linnell,   Jonatlian    E.  *     Norwich 

1865  Lyon.    Irving    \V.  *     Hartford 

1857  Mackins,    J.    P.  x     Stamford 

1857  Northrop,    C.  x     Sherman 

1S42  Northrop,     Danirl     W.  *     Sherman 

1844  Norton,   Lucian    H.      I'.ridgeport 

1846  Osgood,    David  * 

•,H^7  Pratt,   A.  x     Clicsler 

1857  Rnl)erts,    T.   x     New    Canaan 

1857  Rockwell,    R.    VV.  x     Danbury 

1848  Rodman,    William    W.  *     Waterbury 

1856  Sage,    W.    H.  3     Unionville 

1845  Sceitz,    Oscar     New    London 

1858  Sanford,    Charles     E.  *     Bridgeport 

1841  Skiff,    Charles    H.  *     New    Haven 

1842  Schue,  John     Hartford 

1850  Stone,   Henry   E.  *     Fair   Haven 

7846  Taft,    Cincinnatus    A.     Hartford 

1842  Taft,    Gustavus    ^L     Hartford 

1837  Taylor,   George  *     New   Milford 

1848  Taylor,    Oliver    B.  *     Manchester 

1856  Vail,    Dr.  x     Litchfield 

1856  Wilson,  Grove  H.    x  *    West  ^^eriden 




By  Thomas  Lindsley  Bradford,  j\[.   D. 

How  the  Seed  was  First  Sown  in  the  Old  Bay  State — New  York  Furnishes  (he  Pioneer — 
Gregg  and  Flagg,  the  Standard  Bearers — Their  Followers  and  Proselytes — The 
Homoeopathic  Fraternity  of  Massachusetts — Its  Organization  and  Membership— The 
Massachusetts  Homoeopathic  Medical  Society — Brief  Allusion  to  Homoeopathic  In- 
stitutions, and  the  Pioneers  of  the  Profession  in  the  Several  Counties  of  the  Com- 

In  1838  homoeopathy  secured  a  foothold  in  three  states  in  which  the 
teachings  of  the  school,  although  heard  of,  had  not  before  been  given  practical 
investigation  by  qualified  practitioners.  These  states  were  Massachusetts, 
A^ermont  and  New  Jersey,  and  in  at  least  two  of  them  the  doctrine  of  Hahne- 
mann soon  extended  to  the  most  remote  counties  and  was  represented  by 
physicians  of  unusual  ability.  In  Massachusetts,  the  state  here  under  consid- 
eration, the  planting  of  the  homoeopathic  seed  was  accomplished  in  much  the 
same  manner  as  in  other  states,  and  was  the  result  of  enforced  conviction 
rather  than  original  desire  on  the  part  of  the  pioneers  to  practice  under  its 
teachings.  This  honor  in  Massachusetts  is  accorded  to  Dr.  Samuel  Gregg, 
who,  under  the  influence  of  Vanderburgh  of  New  York,  forsook  the  old 
method  of  practice  and  allied  himself  to  the  new  school  of  medicine,  which 
then  had  existed  on  this  side  of  the  Atlantic  hardly  more  than  ten  years. 

Vanderburgh  in  New  York  was  a  splendid  champion  of  the  system  of 
Hahnemann  and  one  of  its  ablest  exponents.  He,  too,  was  a  convert,  and  in 
later  years  was  instrumental  in  proselyting  many  other  old  school  practitioners 
and  bringing  them  within  the  homoeopathic  fold.  In  Massachusetts  his  first 
convert  was  Gregg,  and  in  the  old  Bay  state  the  new  disciple  took  up  the 
good  work  and  in  turn  spread  the  gospel  of  Hahnemann  even  into  its  remotest 
parts;  not  easily,  however,  and  not  without  hardships  and  sacrifices,  coupled 
with  the  severance  of  former  friendships;  for  we  are  told  that  Samuel  Gregg 
was  a  popular  personage  in  the  old  profession,  that  his  associates  and  fellows 
were  men  of  influence  in  the  social  and  political  world,  and  when  he  turned 
away  from  their  school  they,  too.  tiu-ned  from  him  and  no  longer  admitted 
him  to  their  councils,  but  in  sorrow  rather  than  in  wrath.  Yet  Gregg  plodded 
along  in  the  new  road  he  had  chosen,  blazing  the  way,  for  he  was  the  pioneer 
in  a  new  field.  In  1839  he  was  joined  by  Flagg,  and  then  by  Wild  and  Spooner 
and  Cutler  and  Clark  until  there  was  gathered  together  a  sufficient  number  of 
exemplars  to  form  the  little  society  they  called  the  Homoeopathic  Fraternity 
of  Massachusetts.  This  was  done  in  March,  1841,  and  from  that  time  the 
state  has  not  been  without  a  homcEopathic  medical  society. 

The  original  society  with  its  membership  of  six  was  the  nucleus  of  the 
Massachusetts  Homteopathic  Medical  Society,  which  came  into  life  in  1851, 
and  of  whicli  mention  is  made  in  this  chapter. 

The  members  of  the   Homoeonatliic   Fraternity  of  Massachusetts  during 

His'l'om' oi-  H()Mn':(~)i'.\Tiiv  211 

the  ten  years  of  its  existence  were  Samuel  Gre.c^.c^,  Josiali  F.  Flap,j:^.  John  Y\ 
Spooner,  Charles  Wild,  Willianii  W.  Cutler,  Luther  Clark,  Christopher  Minot 
Weld  and  Francis  Clark,  1841  :  William  Wesselhoeft,  William  In.q;alls.  Mil- 
ton Fuller,  Daniel  Swan.  Georo:e  Russell,  Robert  Capen  and  William  Gallup, 
1842;  John  A.  Tarbell,  1843;  James  M.  Cumminj^s,  Schleg-el,  Eben  Hale,  1844; 
Jehiel  Abbott,  George  Baker,  Daniel  Holt,  1845;  David  Osgood,  Isaac  Colby. 
Hiram  Luce  Chase  and  Horace  Dwight  Train,  1846;  Rufus  Shackford.  David 
Thayer  and  Christian  V.  Geist,  1847;  J-  L.  Martin.  Samuel  W.  Graves  and 
George  Barrows,  1848;  James  C.  Neilson,  1850. 

Since  that  time  Massachusetts  has  been  a  prolific  mother  of  homoeopathic 
societies,  and  each  offshoot  from  the  parent  body  has  done  good,  work  in 
spreading  the  doctrine  and  elevating  the  character  and  dignity  of  the  princi- 
ple it  represents. 


Massachusetts  was  early  in  the  field  with  the  work  of  organization.  In- 
deed, if  records  are  reliable,  it  was  onlv  two  years  after  the  system  was  planted 
in  the  state  that  a  few  homoeopathic  physicians  assembled  at  the  house  of  Dr. 
J.  P.  Spooner  in  Dorchester  in  1840  and  organized  the  fraternity  to  which 
reference  is  made  in  a  preceding  paragraph  :  and  this  action  was  the  founda- 
tion of  the  state  society  of  later  years.  The  fraternity  dates  its  history  from 
December  25,  1840.  and  at  a  later  meeting  at  the  house  of  Dr.  Wild  in  Brook- 
line,  on  Jaiauary  7,  1841.  the  subject  of  permanent  organization  was  consid- 
ered, although  the  constitution  was  not  formally  adopted  and  signed  until 
I'Vbruary  16  following.  This  action  gave  real  life  to  the  Massachusetts 
Homoeopathic  Fraternity,  and  on  the  occasion  mentioned  ofificers  were  chosen 
to  direct  the  affairs  of  the  society.  Meetings  were  afterward  held  with  fair 
regularity,  and  the  fraternity  continued  to  grow  in  strength  and  usefulness 
until  its  membership  has  so  increased  that  stronger  and  more  formal  organi- 
zation became  necessarv.  At  the  monthly  meeting  held  March  18.  1856.  a 
committee  reported  that  a  petition  signed  by  fifty-one  phvsicians  had  been 
presented  to  the  legislature  asking  for  an  act  of  incorporation  for  an  organiza- 
tion to  be  known  as  the  Massachusetts  Homoeopathic  Medical  Society. 

The  act  prayed  for  seems  not  to  have  been  the  result  of  united  action 
of  the  fraternity  body,  but  of  a  majority  of  its  members  acting  independently 
and  with  the  approval  of  the  organization.  However,  the  act  was  passed  and 
became  a  law  May  19,  1855,  ^^^  at  a  subsequent  meeting  held  by  the  frater- 
nity December  9.  1856,  the  old  pioneer  sccietv  passed  out  of  existence  and 
was  succeeded  by  the  present  state  organization.  The  new  society  held  sev- 
eral informal  meetings  to  settle  upon  a  plan  of  permanent  organization,  and 
on  September  24,  1856,  elected  its  first  officers  as  follows:  Dr.  Samuel  Gregg 
of  Boston,  president ;  Dr.  Charles  Weld  of  Brookline  and  Dr.  William  Wes- 
selhoeft of  Boston,  vice-presidents ;  Dr.  G.  W.  Swazey  of  Springfield,  corre- 
sponding secretary ;  Dr.  David  Thaver  of  Boston,  recording  secretary ;  Dr. 
William  F.  Jackson  of  Roxburv,  treasurer ;  Dr.  George  Russell  of  Boston, 
librarian  ;  Drs.  C.  M.  Weld,  of  Jamaica  Plain,  and  B.  H.  West,  Luther  Clark, 
Milton  Fuller  and  L.  M.  Barker,  of  Boston,  censors. 

For  more  than  sixty-five  years  the  Homoeopathic  Medical  Society  of 
Massachusetts  has  been  regarded  as  the  mother  organization  of  the  profes- 
sion in  New  England,  and  has  exercised  an  influence  for  good  in  the  councils 
of  other  societies  in  that  commonwealth  and  also  in  other  states  east  of  the 



Hudson  river;  and  its  influence  and  voice  in  the  directive  affairs  of  the  Amer- 
ican Institute  of  Homoeopathy  have  been  welcomed  and  appreciated  by  the 
great  number  of  homoeopathic,  physicians  constituting  that  national  body.  On 
December  22,  1890,  the  society  celebrated  its  semi-centennial  anniversary,  and 
made  the  occasion  one  of  importance  in  the  homteopathic  history  of  Massa- 
chusetts. Since  1867  the  society  has  published  annual  transactions;  one  of 
the  earlier  volumes  contains  old  records  and  many  interesting  historical  data. 
The  society  also  has  published  numerous  pamphlets,  addresses,  directories, 
and  valuable  reports  and  statistics  on  homoeopathic  registration.  The  ]Dres- 
ent  membership  is  about  three  hundred  and  seventy-five  practitioners,  and 
every  one  a  physician  of  good  moral  and  professional  standing. 

Among  the  other  homoeopathic  societies,  some  of  which  are  no  longer 
in  existence,  mention  may  be  made  of  the  Boston  Academy  of  Homoeopathic 
Aledicine,,  organized  November  30,  1858,-  and  consolidated  in  May,  1873,  with 

Westloro  Hoimx>(^ijathic  Asylum  tor  Insane. 

the  [Boston  Homoeopathic  Society,  then  taking  the  name  of  Boston  Homoe- 
opathic Society;  The  Boston  Homceopathic  Society,  organized  in  1868;  the 
Bristol  County  Homteopathic  Medical  Society,  organized  October  3.  1866; 
the  Essex  County  Homreopathic  Medical  Society,  organized  at  Lynn  May 
I,  1872;  the  Hughes  Medical  Club  of  Boston,  organized  October  23,  1878; 
the  Lowell  Hahnemann  Club,  organized  November  22.  1881  ;  the  Massa- 
chusetts Surgical  and  Gynaecological  Society,  organized  in  Boston  December 
6,  1876;  the  Middlesex  South  Homoeopathic  Society,  organized  at  Newton 
January  12,  1876;  the  Organon  Society  of  Boston,  organized  December  8, 
1887;  the  Plymouth  Countv  Homoeoj-jathic  Medical  Society,  organized  March 
3,  1887;  the  Homoeopathic  Medical  Society  of  Western  Massachusetts,  organ- 
ized at  Greenfield  May  23,  1878;  the  Worcester  County  HonKeoj^athic  INledi- 
cal  Society,  organized  June  2"],  1866;  the  Boston  Gynaecological  Club,  organ- 
ized March  23.   1881. 

W  K.STP.ORO    ASNI.TM    I-'OU   -\'\\V.    1NS.\NE. 

Tn  treating  of  hospitals  and  other  kindn'd  institutions  in  Massachusetts 
these  annals  can  furnish  only  brief  mention.  Th;it  which  demands  first  atten- 
tion  is  of  a   distinctive!}-   pul)lic  cliaracter,   not  a  private  nor  yet  a   specially 

MIS  r(  )\<\  ( )!•■  IK  ).\i(]-:(  )i'.\  riiv  2i:-5 

hoiiKL'opathic  insLitnlidii,  allhcnii:;!!  tlic  Ici^^islativc  ])o\ver  of  the  commonwealth 
gave  its  mechca!  (lepaitnient  in  charge  of  homreopathic  physicians. 

The  institution  to  which  aHusion  is  thus  made  is  that  known  as  the  West- 
horo  Asylum  for  the  Insane,  which  dates  its  foundation  from  an  act  of  the 
general  court  of  Massachusetts,  passed  June  3,  1884,  although  the  asylum 
as  a  means  of  administering  to  the  physical  and  mental  needs  of  its  charges 
through  the  medium  of  the  homoeopathic  system  of  medicine  was  not  formal- 
1\  ii])(.ned  until  December  6.  1886.  Since  that  tim(>  it  has  been  under  homoe- 
ojKithic  medical  supervision,  and  reports  show  that  under  the  system  at  least 
cis  good  results  are  accomplished  as  under  any  other  school  .of  medicine  in 
Dn\-  similar  institution  in  this  state  or  elsewhere. 

Massachusetts  Homoeopathic  Hospital.  In  the  order  of  seniority  among 
the  distinctively  homoeopathic  hospitals  of  the  state  that  known  as  the  Mas- 
sachusetts Homoeopathic  Hospital  is  entitled  to  first  mention,  and  traces  its 
history  back  to  the  days  when  the  old  fraternity  was  in  the  full  vigor  of  its  use- 
ful career.  At  a  meeting  held  January  22.  1850,  the  fraternity  resolved  itself 
into  '■  a  committee  of  the  whole  for  the  purpose  of  ascertaining  the  mind  of 
the  public  regarding  the  establishment  of  a  homoeopathic  hospital  in  the  city 
of  Boston."  Nothing,  however,  was  accomplished  at  the  time,  nor  even  five 
years  later,  when,  at  a  meeting  held  January  30,  1855,  ^  committee  was  ap- 
pointed to  prepare  a  petition  to  the  general  court  for  a  charter  for  a  homoe- 
opathic hospital  to  be  located  in  the  city  before  inentioned,  although  the  act 
prayed  for  was  passed  (May  19,  1855)  and  an  organization  was  efifected 
under  the  incorporation.  The  officers  then  chosen  were  Dr.  Charles  B.  Hall, 
president ;  Drs.  Dexter  King,  Edward  Mellen,  A.  W.  Thaxter  and  Francis  B. 
I'"ay.  vice-presidents ;  Dr.  George  Bancroft,  secretary ;  and  Dr.  John  P.  Jewett, 

Failing  in  an  endeavor  to  enlist  state  aid  for  the  proposed  hospital,  the 
trustees  instead  of  attempting  to  maintain  such  an  institution  with  all  its 
attendant  expense,  wisely  determined  to  limit  their  operations  to  a  dispen- 
sary foundation,  and  to  that  end  secured  the  incorporation  (May  28,  1856) 
of  the  Homoeopathic  Medical  Dispensary,  which  was  carried  on  with  gratify- 
ing results  for  several  years.  Again,  in  1861  an  attempt  was  made  to  found 
a  hospital,  but  the  disturbed  condition  of  the  country  on  account  of  the  im- 
jienrling  war  made  persistent  efifort  impracticable ;  and  in  consequence  of 
these  earlv  embarrassments  it  was  not  until  January  2T,,  1871,  that  the  hospital 
was  in  fact  opened.  Various  means,  especially  festival  enterprises,  were 
adopted  to  create  funds,  and  the  ultimate  success  which  crowned  the  labors 
of  the  founders  was  in  a  great  measure  clue  to  the  Ladies'  Aid  Association, 
and  the  "  great  fair  "  held  in  1872,  which  netted  the  institution  about  $76,000. 
A  ]iermanent  home  for  the  hospital  was  found  near  the  Boston  University 
School  of  ^Medicine,  in  a  imilding  which  once  was  a  female  medical  college. 
Tn  1890  the  legislature  a])i)ropriated  $120,000  for  the  erection  of  new  build- 
ings. The  hospital  is  maintained  with  the  interest  on  invested  funds,  volun- 
tary contributions  and  pay  ])atients.  The  nurses"  school  was  opened  in  1885.  institution  is  said  to  be  the  largest  hospital  in  America  under  homoe- 
opathic management. 

The  Flampden  Homoeopathic  Hospital  at  Springfield  was  founded  largely 
throus^h  the  influence,  of  Dr.  John  H.  Carmichael  and  the  benevolence  of  Mr. 
and  Mrs.  Daniel  1'.  Wesson,  the  latter  of  whom  s'ave  their  former  residence 
in  High  street  for  hospital  purposes      Following  the  offer  and  gift  the  hospita- 


associaticni  was  incorporated,  and  the  trnstees  perfected  an  organization  and 
accepted  the  property,  on  which  within  the  last  two  years  the  original  hene- 
factors  have  erected  a  splendid  hospital  building.  The  movement  leading  to 
this  hospital  originated  in  1900,  and  the  institution  was  opened  for  patients 
in  November  of  that  year.     A  nurses'  school  has  since  been  established. 

The  Worcester  Homoeopathic  Hospital  had  its  origin  in  the  Warren 
Surgical  Hospital,  opened  in  November,  1893,  by  Dr.  J.  IC.  Warren,  and  the 
union  of  that  institution  with  the  Worcester  Homoeopathic  Dispensary  Asso- 
ciation, the  latter  being  a  body  corporate.  The  hospital  trustees  were  incor- 
porated in  Jwne,  1896.  A  training  school  for  nurses  is  maintained  in  connec- 
tion with  the  hospital. 

The  Newburyport  Homoeopathic  Hospital  was  founded  in  1893,  ^^^  is 
incorporated.  In  1900  the  institution  was  generously  provided  for  in  the 
will  of  the  late  Ann  Toppan.  who  left  it  one-third  of  her  estate. 

In  this  connection  a  brief  rrtention  may  be  made  of  some  other  of  the 
hospital  institutions  of  the  state,  among  them  the  Homoeopathic  Hospital  for 
Children  in  Boston,  opened  in  1900;  the  Salem  Homoeopathic  Hospital,  opened 
in  1900;  the  Baldwin  Place  Home  for  Little  Wanderers,  in  Boston;  the 
Consumptives'  Home,  the  House  of  the  Angel  Guardian,  and  the  Home  for 
Young  Women,  the  latter  in  Lowell. 

At  a  meeting  of  the  Massachusetts  Homoeopathic  Medical  Society  held 
October  12,  1864,  Dr.  Samuel  Gregg  read  a  paper  on  "  The  Early  Annals 
of  Homoeopathy  in  Massachusetts."  He  said:  "During  the  year  1837,  I 
had  seen  in  the  medical  journals  strictures  upon  the  small  doses  of  a  new 
system  of  medical  practice.  My  attention  was  perhaps  more  willingly  di- 
rected to  the  subject,  havmg  for  many  years  been  dissatisfied  with  my  pro- 
fession. I  had  become  tired  of  the  uncertainty  of  my  prescription.  During 
the  winter  of  1837-8,  I  had  an  interesting  case  in  a  patient  suffering  from 
tuberculosis  pulmonum  in  a  scrofulous  constitution,  which  I  was  satisfied  I 
could  not  cure.  At  this  time  I  saw  two  patients  (in  the  family  of  Thatcher 
Magcwn,  Esq.,  of  Medford),  who  had  received  homoeopathic  treatment  from 
Dr.  \  anderburgh,  who  was  then  in  practice  in  New  York.  The  allopathic 
materia  medica  was  then  being  enlarged  by  the  introduction  of  concentrated 
chemical  preparations  of  drugs.  As  showing  my  entire  ignorance  of  the 
preparation  of  homoeopathic  medicines,  I  distinctly  recollect  saying  to  these 
patients,  when  they  described  the  wonderful  effects  of  the  little  pills,  that  a 
physician  must  be  reckless  who  would  prescribe  a  remedy  capable  of  pro- 
ducing such  results,  in  so  concentrated  a  form.  But  at  the  solicitation  of 
these  friends  I  concliided  to  take  my  patient  and  consult  Dr.  Vanderburgh 
at  New  York.  Although  this  physician  did  not  at  the  time  give  much  en- 
couragement of  benefiting  my  patient,  yet  he  gave  me  such  a  synopsis  of  the 
new  school  practice  of  therapeutics  as  to  excite  in  my  mind  a  determination 
to  examine  the  merits  of  the  new  theory  of  healing.  I  obtained  all  the  books 
that  were  then  ])ublished  in  English  translation :  viz,  Hahnemann's  Qrganon ; 
the  first  edition  of  Hering's  'Domestic  Practice,'  in  two  very  small  volumes ; 
some  small  pamphlet  expositions  of  homoeopathy,  and  the  translation  of 
Jahr's  'Manual,'  by  the  North  American  Academy,  which  was  then  in  press 
(the  'Repertory'  was  not  then  published);  also  the  'Archives,'  of  Paris 
(Archives  de  la  Medicine  Homoeopathique,  Paris,  1834-38)  containing  the 
rej)orted  cases  of  treatment  by  the  homoeopathic  physicians  of  Paris.  I  also 
])rncuied  a   few  of  the  more  general  remedies,  and  commenced  my  investiga- 


tion  of  the  ])nnci])k's  ot  therapeia.  I  soon  after  obtained  a  (jernian  case  of 
medicines,  containins^'  one  hundred  and  seventy  vials  of  the  mother  tinctures 
and  first  triturations.  I'rom  these  1  began  to  make  mv  own  preparations, 
and  have  continued  to  prepare  all  that  I  have  used  ever  since.  In  my  early 
administration  of  homoeopathic  medicine  I  was  under  exceeding  obligations 
to  Dr.  Vanderburgh  for  counsel  and  assistance ;  for  often  in  my  lonely  ex- 
plorations I  vvas  troubled,  ahd  whenever  I  applied  to  him  I  was  sure  to  re- 
ceive instruction  by  return  of  mail ;  and  I  trust  I  have  not  been  unmindful  of 
it  toward  my  juniors.  Thus  I  continued  my  investigations.  I  had  a  reasonable 
share  of  patronage  in  my  allopathic  practice,  and  when  I  told  my  patients 
T  had  more  confidence  in  the  new  system  than  I  had  in  the  old,  they  were 
willing  to  abide  by  my  decision ;  and  after  having  once  made  the  experience 
I  have  seldom  found  any  one  willing  to  return  to  old  school  treatment  of 
disease.  My  first  associate  in  my  new  adventure  was  my  friend  Dr.  J.  F. 
Flagg.  He  was  not  then  in  general  practice,  but  had  given  his  attention  to 
dentistry.  He  had  long  suffered  from  dyspepsia,  and  in  the  summer  of  1838, 
while  on  a  visit  at  Philadelphia,  he  was  persuaded  by  his  friends  there  to 
take  some  medicine  from  Dr.  Humphrey,  who  was  then  in  homoeopathic 
practice.  Dr.  Flagg  was  so  well  satisfied  with  the  efficiency  of  the  reme- 
dies, that  he  furnished  himself  with  what  books  he  could  and  commenced 
the  investigation  for  his  own  satisfaction.  Not  relinquishing  his  dentistry, 
his  practice  was  mostly  confined  to  a  kind  of  dispensary  practice  among  his 
immediate  friends.  Thus  he  continued  for  some  months  supposing  himself 
alone,  until,  having  occasion  to  send  to  New  York  for  some  medicine  he  was 
told  he  could  obtain  it  from  me.  Sometime  during  the  year  1840  Dr.  J.  P. 
Spooner  of  Dorchester  and  Dr.  Charles  Wild  of  Brookline,  became  interested 
in  examining  the  subject  of  homoeopathy,  at  the  suggestion  of  their  mutual 
friend,  Dr.  Flagg.  In  December,  1840,  we  commenced  associate  meetings 
for  mutual  improvement;  and  in  February,  1841,  we  adopted  the  constitution 
and  by-laws  of  a  regular  association  called  the  Massachusetts  Homoeopathic 
Fraternity,  which  held  meetings  until  a  state  scxriety  was  organized." 

Dr.  Samuel  Gregg  was  born  in  New  Boston,  N.  H.,  July  i,  1799.  He 
acquired  a  good  New  England  education,  though  not  collegiate,  and  at  eigh- 
teen was  teaching  school.  He  graduated  from  Dartmouth  Medical  School 
in  1825,  practiced  for  a  short  time  with  Dr.  John  Stearns  in  Charlestown, 
Mass..  and  then  decided  to  go  to  Medford.  With  him  in  his  first  trip  to  Med- 
ford  was  a  friend.  Thatcher  Magown,  who  went  with  him  to  call  on  one  Dr. 
Brooks,  then  a  practicing  physician  in  Medford  and  who  had  been  gov- 
ernor. Dr.  Brooks  after  listening  to  him  said  :  "  Young  man,  I  would  not 
advise  you  to  settle  here ;  there  are  physicians  enough  in  this  place."  Dr. 
Gregg  looked  at  the  ex-governor  coolly  and  stamping  his  foot  answered, 
"  You  do  not,  well,  then  I  will  sta)/'  He  remained  in  Medford  fifteen  years, 
having  a  large  and  lucrative  practice.  In  Noveiriber,  1840,  he  removed  to 
Boston.  He  was  one  of  the  founders  of  the  American  Institute  of  Homoe- 
opath}- in  1844  and  a  prominent  member,  a  founder  of  the  Massachusetts 
Homoeopathic  Hospital  and  of  the  various  homoeopathic  societies  of  the 
city  and  state.     He  died  at  Amherst,  Mass.,  October  25,  1872. 

The  next  physician  to  adopt  homoeopathy  in  the  state  was  Dr.  Josiah 
Foster  Flagg,  who  was  born  in  Boston,  January  11,  1789.  His  father,  Josiah 
Flagg.  was  a  dentist.  He  entered  as  a  student  of  medicine  with  Dr.  John  C. 
Warren,   in    i8ti.      During    his    student    life    he    perfected    improvements    in 


many  suriiical  instrunicnls.  iK)tal)l\  the  ixme  forceps.  In  1813  he  undertook, 
with  Dr.  Warren,  the  puhhcation  of  a  work  on  the  arteries,  the  first  of  its 
kind  ever  issued.  The  engravings  for  this  work  were  done  with  his  own 
liand.  This  book  had  a  good  sale.  A  few  years  later  he  prepared  drawings 
for  Dr;  Warren's  "  Comparative  View  of  the  Nervous  System." 

Dr.  Flagg  graduated  from  Harvard  Medical  School  in  181 5,  being  it  is 
said  particularly  well  educated  in  surgical  knowledge.  For  some  time  after 
graduating  he  practiced  at  Uxbridge,  Mass.  He  continued  in  practice  for 
several  years,  when  he  removed  to  Boston  and  established  himself  as  a  den- 
tist. His  reputation  was  such  that  his  rooms  were  constantly  filled  with 
patients,  and  he  was  considered  one  of  the  most  scientific  and  skillful  men 
in  his  profession.  Among  his  surgical  inventions  are  the  tooth  forceps,  and 
an  improvement  on  Desault's  apparatus  for  fracture  of  the  femur,  this 
latter  being  introduced  by  Dr.  Warren  into  the  Massachusetts  General  Hos- 

In  1838-9  his  attention  was  attracted  to  homoeopathy  by  facts  and  exper- 
iments of  such  convincing  character  that  he  was  obliged  against  his  pre- 
judices to  believe.  After  some  months  of  careful  study  of  the  principles  of 
homoeopathy,  he  collected  the  symptoms  of  a  few  cases  and  submitted  them 
to  the  consideration  of  experienced  homoeopathic  practitioners  in  New  York 
and  Philadelphia,  who  were  his  personal  friends,  and  he  gave  the  remedies 
according  to  their  directions.  He  did  this  for  some  time,  not  trusting  to  his 
own  judgment,  and  after  he  had  witnessed  the  effect  of  this  prescribing  on 
a  number  of  well  marked  cases  he  became  satisfied  that  there  was  some- 
thing more  than  imagination  in  the  good  results  that  followed.  He  collected 
the  records  of  300  cases  treated  by  himself  and  the  results  of  several  were 
])u])lished.  His  methods  of  examining  cases  were  strictly  according  to  the' 
directions  of  Hahnemann.  As  has  been  stated,  he  was  interested  with  Dr. 
Gregg  in  the  advancement  of  homoeopathy.     He  died  December  20,   1853. 

Dr.  Charles  Wild  was  born  in  Boston,  januar}-  15,  1795.  He  graduated 
from  Harvard  College  in  1814,  completed  his  medical  studies,  and  estab- 
lished himself  in  Brookline  in  1818.  He  practiced  there  for  forty  years  and 
then  went  to  Providence,  and  only  resumed  his  practice  for  a  few  mcMidis 
in  the  early  part  of  the  rebellion  in  order  that  his  son.  Dr.  Edward  A.  Wild, 
afterwards  brigadier  general,  might  enter  the  arm\'.  It  was  through  the 
influence  of  his  friend  Dr.  Flagg  that  Dr.  Wild  first  investigated  homoe- 
opathy in  the  year  1840.     He  died  May  3,   1864. 

The  fourth  member  of  the  fraternity  quartette  was  Dr.  John  P.  Spooner, 
who  graduated  at  JIanover  m  the  academic  and  medical  departments.  He 
took  his  medical  degree  in  1820  and  located  in  Boston.  In  1838  he  went 
to  Dorchester.  His  attention  was  called  to  homoeopath}-  in  1839  by  some  re- 
markable cures  that  he  had  seen.  Fle  got  som.e  of  the  books  and  medicmes 
of  that  school  and  began  to  investigate.  He  was  so  well  satisfied  that  he 
declared  himself  a  homcjeopathist,  and  it  was  at  his  house  in  Dorchester  that 
the  first  meeting  of  the  homoeopathic  fraternity  was  held. 

I  )r.  Gregg  induced  a  brother  practitioner.  Dr.  Daniel  Swan,  to  investi- 
gate homcvopathy.  Dr.  Swan  was  born  in  Charlestown  b'ebruary  2S.  1781. 
He  graduated  at  Harvard  in  1803,  ^^^^  for  a  time  was  a  teacher.  He  then 
began  the  study  of  medicine  in  Medford  with  Doctor  (afterwards  governor) 
Brooks,  who  on  entering  political  life  gave  Swan  his  practice.  He  married 
a  lad;\   of  wealth  and  was  very  charitable  to  the  poor.     A   favorite  prescrip- 

llISTCJin-   (,)l-    11().\1(]-:()1'ATHY 


tion  read:  '"Ivccipc,  .\uri  quantum  sufficit,"  and  lie  was  f(jnd  of  dispensing 
it.  In  1839,  intiuenced  by  the  remarkable  success  of  Dr.  Gregg,  who  had  a 
year  before  adopted  homoeopathy,  Dr.  Swan  began  to  experiment  with  homoe- 
opathic medicines  and  soon  became  a  convert.  He  died  December  5,  1864, 
aged  eight\-four  years.  Dr.  Swan  commenced  practice  in  Brighton,  but  in 
1816  took  Dr.  Brook's  practice  in  IMedford.  For  several  years  in  the  latter 
part  of  his  life  he  made  no  charges  and  received  no  fees,  and  when  he  re- 
tired from  practice  he  gave  up  his  rich  patients  and  kept  a  few  poor  families. 
He  bought  many  books  on  homa^opathy  and  collected  a  valuable  librarv, ' 
which  at  his  death  went  to  the  Massachusetts  Homoeopathic  Society. 

Medford  was  the  first  town  in  the  state  to  receive  the  new  svstem.  Be- 
sides Dr.  Gregg,  whose  history  has  been  noted,  there  was  Dr.  Milton  Fuller, 

Milton    Fulkr,   -M.    D. 

Avho  succeeded  to  the  pi(3neer's  practice  in  1841  when  he  went  to  Boston. 
Milton  Fuller  was  born  in  Westmoreland,  X.  H.,  January  5,  1799.  He  was 
a  farmer's  son,  and  when  eighteen  entered  a  store,  but  soon  becoming  dis- 
satisfied, entered  Chesterfield  academy  to  fit  himself  for  the  study  of  medicine. 
He  remained  there  two  years  and  then  went  to  Boston,  becoming  a  student 
under  Dr.  Solomon  D.  Townsend  at  the  Marine  Hospital  in  Charlestown. 
He  attended  lectures  at  Harvard  Medical  School  and  two  courses  by  Dr. 
Ingalls  of  Brown  Universit}-.  He  married  in  1823  and  began  practice  in 
Scituate.  remaming  there  until  1841.  It  due  to  several  conversations 
with  his  friend  Dr.  Flagg  in  1841  that  Dr.  Fuller  became  a  believer  in  homoe- 
opath v.     He  procured  a  tew  medicines  but  did  not  dare  give  them.     At  last 


a  case  which  he  was  sure  nnist  terminate  in  lung  fever,  inchiced  him  to  try 
the  value  of  aconite.  The  experiment  resulted  in  a  return  to  health  in 
two  days,  and  the  result  was  so-  wonderful  that  he  made  further  experiments 
and  became  confirmed  in  the  belief  that  this  was  the  real  method  of  healing. 
In  1841  he  located  in  Medford,  and  in  1842  became  a  member  of  the  frater- 
nity. Dr.  Fuller  remained  in  Medford  until  1855,  when  he  located  in  Boston. 
He  was  a  charter  member  of  the  institute  and  a  member  of  the  state  and 
other  societies.  He  died  March  ii,  1885,  at  the  advanced  age  of  eighty-six 

Dr.  Fuller  was  succeeded  in  Medford  by  Dr.  Elwell  Woodbury,  who 
shortly  after  went  to  Chelsea,  and  gave  up  practice  soon  after  on  account  of 
iU  health.  He  died  June  15,  1874.  Dr.  Alfred  B.  Stone  practiced  for  a 
short  time  in  Medford.  He  was  a  student  of  Dr.  Gregg.  He  died  suddenly 
June  3,  1855.  James  Hedenberg  of  Troy,  N.  Y.,  a  graduate  of  Castleton 
Medical  College  in  1852,  located  at  Medford,  June  20,  1855,  succeeding  Dr. 

Dr.  Flagg  introduced  homoeopathy  in  Boston,  but  his  attention  was  con- 
fined to  chronic  cases,  and  the  first  professed  homoeopathic  physician  to  prac- 
tice activel}-  in  that  city  was  Dr.  Luther  Qark,  who  was  born  in  Waltham, 
Mass.,  July  30.  1810,  and  was  educated  at  Harvard,  graduating  A.  B.  in 
1833,  and  M.  D.  in  1836.  He  practiced  in  Boston  until  1870,  when  ill  health 
compelled  him  to  remove  to  Waltham.  In  1833  he  met  Hennig  G.  Linberg, 
a  learned  Dane  living  in  Santa  Cruz,  who  was  acquainted  with  Hering,  and 
who  so  strongly  recommended  that  he  study  homoeopathy  that  Dr.  Clark  was 
induced  to  examine  it.  He  read  the  Organon  and  was  tempted  to  believe  the 
principle  of  similia  until  stopped  by  the  ridiculously  small  doses.  For  seven 
years  he  remained  an  allopath,  but  in  1840  he  became  fully  converted  to  the 
new  school.     He  died  at  Lincoln,  Mass.,  September  26,   1884. 

Dr.  William  W.  Cutler  was  another  early  practitioner  in  Boston.  He 
was  a  graduate  of  Harvard,  both  of  the  academic  and  medical  departments. 
He  joined  the  fraternity  in  184T,  and  was  its  first  secretary.  After  practic- 
ing homoeopathy  for  several  years  he  engaged  in  mercantile  pursuits  with 
his  father,  Pliny  Cutler.     He  was  always  an  ardent  advocette  of  homoeopathy. 

Boston  received  an  important  addition  to  its  few  homoeopathic  practi- 
tioners in  1841  m  Dr.  William  Wesselhoeft,  who  reached  that  city  in  Septem- 
ber, coming  from  Allentown,  Pa.,  and  his  influence  was  soon  felt.  He  at 
once  took  his  place  as  a  leader,  and  so  continued  during  his  long  and  import- 
ant life. 

In  184J  another  of  the  Philadelphia  honireopathists  located  in  Boston, 
Charles  Frederic  Hofifendahl.  He  was  born  in  New  Brandenberg,  Mecklen- 
berg-Strolitz,  Germany,  June  28,  1798.  At  the  age  of  sixteen  he  commenced 
medical  studies ;  at  eighteen  he  became  a  student  at  the  Austrian  military 
medical  trainmg  school  (St.  Joseph's),  and  on  finishing  his  course  entered  the 
Austrian  service  as  assistant  surgeon.  He  served  in  an  infantry  regiment 
and  accompanied  it  through  a  campaign  in  Italy.  While  in  this  position  he 
became  interested  in  homoeopathy  through  Dr.  Schmidt,  the  chief  of  the  med- 
ical staff.  After  leaving  the  service  he  finislied  his  medical  studies,  taking 
the  full  degree  at  Berlin  in  1829.  After  graduation  he  was  for  seven  years 
physician  to  Hermann,  Count  Schwerin  of  Mecklenlx^rg,  practicing  homoe- 
opathy exclusively.  In  1837  he  came  to  America  and  began  practice  in  Phil- 
adelphia, remaining  there  until    1840.  when  he  went  to  Albany,  X.  Y.     From 


there  ho  wont  to  Boston,  whioh  city  ho  afterwards  made  his  liome.  In  1846 
ho  maintained  a  dispensary  over  Boylston  market,  which  for  two  years  he 
conducted  successfully.     H'e  died  April  24,  1862. 

Dr.  Christopher  Minot  Weld  of  Roxbury  became  a  member  of  the  fra- 
ternity in  March.  1841.  He  was  bom  in  Boston,  January  19,  181 2,  graduated 
at  Harvard  in  1833,  ^^tudied  medicine  with  Dr.  Geo.  C.  Shattuck  and  gradu- 
ated in  medicine  from  Harvard  Medical  School  in  1837.  He  began  practice 
in  Boston,  but  soon  afterwards  went  to  Jamaica  Plain.  In  1840  one  of  his 
patients  went  to  New  York  to  consult  Dr.  Gray  and  found  complete  relief 
in  his  homceopathic  treatment.  She  returned  entirely  cured  and  so  enthusias- 
tic that  she  persuaded  Dr.  Weld  to  investigate  the  system.  To  accomplish 
this  more  thoroughly  he  went  to  New  York  and  passed  some  time  with 
Gray,  and  in  the  study  of  Hahnemann  and  his  tenets.  He  returned  to 
Boston  and  soon  announced  his  adherence  to  the  new  school.  He  practiced 
and  defended  homa^opathy  for  mure  than  twenty  years,  always  living  at 
Jamaica  Plain.  He  was  a  charter  member  of  the  American  Institute  of 
Homoeopathy.     He  died  March  13,  1878. 

Dr.  William  Ingalls  became  an  investigator  of  and  believer  in  homoe- 
opathy at  the  age  of  seventy-three.  He  was  born  at  Newburyport,  Mass.,  Alay 
3,  1769,  received  the  degree  of  A.  B.  at  Harvard  University  in  1790,  of  M.  A. 
in  1794,  and  M.  D.  in  1801.  He  was  professor  of  anatomy  and  surgery  in 
Brown  University  and  also  practiced  in  Boston  for  man}c  years.  He  retired 
from  active  work  in  1834,  and  in  1843  became  interested  in  homoeopathy. 
He  was  a  member  of  the  committee  of  the  American  Institute  of  Homoe- 
opathy appointed  to  prepare  a  work  on  topographical  anatomy.  He  died 
September  8,  1851.  Dr.  John  Adams  Tarbell  was  born  in  Boston,  March  31, 
1810,  graduated  at  Harvard  in  .1832  and  soon  after  commenced  to  study 
medicine  ^with  his  uncle,  Dr.  Samuel  Adams  of  Boston.  In  1833  he  went 
to  Paris,  where  he  spent  nearly  two  years  in  medical  study.  He  then  re- 
turned to  Boston,  continued  his  studies  and  received  the  medical  degree  from 
Bowdoin  College  in  1836,  and  at  once  began  practice.  He  was  dissatisfied 
with  the  uncertain  methods  in  vogue,  and  had  about  decided  to  give  up 
medicine  when  he  became  interested  in  homoeopathy.  Dr.  Gregg  thus  writes 
of  Tarbell :  "  In  the  winter  of  1842-3  there  was  a  young  schoolboy  who 
was  familiar  in  my  ofBce,  and  who  was  also  an  intimate  acquaintance  with 
Dr.  Tarbell.  Occasionally  he  repeated  some  jeers  upon  homoeopathy  from 
Dr.  Tarbell.  Upon  inquiring  who  this  Tarbell  was,  I  learned  that  he  was  a 
young  physician  who  after  graduating  in  his  profession  here  had  spent  two 
years  in  medical  study  in  Paris ;  made  himself  familiar  with  the  French 
language :  and  on"  his  return  had  commenced  the  practice  of  his  profession, 
but  soon  after  relinquished  it,  and  was  giving  his  attention,  to  other  pursuits. 
I  complimentarily  sent  some  expositions  on  homoeopathic  medicine  for  him 
to  read.  After  reading  them,  he  sent  them  back  w^ith  kind  regards,  saying 
he  had  leisure  and  would  be  happy  to  read  anything  I  might  furnish  him  on 
the  subject.  He  became  interested  and  called  upon  m.e.  He  told  me  that 
soon  after  commencing  his  profession  he  had  a  particular  friend  who  had 
typhoid  fever  and  called  on  him.  '  He  gave  much  attention  to  the  case.  As 
the  patient  grew  worse,  he  had  counsel  and  the  patient  finally  recovered,  but 
he  felt  that  he  could  not  take  such  responsibility  again,  and  gave  up  practice. 
After  this  conversation  he  obtained  a  homoeopathic  library,  gave  his  attention 
to  study  and  practice."     In  1849  Dr.  Tarbell  published  the  "  Pocket  Homoe- 

W-izabeth  STi-ART  Phelps.'         Nathamm    ]1  \u  thohm  \Vr'Ni>i:i.i.  I'mi  mis  Ji  t.i.\  Wak  i.  IIi^w 

Elizabkth  Palmf.r  Peahoijy.  touiSA  May  Alcott. 

He.vmv  Wapswohtii    I.ONf.I-EI.I.nW. 
William  Llovu  Carkisos.  Throdoki-:  Parkkr. 

TnoMAs  Starr  Kino.  a    Bhons  i  ii..m  .^  w  i  m  «  outii  iih.i.inson.      Thomas  BaiKkv  Aldkic 

FAMOUS    TATROXS    Ol'    1  lOM  ()i;()l'.\'lin' 


opathist;"  in  1832  he  wrote  "Sources  of  Health;"  in  1852-3  was  associate 
editor  of  the  '"  Quarterly  HonKtopathic  Journal."  He  edited  I'-pps  "  Do- 
mestic Homctopathist,"  and  published  "  Homoeopathy  Simplified."  h"or  sev- 
eral years  he  had  iieart  troulile  which  caused  his  sudden  death  on  Januar\ 
21,  1864. 

Dr.  David  Tha\er  was  another  of  the  early  Boston  houKjeopathists.  He 
was  born  in  Ilraintree.  ]\Iass.,  July  19,  1813.  of  "  Mayflower  ''  ancestors.  He 
fitted  for  collej^e  at  !'hilli]:.s  (Andover)  Academy,  and  Appleton  Academy, 
Xew  Ispswich.  X.  H.  He  graduated  at  Union  College  in  Schenectady,  X. 
Y.,  in  1840.  Dr.  Thayer  thus  vv^ rites :  "  My  first  connection  with  homoeopathy 
was  in  1836,  when  I  was  a  patient  of  two  homceopathic  physicians  in  .Albany, 
X.  Y.  In  that  year  1  began  tlie  .>tud>'  of  anatomy  and  physiology  with  our 
good  Dr.  Joslin  of  Xew  York  city,  then  an  allopath,  subsequently  a  homoe- 
opathic physician.  While  a  student  of  medicine  I  read  a  few  homreopathic 
books.  In  1844  I  bought  some  homoeopathic  medicines  of  Xathaniel  C. 
Peabody,  pharmaceutist  in  Sufl^olk  place,  Boston,  and  tried  them,  as  I  had 
plenty  of  time  to  experiment  and  to  observe  the  results  of  mv  treatment. 
At  this  time  I  did  not  know  of  the  existence  of  such  a  rara  avis  in  our  city 
as  a  homoeopathic  physician, .  though  there  were  several.  Gregg,  Osgood, 
Tarbell,  Hofifendahl.  I  became  so  much  a  homoeopathic  physician  without 
knowing  one  in  Xew  England.  I  Ijecame  acquainted  with  Tarbell,  Osgood 
and  Hofifendahl.  In  the  fall  and  winter  of  i84()-7  ^^-  C.  F.  Hofifendahl 
and  I  opened  a  honKjeopathic  dispensary  in  a  room  over  Boylston  market, 
for  the  gratuitous  treatment  of  the  poor  (we  had  a  flaming  sign  which  I 
presume  may  now  be  found  in  the  attic  of  the  market).  The  first  homteo- 
pathic  doctor  I  ever  called  on  was  Dr.  John  A.  Tarbell.  I  learned  some- 
thing of  Dr.  C.  F.  Hoffendahl  and  humblv  sought  for  information  where  I 
could.  Was  admitted  a  member  of  the  old  homoeopathic  fraternity  in  1845 
or  '46.  In  1847  I  joined  the  American  Institute  of  Homoeopathy  at  its  meet- 
ing in  Boston." 

Dr.  Thaver  graduated  m  medicine  at  the  F]erkshire  Medical  College  at 
Pittsneld.  Mass.,  in  18-L3,  and  at  once  began  practice  in  Boston.  He  was  a 
member  of  the  legislature  several  terms,  for  many  years  a  coroner  of  Sufifolk 
county,  and  for  twenty-five  years  was  surgeon  of  the  Ancient  and  Honorable 
Artillery  of  Boston.     He  died  December  14,  1893. 

Dr.  David  Osgood  was  a  noteworthy  figure  among  the  early  practi- 
tioners. He  had  called  on  Hahnemann  in  1839  in  Paris  with  an  old  friend, 
the  Rev.  Charles  Brooks,  but  he  at  the  time  plainly  showed  that  he  had  no 
faith  in  homoeopathy.  He  was  a  graduate  of  Harvard,  taking  the  academic 
degree  in  1813,  and  the  medical  in  1816.  But  despite  his  expressed  disbelief 
in  his  medical  system  during  the  visit  to  Hahnemann.  Dr.  Osgood  was  led  to 
embrace  homoeopathy  in  1846,  and  became  one  of  its  most  zealovis  advocates. 
He  died  February  23,   1863. 

The  homoeopathic  directorv  of  1857  sives  the  names  of  the  practitioners 
in  Boston  at  that  tune  as  follows:  L.  M.  Barker,  D.  F.  Birnstill,  Luther 
Clark,  Milton  Fuller,  C.  F.  Geist,  Samuel  Gregg,  C.  F.  Hofifendahl,  L.  Mac- 
farland.  R.  W.  X'ewell,  David  Osgood,  George  Russell,  O.  S.  Sanders.  D.  F. 
Snndyckv.  Israel  Tisdale  Talbot,  John  A.  Tarbell,  David  Thayer.  William 
Wesselhoeft  and  Benjamin  H.  West.  The  homoeopathic  physicians  in  Boston 
in  1861  numbered  16;  in  1870.  57;  1875,  74;  1882,  124;  1899.  200.  and  in 
T904.  645. 


]n  l'l\mouth  Dr.  Robert  Capen  was  one  of  the  earliest  homoeopathic 
practitioners.  He  joined  the  fraternity  in  1842.  He  received  his  medical 
degree  at  Harvard  in  1818,  and  after  practicing  in  Stoughton  and  North 
Middleboro.  removed  to  Plymouth  in  1829.  Tn  1839  he  was  induced  by 
Mrs.  Mercy  B.  Jackson,  who  afterward  became  a  practitioner  in  Boston,  to 
investigate  homoeopathy.  In  1842  he  went  to  Boston  on  account  of  approach- 
ing blindness.  In  1843  ^"i^  was  operated  on  for  cataract',  with  partial  relief, 
but  he  continued  to  study  and  in  a  measure  to  practice  until  his  death,  Novem- 
ber 6,  1853.  Mrs.  Jackson,  being  unwilling  to  return  to  allopathic  treatment, 
took  up  the  study  of  medicine  for  her  own  benefit.  She  soon  found  outside 
practice  and  after  three  years  of  gratuitous  services  she  found  it  necessary  to 
make  professional  charges.  Her  practice  extended  to  the  neighboring  towns 
of  Kingston,  Duxbury,  Carver.  Middleboro  and  Pembroke.  She  graduated 
at  the  New  England  Female  Medical  College  in  February,  i860,  and  settled 
in  Boston  the  following  May.  Dr.  Jackson  was  for  many  years  a  promi- 
nent practitioner  in  the  city.     She  died  December  13,   1877. 

The  Rev.  Mr.  Tomlinson  was  for  several  years  a  lay  practitioner  in  Ply- 
mouth. Dr.  Ferdinand  Gustav  Oehme  located  there  in  1866.  He  was  born  in 
Tschopau,  Saxony,  July  27,  1826.  He  graduated  at  Leipsic  in  1852,  and  visited 
the  universities  of  Prag,  Vienna  and  Paris  in  1853.  Being  a  witness  of  the 
success  of  homoeopathy,  he  studied  its  tenets  and  openly  practiced  it  in  Dresden 
in  1854-55.  In  June,  1855,  he  came  to  the  United  States  and  located  at  Con- 
cord.    In  1872,  owing  to  ill  health,  he  went  to  Tompkinsville.  New  York. 

In  Northampton  Dr.  Charles  Walker  was  the  first  practitioner  of  homoe- 
opathy. He  was  born  in  Belchertown  in  1803,  studied  medicine  with  Dr. 
Hunt  of  Northampton,  and  graduated  from  Jefiferson  Medical  College  of 
Philadelphia  in  1828.  He  settled  in  Northampton  and  practiced  for  a  year 
and  a  half,  then  went  to  Hudson,  N.  Y.,  and  studied  homoeopathy  under  Dr. 
George  W.  Cook.  Returning  to  Northampton,  he  practiced  homoeopathy 
until  his  death,  January  17,  1855.  He  was  succeeded  by  Dr.  H.  J.  M.  Cate, 
who  remained  imtil  1857,  and  then  went  to  Milford,  N.  H.  In  1870-75 
he  was  practicing  at  Amherst,  Mass.  In  1857  Dr.  Osmore  O.  Roberts,  who 
was  a  graduate  of  the  Homoeopathic  College  of  Pennsylvania  in  1853  ^^^ 
who  had  been  in  practice  in  Milford,  N.  H.,  located  in  Northampton. 

fn  Andover  the  pioneer  homoeopath  was  Dr.  Francis  H.  Clark,  a  graduate 
of  Harvard  in  1835.  His  attention  was  called  to  homoeopathy  by  some  friends 
in  New  York,  and  in  1840  he  began  to  practice  it.  In  the  summer  of  1840 
he  called  on  Dr.  Gregg,  who  prepared  him  a  case  of  medicines  and  helped 
him  to  get  such  homceopathic  ix>oks  as  had  been  published  in  English.  He 
was  at  that  time  practicing  in  Andover.  He  remained  there  but  a  few  years, 
and  in  1846  engaged  in  manufacturing  in  Ballardvaie.     He  died  in  1848. 

Dr.  E.  Bruno  De  Gersdorflf  succeeded  Dr.  Clark.  He  was  born  in  Es- 
march,  Germany,  July  18,  1820,  was  educated  at  Jena,  and  graduated  in  medi- 
cine in  Leipsic  in  1846.  Political  troubles  sent  him  to  America.  Dr. .  De 
Gersdorff's  father  was  a  warm  friend  of  Hahnemann,  who  had  at  one  time 
saved  young  De  Gersdorff's  life.  He  came  to  America  in  1846.  His  first 
location  was  Bethlehem,  Penn.,  where  he  remained  a  few  months.  Though 
after  the  cure  of  De  Gersdorflf  his  father  was  a  firm  believer  in  homceopathy 
and  a  prover  of  several  medicines,  the  young  man.  infatuated  with  the  new 
ideas  on  the  pathology  and  physiology  of  the  time,  had  abandoned  homoe- 
opathy, but  on  his  arrival  in  the  Ignited  States,  through  the  influence  of  a  for- 


mer  tutor,  Dr.  Lino  en.  whom  he  met  in  Pennsylvania,  and  Dr.  Hofifendahl,  he 
was  led  to  again  adopt  the  homoeopathic  law.  Dr.  De  Gersdorfif  died  in  Pleas- 
antville,  N.  Y.,  June  28.  1883.  Dr.  J.  Howarth  succeeded  him  in  practice.  Dr. 
Milton  Berry  practiced  there  for  several  years.  Dr.  J.  C.  W.  Moore  suc- 
ceeded Berry,  remaining  but  a  short  time.  Dr.  Oliver  Leech  Bradford  went 
from  Peterboro,  X.  H..  in  1868  and  remained  there  until  1876,  when  he  located 
in  Fitchburg.  In  1882  Mary  Briggs  Harris,  Frank  B.  Kimball  and  Emma 
M.  E.  Sanborn  were  practicing  in  Andover. 

In  Roxbury  the  first  homoeopathic  practitioner  was  Dr.  Horace  Dwight 
Train.  He  graduated  from  Harvard  in  1846  and  in  February,  1847,  com- 
menced practice  in  Roxbury,  where  he  remained  until  1853,  when  he  went 
to  Sheffield.     He  died  April  24,  1879. 

Dr.  Albert  Lindsay  located  in  Roxbury  in  1851.  He  was  born  in  July, 
1822,  in  Wakefield,  N.  H.  In  1846  he  became  acquainted  with  Dr.  C.  B. 
Matthews,  of  Philadelphia,  and  through  him  obtained  his  first  knowledge  of 
homoeopathy  whdc  living  at  Newburyport,  Mass.,  and  working  at  cabinet 
making.  He  was  supposed  to  have  consumption  and  was  advised  to  try  out- 
door pursuits.  This  he  did,  and  recovered  his  health.  Dr.  F.  A.  Gordon 
urged  him  to  study  medicine,  and  he  began  to  read  with  him.  Soon  after 
he  went  to  Springfield,  where  he  entered  the  office  of  Dr.  G.  W.  Swazey. 
whose  niece  he  had  married.  He  attended  lectures  at  Brunswick,  Me.,  but 
graduated  at  the  Philadelphia  Homoeopathic  College  in  1851.  Ill  health  com- 
pelled him  to  remove,  and  in  1856  he  located  in  Laconia,  X.  H..  in  the  bracing 
air  of  the  \\'hite  mountains,  where  he  practiced  until  his  death,  December  13, 

Dr.  William  F.  Jackson  was  born  in  Brunswick,  Me. ;  graduated  at 
Bowdoin  College  in  1846:  studied  medicine  with  Dr.  Wm.  E.  Payne,  of  Bath: 
graduated  at  Jefferson  Medical  College  of  Philadelphia  in  1849:  practiced  in 
Gardner,  Me.,  until  1853,  when  he  settled  in  Roxbury,  residing  there  until 
his  death.  April  3,  1879. 

Dr.  Joseph  P.  Paine,  a  native  of  Elaine,  graduated  from  Homoeopathic 
College  of  Pennsylvania  in  1852;  practiced  at  Damariscotta,  Me.,  one  year; 
then  removed  to  Dedham,  Mass.,  where  he  practiced  ten  years,  and  in  1863 
located  at  Roxbury. 

Dr.  John  T.  Harris  was  born  in  Marblehead;  graduated  at  the  Homoe- 
opathic College  of  Philadelphia  in  1853;  commenced  practice  in  Taunton; 
practiced  in  Abingdon  and  East  Bridgewater,  and  then  located  in  1863  at 
Roxbury.     He  died  about  1893,  aged  seventy-eight  years. 

In  Lynn  Dr.  Daniel  A.  Johnson  was  the  pioneer  of  homoeopath}-.  He 
graduated  from  Harvard  Medical  School  in  1848.  While  attending  a  patient 
he  was  attacked  with  ship  fever  from  which  he  received  no  relief  until  of  his 
own  accord  he  applied  a  cold  water  bandage.  As  soon  as  he  could  be  removed 
he  went  to  X^ashua,  X.  H.,  where  he  received  so  much  benefit  from  the  homoe- 
opathic treatment  given  him  by  Dr.  J.  F.  Whittle  that  he  became  a  convert 
to  homoeopathv.  He  opened  an  office  in  Lynn  in  1848,  and  in  1854  removed 
to  Chelsea.  Dr.  E.  P.  Eastman  adopted  homoeopathy  in  1850,  but  failing 
healtli  compelled  him  to  give  up  practice  in  1855.  In  1854  Dr.  John  M. 
Blaisdell  succeeded  Dr.  Johnson.  After  remaining  three  years  he  went  west, 
but  afterwards  practiced  in  Bangor,  Me.  In  1858  Dr.  Freeman  Horton 
moved  from  Weare,  X^.  H.  He  died  March  3,  1861,  aged  forty-five  vears.. 
Drs.  B.  F.  Green  and  J.  Brown  also  practiced  in  Lynn.     In  1861  Dr.  H.  Ahl- 


horn  went  from  Marlilchcad  Ui  L}nn.  remaining-  there  until  1867.  when  he 
located  in  lioston.  Dr.  Alvin  Matthew  dishing  has  heen  for  many  years 
identified. with  homoeopath}  in  L.ynn.  He  was  born  in  Burke,  \"t.,  September 
28,  1820;  studied  at  Lyndon,  \'t,,  with  Dr.  Charles  B.  Darling  and  Dr.  Henry 
A.  Houghton  ;  attended  lectures  at  Dartmouth,  and  also  at  the  Vermont  Med- 
ical College,  Woodstock,  and  graduated  from  the  Homoeopathic  ^Medical  Col- 
lege of  Pennsylvania  in  1856.  He  located  in  .Bradford,  '\'t.^,  being  the  first 
to  introduce  homoeopathy  in  that  town.  He  practiced  for  a  short  time  in 
Lansingburgh,  N.  Y.,  and  then  settled  in  Lynn,  where  he  is  still  in  practice. 
Drs.  I.  H.  Kimball  and  Alartha  J.  Flanders  were  in  practice  in  Lynn  in  1870. 
])r.  Inlanders  was  born  in  Concord,  N.  H.,  Januar\-  15,  1823.     She  was  a  stu- 

Alvin    M.    Cnshins,    M.    D. 

dent  of  Dr.  Alpheus  Morrill,  and  graduated  from  the  Xew  England  Female 
College  in  1861.  She  was  the  first  woman  practitioner  in  Concord,  where 
she  remained  two  years  associated  with  Dr.  Morrill  She  then  located  in 
Lynn,  where  she  practiced  until  i8()3,  and  then  retired.  She  died  .Xox'ember 
3,  1898.  Dr.  Eleazer  Bowen  began  i)ractice  in  L\nn  in  185^),  and  in  i860 
removed  to  Jersey  Citv. 

In  Salem  the  first  homreopathic  practitioner  was  Dr.  John  H.  Floto,  a 
native  of  Cermanv.  He  was  a  graduate  of  the  AUentown  Academy  and  prac- 
ticed for  a  time  in  Pennsylvania.  He  went  to  Salem  in  1843  'i"*!  remained 
there  until  i860,  when  he  went  to  San  Francisco,  where  he  located  perma- 
nently. In  Maw  1850,  Dr.  De  Gersdorff  went  from  Andover  to  Salem,  re- 
mainine'  ur.til   1868. 


Dr.  Isaac  Colby  located  in  Salem  in  the  'forties.  According  to  Dr.  Elijah 
U.  Jones  and  Dr.  Henry  M.  Smith,  Dr.  Colby  had  practiced  allopathy  in 
Concord,  N.  H.,  as  early  as  1830.  He  began  to  practice  homoeopathy  in  Con- 
cord in  1846,  went  to  Salem  in  1851,  and  remained  there  until  his  death  in 
1866.  In  the  list  of  members  of  the  American  Institute  of  Homoeopathy  for 
1848  is  the  name  of  Isaac  Colby,  Salem,  Mass.  He  is  mentioned  in  1855  as 
living  in  Concord  at  that  time  and  also  in  1866.  Dr.  Colby  was  a  fellow 
of  the  Massachusetts  Medical  Society,  and  one  who  was  tried  for  joining 
the  homoeopathists.     He  died  June  29,  1866. 

Dr.  John  Gage  Wood  v;as  born  at  Hollis,  N.  H.,  December  2^,  1829; 
studied  in  Philadelphia  with  Dr.  William  A.  Gardiner,  and  graduated  at  the 
Homoeopathic  Medical  College  of  Pennsylvania  in  1852.  He  settled  in  Salem, 
first  as  partner  with  Dr.  Colby,  but  later  practiced  alone.  In  1857  his  health 
failed,  but  he  continued  active  work  until  a  few  months  before  his  death, 
which  occurred  at  Philadelphia,  at  the  home  of  his  father-in-law,  Israel  W. 
James,  April  29,  1859. 

Dr.  Henry  C.  Angell  began  practice  in  Salem  with  Dr.  Floto  in  1853.  ^^ 
was  born  in  Providence,  R.  I.,  in  1829;  studied  with  Dr.  A.  H.  Okie,  and 
graduated  at  the  Homoeopathic  College  of  Pennsylvania  in  1853.  He  re- 
mained in  Salem  a  few  months  and  then  went  to  Europe,  studying  in  Vienna 
under  Wurmb  and  Caspar  for  a  year.  He  then  settled  in  Lynn,  but  in  1857 
removed  to  Boston,  which  city  he  made  his  home.  The  years  1861-63  he 
passed  in  Europe,  and,  returning  in  1864,  he  devoted  himself  to  treatment 
of  diseases  of  the  eye  and  ear.  He  published  several  books  on  diet  and  also 
on  the  treatment  of  the  eye  and  ear. 

Dr.  Shadrach  M.  Cate  was  born  in  Loudon,  N.  H.,  October  24,  1823. 
At  the  age  of  nineteen  he  entered  the  office  of  Dr.  Alpheus  Morrill,  then  of 
Solon,  Ohio.  During  the  third  year  of  his  studies.  Dr.  Morrill,  the  preceptor, 
became  convinced  of  the  truth  of  homoeopathy,  and  Dr.  Cate  also  became  a 
believer.  He  attended  the  medical  course  in  Western  Reserve  University  at 
Cleveland  in  1844-45,  "^^''is  examined  bv  the  board  of  censors  of  the  Ohio 
Homoeopathic  Medical  Society,  and  admitted  as  a  member,  that  being  equiva- 
lent to  a  license  to  practice.  In  1845  he  entered  into  partnership  with  Dr. 
Morrill,  who  had  removed  to  Columbus,  and  in  that  city  they  introduced  the 
homoeopathic  practice.  In  December,  1847,  Dr.  Cate  returned  to  Loudon 
and  was  the  first  to  introduce  homoeopathy  in  that  section.  In  January,  1849, 
he  married  i\'lartha  J.  Messer.  In  1854  he  graduated  from  the  Western  Col- 
lege of  Homoeopathic  Medicine  in  Cleveland.  In  1850  he  went  to  Augusta, 
Me.,  and  in  i860  removed  to  Massachusetts  and  settled  in  Salem. 

In  1865  Dr.  Nathan  R.  Morse  removed  to  Salem  from  Reading,  and  in 
1868  Dr.  Samuel  H.  Worcester  went  there  from  Gloucester.  Dr.  Ezekiel 
Morrill  also  practiced  there  several  years.  In  1857  Drs.  Floto,  De  Gersdorff, 
D.  B.  Hannan,  J.  B.  Walter  and  J.  G.  Wood  were  located  in  Salem.  Dr. 
James  M.  Cummings  also  practiced  there  from   1846  to  1850. 

Dr.  Nathan  R.  Morse  was  born  in  Sottard,  N.  H.,  February  20,  1831 ; 
graduated  at  Amherst  College  in  1853.  After  graduation  he  taught  school 
at  Marion,  Mass.,  and  later  was  principal  of  the  high  school  at  Holyoke, 
which  position  he  resigned  in  i860  to  become  private  tutor  in  the  families  of 
Rev.  Levi  Parks  and  F.  A.  Parks,  of  Ouachita,  La.  In  1861  he  returned 
north  and  entered  Harvard  ■Medical  School.  Fie  took  the  second  course  at 
the  L'niversity  of  A'ermont.  graduating  there  in  June,  1862.     After  spending 


a  short  time  in  the  office  of  Dr.  J.  H.  Woodbury  in  Boston,  he  located  at 
Reading,  Mass.  In  1865  he  removed  to  Salem,  succeeding  to  the  practice  of 
Dr.  Hiram  Gove.     He  died   August  5,   1897. 

Homoeopath}-  was  introduced  m  Newburyport  in  April,  1842,  by  Dr. 
George  Washington  Swazey,  who  was  born  in  Exeter,  N.  H.,  August  10, 
t8i2,  and  grafluated  from  Bowdoin  Medical  School  in  1837.  He  located  at 
Harwick,  Alass.,  until  1838,  when  he  went  to  Bucksport,  Me.,  remaining  there 
until  1842,  when  he  went  to  Newburyport.  His  attention  was  called  to 
homoeopathy  by  reading  Hahnemann's  Organon  while  attending  his  third 
course  of  lectures,  and  he  was  strengthened  in  his  belief  in  its  tenets  by  the 
unfair  criticism  with  which  homoeopathy  was  assailed  by  members  of  his  own 
school.  He  read  the  "  Homoeopathic  Examiner,"  the  leading  journal  of  the 
new  school,  and  when  he  heard  that  his  old  friend  and  classmate,  Dr.  Wm. 
E.  Payne,  of  Bath,  had  decided  to  adopt  homoeopathy,  he,  too,  commenced 
its  practice.  Fully  convinced  at  last,  in  1842  he  left  Maine  and  went  to  New- 
buryport and  announced  himself  as  a  homoeopathic  physician.  Of  course  he 
met  with  bitter  opposition.  Of  this  time  he  himself  wrote :  "  The  trials  of 
an  isolated  homoeopathist  in  those  early  days  of  our  practice  are  now  but 
seldom  encountered.  Allopathic  physicians  then  were  perhaps  no  more  an- 
gered by  our  opposition  in  their  practice  than  now,  but  their  censorship  had 
more  effect.  Public  sentiment  was  then  in  leading  strings,  which  it  seems 
nearly  to  have  outgrown,  and  much  more  than  now  did  everybody  dread  the 
malediction  of  the  doctors  in  power,"  Dr.  Swazey,  in  a  personal  letter, 
wrote :  "  When  I  went  to  Newbur3'port  I  found  a  young  woman  there  who 
had  a  case  of  homoeopathic  medicines  and  was  dispensing  them  to  her  friends." 
He  removed  to  Springfield  in  the  autumn  of  i8z^4  and  located  permanently. 
He  was  a  leading  physician  of  western  Massachusetts,  was  one  of  the 
founders  of  the  American  Institute  of  Homoeopathy,  and  active  in  society 
circles.  He  met  a  painful  and  sudden  death  September  8,  1877.  He  left 
home  one  Saturday  evening  about  nine  o'clock  to  visit  a  patient  at  Deerfield, 
and  mistaking  his  way  in  the  darkness  walked  oft  a  railroad  bridge  near  the 
depot,  falling  thirty  feet  to  the  ground  below.     He  died  an  hour  later. 

In  1845  01^6  Bianchini,  an  Italian,  opened  an  office,  but  meeting  with 
much  opposition  remained  only  a  short  time.  He  afterward  lived  in  New 

Dr.  Stephen  Madison  Gale  located  at  Newburyport  in  the  fall  of  1850, 
He  writes  of  the  condition  previous  to  his  advent:  "  A  few  years  later  (than 
1845)  s  young  lady  by  the  name  of  Hudson,  who  had  read  a  good  deal  on 
the  subject  of  homoeopathy,  obtained  some  medicines  and  prescribed  for  many 
of  her  friends  quite  successfully.  This  very  much  enraged  the  physicians  of 
the  old  school.  A  missionary  who  had  returned  from  Africa  sick  was  for  a 
long  time  under  the  care  of  these  physicians.  He  grew  gradually  worse  and 
put  himself  under  the  care  of  Miss  Hudson.  He  became  dropsical  and  she 
could  not  get  one  of  them  to  tap  him.  She  succeeded  however  in  getting 
rid  of  the  water  by  remedies  and  he  recovered  and  returned  to  Africa.  Miss 
Hudson  left  in  1849,  much  to  the  regret  of  the  friends  of  the  new  system.  I 
came  here  in  the  fall  of  1850  from  Methuen,  where  I  had  practiced  the  old 
system  for  eleven  years.  T  got  my  first  impression  of  the  superiority  of  the 
new  system  over  the  old  from  my  friend,  Dr.  Do  Gersdorff,  who  then  prac- 
ticed in  Andover,  In  coming  here  I  met  with  a  good  deal  of  opposition  and 
I  supposed  I  should,  hut  T  have  fovmd  a  sufficient  number  of  patrons  to  war- 



rant  me  in  remaining  at  my  post  for  nearly  twenty  years.  Since  I  came  here 
Drs.  Weidman,  W.  L.  Thompson,  J.  Harris  and  L.  M.  WiUis  have  practiced 
here  for  a  short  time,  and  left  for  better  locations.  Dr.  E.  P.  Cummings 
located  here  about  1866,  and  Dr.  David  Foss  in  1867."  Dr.  Gale  was  born 
October  20,  1809,  at  Kingston  Plains,  N.  H.  He  was  the  youngest  of  five 
sons,  all  physicians.  He  studied  medicine  with  his  uncles  and  with  his  brothers, 
Drs.  Ezra  B.  Gale,  of  Kingston,  N.  H.,  and  L.  B.  Gale,  of  Boston.  After 
attending  three  courses  at  Harvard  Medical  School,  he  graduated  in  1837. 
He  located  at  Derry,  N.  H.,  but  in  1839  settled  at  Methuen,  Mass.  In  the 
fall  of  1850  he  located  at  Nev^^buryport  and  at  once  began  to  practice  homoe- 
opathy. He  died  of  apoplexy,  January  26,  1882.  Dr.  E.  P.  Cummings  was 
born  at  Stratham,  N.  H.,  in  1826.  During  the  rebellion  he  was  assistant  sur- 
geon on  the  ship  Roanoke,  and  afterward  in  the  Twenty-third  Massachusetts 
infantry.  He  introduced  homoeopathy  into  Exeter.  X.  H.,  in  1858.  He  died 
April  8,  1878. 

In  Lowell  the  pioneer  homoeopath 
was  one  of  the  Allentown  coterie.  Chris- 
tian Frederic  Geist,  who  settled  in  Low- 
ell in  1843.  •  Dr.  Geist  was  born  in  Hayn, 
near  the  Hartz,  Germany,  November 
19,  1805,  and  first  interested  himself 
in  homoeopathy  in  1831.  He  became 
acquainted  with  Dr.  Wohleben,  a  Ger- 
man homoeopathist,  with  whom  he 
studied.  He  prepared  remedies  himself, 
as  many  others  did  in  those  days.  At 
first   he  employed   white   wafers  prop- 

erly medicated,  and  afterward  he  used 
pellets.  Dr.  Wohleben  furnished  Geist 
with  books  and  medicines,  and  he 
came  to  America  in  1835.  I"  1836  he 
went  to  Allentown  with  letters  of  in- 
troduction. At  Hering's  house  he  met 
the  teachers  and  scholars,  and  studied 
at  the  academy.  Afterward  he  spent 
some  years  with  Wesselhoeft  in  Boston, 
remaining  there  from  1840  to  1843. 
He  was  then  induced  to  go  to  Lowell, 
where  he  found  a  strong  prejudice 
against  homoeopathy.  Although  he  la- 
bored under  difficulties,  he  made  some 

brilliant  cures.  One  was  a  Mrs.  Clark,  wife  of  the  agent  of  the  Merrimac 
mills,  who  had  been  a  great  sufTerer  for  years  and  could  hardly  move  about. 
She  had  taken  much  allopathic  medicine,  but  without  relief.  After  two  months 
treatment  under  Geist,  she  was  so  much  improved  that  she  was  able  to  atterid 
a  ball.  Of  course  this  made  many  friends  for  homoeopathy.  Dr.  Geist  did  not 
remain  long  in  Lowell,  but  in  1845  returned  to  Boston,  where  he  made  his 
home  until  his  death,  August  27,  1872. 

The  following  letter  written  in  1870  by  Dr.  Daniel  Holt,  who  succeeded 
Dr.  Geist,  furnishes  interesting  information  relating  to  the  early  practitioners 
of  homoeopathy  in   Massachusetts,   and    particularly    in    Lowell :      "  I    com* 

Geo.   W.    Swazev.   M.   D. 


menced  the  practice  of  homceopathic  medicine  in  October,  1845,  iii  Lowell. 
Dr.  Geist,  now  of  Boston,  and  Dr.  Pike,  who  died  in  Lawrence  some  ten 
3'ears  since,  were  here  previously  a  few  months  each.  Dr.  R.  Shackford,  now  of 
Portland,  Me.,  commenced  here  at  the  same  time  as  myself.  He  remained 
here  three  years.  I  was  then  alone  most  of  the  time  for  some  ten  years 
when  Dr.  Hiram  Parker,  who  had  been  in  practice  here  since  1835,  ^"  large 
business,  studied  and  gradually  adopted  the  homoeopathic  principle.  He 
brought  most  of  his  patrons  into  the  new  practice  and  largely  increased  it 
among  the  people.  Before  and  after  this,  however.  Dr.  Gross,  now  of  Wis- 
consin, Dr.  A.  H.  Flanders,  and  Dr.  C.  H.  Walker,  son  of  Dr.  Charles  Walker 
of  Northampton,  were  here  tw^o  or  three  years  each.  Dr.  Walker  went  to 
Kentucky,  where  he  died.  Dr.  Harwood,  a  student  of  mine,  opened  an  of- 
fice here  about  i860.  He  was  an  accomplished  surgeon  and  went  as  assistant 
surgeon  to  the  wav  and  died  in  service.  Dr.  Aaron  Walker,  another  student 
of  mine,  who  was  superintendent  of  schools  in  New  Orleans  during  the  war 
under  General  Butler,  a  graduate  of  Amherst  College  and  of  the  New  York 
Homoeopathic  College,  opened  an  office  here  in  1868,  but  is  now  in  Man- 
chester, N.  H.  Dr.  A.  Buswell  came  here  and  located  in  1866.  He  investi- 
gated the  principle  and  attended  a  course  at  the  Philadelphia  Homoeopathic 
College  and  openly  adopted  our  practice.  He  is  a  graduate  of  the  military 
school  at  Woodstock,  Vt.,  and  of  Dartmouth  Medical  College.  Dr.  David 
Packer,  who  had  long  been  in  some  practice  in  Vermont,  and  also  a  Method- 
ist circuit  preacher,  graduated  at  the  Homoeopathic  Medical  College  of  Penn- 
sylvania (1866)  and  came  here  in  1867  and  stayed  two  years;  he  is  now  lo- 
cated in  Chelsea.  Dr.  E.  H.  Packer  and  Dr.  A.' Thompson  from  the  Phila- 
delphia Homoeopathic  College  have  been  here  some  two  years  each.  Dr. 
E.  B.  Holt,  a  graduate  of  Harvard  Medical  College  and  Philadelphia  Homoe- 
opathic Medical  College,  is  now  here  with  me  (son  of  Dr.  Daniel  Holt). 
Dr.  A.  E.  Aldrich,  graduate  of  Harvard  Medical  College,  located  here  last 
autumn.  Dr.  Daniel  Parker,  of  Billerica,  has  an  office  in  our  city;  he  is 
homoeopathic  in  medicine,  but  makes  a  specialty  of  the  battery.  We  think 
we  have  from  one-third  to  one-half -the  practice  in  the  city." 

Dr.  Holt  was  born  in  Hampton,  Conn.,  July  2,  1810.  He  studied  at  Ash- 
ford,  Connecticut.,  at  Amherst,  Mass.,  the  Yale  scientific  school,  with  his 
brother.  Dr.  Hiram  Holt  of  Pomfret,  Conn.,  and  graduated  at  the  New  Haven 
Medical  School  in  1835.  For  ten  years  he  practiced  in  Glastonbury.  He 
Vv^rote  several  monographs,  and  being  appointed  to  write  a  paper  for  the 
jMassachusetts  Medical  Society,  chose  as  his  subect  "  Homoeo])athy,"  that 
he  might  "  show  up  "  its  absurdities.  But  vipon  studying  the  subject  his  ideas 
so  changed  that  the  paper  which  was  intended  to  prove  its  false  doctrine  was 
really  published  under  the  title  "  Views  of  Homoeopathy,  or  reasons  for  ex- 
amining and  admitting  it  as  a  Principle  in  Medicine."  Dr.  Holt  lost  no  time 
in  studying  under  Dr.  Skiff  of  New  Haven,  and  by  frequent  conferences  with 
Drs.  Gray,  Hull,  Joslin,  Wells  and  others  of  New  York.  After  this  publica- 
tion the  Massachusetts  Medical  Society  promptly  expelled  Dr.  Holt,  upon 
M'hich  he  moved  to  Lowell  and  began  the  practice  of  homoeopathy.  He  died 
April   II,   1883. 

In  1857  the  homoeopathic  physicians  in  Lowell  were  Drs.  Daniel  Holt, 
Hiram  Parker  and  Charles  \\''alker,  Jr.  In  1857  there  were  11;  1882,  14; 
1899,  15. 

The  pioneer  homoeopath  in   New   Bedford  was  Dr.   Manning  B.   Roche. 



a  graduate  of  Allcnlown  Academ}-,  who  located  in  New  Bedford  in  1841, 
going  from  Philadcl]:)liia.  In  1847  Dr.  Fleming,  a  clergyman,  began  prac- 
tice, but  left  in  1851.  Dr.  Gustavus  Felix  ]\Iatthes  was  born  at  Schweldt, 
Prussia,  December  31,  1809.  He  was  educated  at  Konigsburg  and  Stettin 
and  Berlin,  and  from  1832  to  1836  studied  medicine  in  Berlin  and  Halle,  at 
the  latter  taking  his  degree.  He  began  practice  in  Berlin  and  in  1840  lo- 
cated at  Scweldt.  In  1845  he  became  a  convert  to  homoeopathy.  In  1849 
he  came  to  America  and  after  remaining  a  short  time  in  Boston  established 
himself  in  New  Bedford.     His  death  occurred  May   17,   1889. 

Dr.  Daniel  Wilder  was  born  at  Keene,  N.  H.,  April   19,  181 1.     In  1845 
he  became  a  student  of  Dr.  G.  W.  Swazey,  of  Springfield,  Mass.,  and  grad- 
uated from  the  Homoeopathic  Medical  College  of  Pennsylvania  in   185 1.  •  He 
had  attended  lectures  at  Jefferson  Medical 
College,   but  on  weighing  the  systems  of 
medicine  decided  for  homoeopathy.     He  at 
once  located  at  New  Bedford,  where  he  re- 
mained until  1869,  when  ill  health  compelled 
him  to  give  up  practice.     Later  he  lived  at 
Greenfield,  Mass. 

Dr.  Henry  Bradford  Clarke,  son  of  Dr. 
Peleg  Clarke,  was  born  in  Cranston,  R.  I., 
October  18,  1827.  After  an  education  at 
Brooke  Farm,  near  Boston,  and  at  a  Friends' 
boarding  school  in  Providence,  he  graduated 
at  the  Pennsylvania  Homoeopathic  College 
in  1852,  and  in  May  following  settled  in 
New  Bedford.  In  1856  he  went  to  Des 
]\Ioines,  la.,  but  within  a  year  returned  to 
New  Bedford,  where  he  remained  until  ill 
health  compelled  a  change  of  climate.  He 
died  at  Coronado  Beach,  Southern  Califor- 
nia, ^larch  6,  1888. 

Dr.  Edward  R.  Sisson  located  at  New 
Bedford  in  1854.  He  was  born  in,Westport, 
Mass.,  September  2,  1828.  He  was  a  stu- 
dent of  Dr.  Roche,  and  a  graduate  of  the 
Berkshire  Medical  School  and  the  Homoeo- 
pathic Aledical  College  of  Pennsylvania.   In  • 

1857  there  were  five  homoeopaths  in  New  Bedford;  in  1875.  7;  1882,  10; 
1899.  9. 

Dr.  Isaac  Fiske  introduced  hom.oeopathy  into  Fall  River  in  1845.  He 
died  June  3,  1873. 

Dr.  John  Lewis  Clarke,  son  of  Peleg  Clarke,  was  born  in  Scituate,  R.  I., 
November  30,  1812.  He  graduated  at  Homoeopathic  Medical  College  of 
Pennsylvania  in  1854,  and  located  at  Fall  River.  He  died  December  24, 
1880.  In  1875  there  were  five  homoeopathic  practitioners  in  the  city;  in  1882, 
5  ;  in  1899,  7. 

In  Taunton  Dr.  George  Barrows  was  the  first  settled  homoeopathic  phy- 
sician, having  located  there  in  1846.  He  was  born  in  Attleborough,  Mass., 
]\Iay  12.  1815;  graduated  from  Amherst  College  in  1840;  studied  medicine 
with  his  brother.  Dr.   Ira   Barrows,   then  of  Norton,    Mass. ;    attended    one 

G.  F.  Matthes,  ^I.  D. 



course  of  lectures  at  Woodstock,  Vt.,  and  two  at  Pittsfield  (Berkshire  Medi- 
cal School),  where  he  graduated  in  1847.  He  at  once  located  in  the  new 
city  of  Taunton.  In  1856  he  attended  a  course  of  lectures  in  the  Homoe- 
opathic College  of  Pennsylvania,  graduating  therefrom  in  1852.  During  his 
term  at  Pittsfield,  he  read  a  paper  entitled  "  What  is  Homoeopathy  ?"  Dur- 
ing the  thirty-one  years  of  his  active  life  he  was  associated  in  practice  with, 
and  professionally  introduced  Drs.  Samuel  W.  Graves,  Elijah  Utley  Jones 
and  J.  W.  Hayward.  He  died  of  paralysis  and  brain  fever,  January  18, 
1878.  He  was  led  to  homoeopathy  by  his  brother's  success  and  also  that  of 
Dr.  William  Peck,  of  Cincinnati. 

Dr.  Samuel  W.  Graves  remained  in  Taunton  two  years  when  he  went 
to  Springfield,  and  afterward  to  Chicago  where  he  died  July  6,  1854.  Dr. 
Charles  Harris  was  a  graduate  of  Pittsfield  in  1847.  He  settled  in  Taunton 
in   185 1,  remaining  a  few  years  and  then  went  to  Wareham.     Pie  was  suc- 

A.  A.  Klein,  M.  D. 

ceeded  in  1855  by  his  father,  Dr.  Handy  Harris,  who,  after  remaining  three 
years,  located  at  Yarmouth. 

Dr.  Elisha  Utley  Jones  was  born  in  Augusta,  Me.,  May  2,  1826,  and 
graduated  at  Waterville  College  and  at  Colby  University,  in  medicine  at  the 
latter  institution.  He  studied  under  Dr.  W.  P.  Jackson,  of  Gardner.  He 
graduated  at  the  Homoeopathic  Medical  College  of  Pennsylvania  in  1854.  He 
went  to  Concord,  N.  H.,  as  assistant  to  Dr.  Alpheus  Morrill ;  practiced  at 
Dover.  N.  H.,  in  1853,  ^"^  by  special  request  of  Dr.  George  Barrows,  he 
went  to  Taunton  in  1854.  He  died  November  25,  1893.  He  was  a  promi- 
nent physician  in  Taunton,  for  many  years  president  of  the  board  of  health, 
and  held  several  public  offices.  In  1871  he  published  in  volume  one  of  the 
"  Transactions  of  the  Massachusetts  Homoeopathic  Medical  Society,"  a  valu- 
able paper  on  the  "  Early  History  of  Homoeopathy  in  Massachusetts." 

Dr.  John  T.  Harris  was  a  graduate  of  the  Homoeopathic  College  of  Penn- 
sylvania in  1853.  He  practiced  two  years  in  Taunton  and  then  removed  to 
East  Bridgewater.  In  1859  he  removed  to  Abington,  and  afterward  went  to 
Roxbury,  where  he  died. 



Dr.  Joseph  Warren  Hayward  was  born  July  ii,  1841,  at  Easton,  Mass. 
He  graduated  from  the  state  normal  school  at  Bridgewater  in  i860,  and  at- 
tended his  first  course  at  Harvard  Medical  School  in  1862-63.  He  was  then 
appointed  medical  cadet  of  the  United  States,  after  passing  an  examination 
by  the  army  board  in  Philadelphia.  He  served  for  one  year  in  the  general 
hospitals  in  Memphis  and  Louisville  and  then  returned  to  New  England,  tak- 
ing his  degree  in  medicine  from  the  Maine  Medical  School  in  June,  1864.  He 
was  commissioned  assistant  surgeon  United  States  volunteers,  and  was  or- 
dered to  report  to  General  Butler  of  the  department  of  Virginia,  and  army 
of  the  James.  He  served  through  the  Petersburg  and  Richmond  campaigns. 
He  was  honorably  discharged  after  the  war  and  opened  an  office  in  New 
York  city.     The  conversation  leading  him   to  adopt  homoeopathy    occurred 

Henry   B.   Clarke,   M.   D. 

while  he  was  in  Richmond.  An  allopathic  physician  of  repute,  a  member 
of  the  board  of  health,  in  his  search  for  cholera  remedies  wished  to  find 
the  one  used  by  the  homoeopathic  physicians,  saying  that  in  the  two  epidemics 
which  occurred  within  his  recollection,  the  homoeopathists  had  been  much 
more  successful  than  the  allopaths,  and  he  thought  they  had  "  stumbled " 
on  a  specific  for  the  disease.  In  Dr.  Hayward's  search  for  thiS  remedy  he 
discovered  that  it  was  the  knowledge  how  to  use  the  homoeopathic  remedies 
and  the  application  of  a  right  principle  that  gave  success.  In  March,  1866, 
he  became  partner  with  Dr.  Barrows  at  Taunton. 

Homoeopathy  was  introduced  in  Norton  by  Dr.  Ira  Barrows  in  1842. 
He  was  practicing  allopathy  when,  happening  to  call  on  Dr.  P.  P.  Wells  who 
had  then  just  commenced  the  study  and  practice  of  homoeopathy  in   Provi- 



dence,  his  attention  was  called  to  the  subject.  Dr.  Barrows  is  referred  to 
more  fully  in  the  chapter  relating  to  homoeopathy  in  Rhode  Island.  Dr.  Ben- 
jamin M.  Rounds  settled  in  Norton  in  1847.  and  practiced  there  for  many 

In  Waltham  Dr.  George  Russell  began  the  practice  of  homoeopathy  in 
1839  or  1840,  remaining  until  1848,  when  he  went  to  Boston.  Dr.  Russell 
v;as  born  in  Lincoln,  Mass.,  September  23,  1795.  He  graduated  from  Har- 
vard Medical  School  in  1820  and  located  in  Lincoln,  where  he  practiced  for 
seventeen  years  and  then  removed  to  Waltham,  a  neighboring  town.  Soon  after 
his  settlement  in  Waltham  he  became  interested  in  homoeopathy  and  adopted  it 
in   practice,   probably  as   early   as    1839. 

In  1845  he  located  in  Boston,  where  he  _ 

continued  in  practice  until  his  death, 
February  18,  1883.  Dr.  Russell's  busi- 
ness extended  from  Waltham  to  the 
towns  of  Newton,  Brighton,  Wayland, 
Lincoln  and  Cambridgeport.  He  was 
succeeded  in  Waltham  by  Dr.  W.  W. 
Hebberd,   who   joined   the    fraternity   in 

1850,  and  was  then  living  in  Waltham. 
Dr.  Thomas  B.  Wales  practiced  there 
two  or  three  years  and  then  went  to  Ran- 
dolph, where  he  died  February  2,  1861, 
aged  thirty-eight  years. 

Dr.  Charles  F.  Adams  went  to  Wal- 
tham about  1850,  and  joined  the  fra- 
ternity in  185 1.  In  1858  he  went  to 
Rutland,  Vt.  Dr.  C.  F,  Saunders  prac- 
ticed in  Waltham  two  or  three  years. 
He  died  January  4,  1862,  aged  twenty- 
nine.  Dr.  Edward  Worcester,  a  grad- 
uate of  the  University  of  New  York  in 

1851,  removed  from  St.  Albans,  Vt.,  to 
Waltham  in  i860,  and  has  since  resided 
in  that  city.  Dr.  Luther  Clark  has  prac- 
ticed in  Waltham  at  times  while  residing 
there  with  his  family. 

In  Woburn  Drs.  Gregg  and  Fuller  had  previously  introduced  some 
knowledge  of  homa'opathy  by  occasional  practice,  but  it  was  not  until  Sep- 
tember, 1848.  that  there  was  a  settled  homoeopathic  physician  in  that  place. 
At  that  time  Dr.  Thomas  Spencer  Scales  located  there.  He  was  born  at 
Colchester,  Conn.,  March  28,  1822.  Fie  graduated  from  Middlebury  Col- 
lege, Vt.,  m  1843,  after  which-  he  took  a  trip  to  Illinois.  He  then  returned 
east  and  studied  dentistry,  and  i^racticed  it  at  Nashua,  N.  H.,  for  several 
years.  Deci'ding  to  study  medicine,  he  became  a  student  of  Dr.  Knight,  of 
Franklin,  N.  H.,  attended  medical  lectures  in  New  York  city,  and  later  at 
Woodstock,  Vt.,  where  he  "graduated  in  1848.  He  studied  homoeopathy  with 
Dr.  Gregg,  of  Boston,  and  then  made  Woburn  his  home  until  his  (leath.  Tune 
6,  188 1.' 

Smit1"''s  directory  for  1857  gives  two  homoeopathic  physicians,  S.  Aldcn. 
and   N.   \\'ashburn,  as  living  in    Ijridgcwater.     Nahum   Washburn    graduated 

Elisha  J.   Jones,    jNI.    D. 


from  Dartmouth  College  in  1832,  but  became  dissatisfied  with  the  prevail- 
ing therapeutics  and  devoted  himself  to  dentistry,  locating  at  Bridgewater. 
In  1840,  reading  statements  of  the  wonderful  cures  effected  by  homoeopathy, 
he  procured  a  book  and  some  remedies  to  test  the  truth  of  the  matter.  He 
was  successful  in  the  treatment^  of  certain  cases  of  obstinate  skin  disease, 
and  was  sent  for  from  neighboring  towns,  to  try  his  remedies.  However, 
Having  satisfied  himself  of  the  truth  of  homoeopathy,  he  turned  his  cases  over 
to  Dr.  Alden,  whom  he  interested  in  homoeopathy,  and  who  finally  became 
a  hom_oeopathic  practitioner.  Dr.  Alden  was  a  graduate  of  Dartmouth  Medi- 
cal School  in  1824,  and  was  converted  to  homoeopathy  in  1840. 

The   first   physician   to   practice   homoeopathy    in    Concord   was    William 
Gallup.     He  was  born  in  Plainfield,   N.   H.,   August   30,    1805.     In    1826  he 
began  the  study  of  medicine  with  his  brother,  Benjamin   Gallup  of  Lebanon, 
,  X.  H.     He  attended  five  courses  of  medical  lec- 
tures, two  at  the  clinical  school  of  medicine  at 
Woodstock.  \'t..  and  three  at  Dartmouth,  where 
he  graduated  in  November,  1830.    In  April,  1831, 
he  began  practice  at  Plainfield.     In  September,  ^-^^^ 

1833,  he  removed  to  New  Ipswich,  and  in  1837  ^^^^^ 

went  to  Concord,  Mass.     Late  in   1839,  he  met  f     -sJ^ 

a  ladv  who  had  been  subject  to  frequent  attacks  F*"  ""  -^g  i 

of  enteralgia,  very  severe  in  character  and  un-  tC1s.'^K 

yielding  to   allopathic  treatment.      She  told  him  ^^J|B^  j 

of  the  good  results  from  homoeopathic  treatment  ^^|^||^^^^^   ' 

and  he  decided  to  look  into  the  matter,  but  found  .^^^^^^^^^^^H 

it  dif^cult  to  obtain  means  to  experiment.     His  ^^^B^^^^^^Vi 

professional  brethren  were  ready  with  abuse  of  ^^^^^^^^^^^V 

homoeopathy,  denouncing  it  as  arrant  quackery.  ^^^^^^^^^^m    \ 

He  finally  obtained  some  books  and  subscribed  .  ^^^^^^^^^___J 

for   the    "  Homoeopathic    Examiner."      Later   he 

obtained    Hahnemann's    Organon.      Experiment  Geo.  Russell,  ]\I.  D. 

satisfied  him,  and  he  became  a  homoeopathist.    In 
1844  he  went  to  Bangor,  Me.,  where  he  passed  his  life. 

The  first  homoeopathic  physician  in  Cambridge  was  Dr.  Robert  Wessel- 
hoeft,  brother  of  Dr.  William  Wesselhoeft.  He  was  a  graduate  of  Basle,  and 
came  to  America  in  1840  and  settled  in  Cambridge  in  the  summer  of  1841. 
He  practiced  there  four  }ears.  In  1845  he  removed  to  Boston,  and  a  year 
later  went  to  Brattleboro,  Vt.,  where  he  founded  a  hydropathic  establish- 
ment with  employed  homoeopathic  medication. 

In  November,  1847.  Hiram  Luce  Chase  settled  in  Cambridge.  He  was 
born  in  Boston,  May  19,,  1825,  and  graduated  from  Harvard  Medical  School 
in  1846.  About  the  time  of  graduating,  his  attention  was  called  to  homoe- 
opathv  and  he  entered  the  ofifice  of  Dr.  Samuel  Gregg  to  study  its  doctrines. 
He  settled  in  Cambridge,  joined  the  fraternity,  and  soon  built  up  a  large 

As  early  as  1844  Rev.  Dr.  Davis,  principal  of  Westfield  Academy,  prac- 
ticed homoeopathy  as  a  layman,  and  owing  to'  his  successful  treatment  of 
some  cases  during  an  epidemic  period.  Dr.  Jehial  Abbott,  a  practicing  allo- 
pathic physician  of  Westfield,  was  led  to  investigate  homoeopathic  teachings. 
Dr.  Abbott  was  born  in  Tolland,  Conn.,  September  3,  1795,  and  graduated 
from  Yale  Medical  School.  It  is  probable  that  he  commenced  to  investigate 


homoeopathy  about  1840.     He  joined  the  fraternity  in  1845.     He  passed  his 
life  in  Westfield.     His  death  occurred  September  23,  1872. 

Dr.  Charles  W.  Taylor,  the  next  practitioner  in  Westfield,  was  born  De- 
cember 26,  1820,  at  Ashburnham,  Mass.  He  graduated  from  the  Western 
Homoeopathic  College  at  Qeveland  in  1853,  ^^^  began  practice  at  Westfield. 
He  removed  to  Maiden  in  1856,  and  from  there  to  New.tonville. 

Dr.  Denton  George  Woodvine  was  born  at  Little  Meadley,  England, 
May  3,  1834.  His  parents  came  to  America  while  he  was  an  infant,  and 
settled  in  Albany,  N.  Y.  When  he  was  eighteen  he  went  to  Springfield,  where 
he  was  encouraged  by  Drs.  Swazey  and  Collins  to  study  medicine.  He  at- 
tended lectures  in  Philadelphia  and  received  a  diploma  from  the  eclectic 
college  there  in  1857.  He  took  the  practice  of  Dr.  C.  W.  Taylor  in  1857, 
remaining  in  Westfield  until  1866,  when  he  graduated  from  the  University 
of  Pennsylvania.  From  this  time  he  practiced  in  Boston.  He  died  Novem-  • 
ber  23,  1894.     Dr.  Frank  Mullen  located  in  Westfield  in  1866. 

In  Worcester  Dr.  Joseph  Birnstill  was  the  first  homoeopathic  practi- 
tioner, locating  there  in  1844.  He  was  born  in  Rastadt,  Baden,  Germany, 
August  9,  1809.  He  was  educated  at  the  universities  of  Frieberg  and  Heid- 
elburg,  studied  medicine  at  Wurzburg  under  Schoenlein,  and  was  converted 
to  homoeopathy  by  Dr.  Greisselich.  He  left  Germany  for  political  reasons 
in  May,  1833,  landed  in  New  York  July  10,  and  soon  after  went  to  Dunkirk, 
N.  Y.,  at  a  time  when  homoeopathy  was  unknown  in  Chautauqua  county.  He 
could  speak  only  German,  and  as  no  one  could  understand  him  he  remained 
there  but  eight  months,  then  going  to  Westfield  in  the  same  county.  He 
gradually  acquired  a  knowledge  of  English  and  his  practice  increased  rap- 
idly. Two  years  later  he  went  to  Buffalo  for  a  few  months,  and  then  re- 
turned to  Westfield,  but  when  he  applied  for  membership  in  the  Chautauqua 
County  Medical  Society,  although  he  gave  ample  evidence  of  having  a  medi- 
cal degree,  he  was  rejected  because  he  was  practicing  homoeopathy.  More- 
over, he  was  liable  to  prosecution  and  fine  under  the  medical  law  of  the 
time.  His  poverty  and  foreign  birth,  with  the  ridicule  of  the  physicians, 
drove  him  away.  He  went  to  Erie,  Pa.,  in  1839,  ^^'^  thence  to  Massillon, 
O.,  where  his  health  failed.  He  then  went  to  Worcester  in  1844,  and  prac- 
ticed there  three  years.  In  1847  went  to  Boston,  and  in  1849  to  Newton 
Corners,  where  he  built  up  an  extensive  practice,  and  where  he  died  Feb- 
ruary 16,  1867,  aged  fifty-six  years.  In  1849  ^""^  was  one  of  the  editors  of 
the  "  Quarterly  Homoeopathic  Journal." 

In  1849  Dr.  Joseph  K.  Clark,  who  had  just  graduated  from  the  Homoe- 
opathic Medical  College  of  Pennsylvania,  located  in  Worcester,  In  1855  he 
went  to  Elizabethtown,  Ohio,  and  thence  to  Louisville,  Ky. 

In  1849  Dr.  Lemuel  Bliss  Nichols  settled  in  Worcester.  He  was  born 
in  Bradford,  N.  H.,  October  6,  1816.  He  graduated  at  Brown  University 
in  1842,  taught  in  the  Arnold  street  grammar  school.  Providence,  R.  I.,  for 
several  years,  studied  medicine  with  Dr.  A.  H.  Okie,  a  homoeopathic  physi- 
cian of  Providence,  and  graduated  at  Philadelphia  in  1848  or  1850.  He 
died  September  28,  1883.  His  son.  Dr.  Charles  L.  Nichols,  succeeded  him 
in  his  practice  and  is  still  in  Worcester. 

In  1854  Rev.  Aurin  Bugbee  located  at  Worcester.  He  claimed  to  have 
introduced  homoeopathy  into  Worcester  county,  having  settled  at  Charlton 
as  early  as  1840.  In  1856  he  attended  medical  lectures  in  Boston,  and  aftet^ 
ward  went  to  Warren,  Vt.,  where  he  died  in  1859. 


Dr.  J.  E.  Linnell  succeeded  Dr.  Clark.  He  was  a  graduate  of  Amherst 
College,  and  of  the  medical  school  at  Dartmouth  in  1844.  While  in  practice 
at  East  Douglas  in  1853  he  became  interested  in  and  began  the  practice  of 
homoeopathy.  He  went  to  Worcester  in  January,  1855,  remaining  there  un- 
til 1866,  when  faiHng  health  caused  him  to  go  to  Norwich,  Conn.  Dr.  Will- 
iam Baker  Chamberlain  established  himself  in  Worcester  in  1866.  He  had 
previously  practiced  in  Fitchburg,  having  come  from  Kenne,  N.  H.  He  died 
in  Worcester. 

In  1857  Drs.  Jonathan  E.  Linnell,  Lemuel  Bliss  Nichols  and  Dr.  Rosen- 
thal! were  in  practice  at  Worcester.  In  1875  there  were  six  homoeopathic 
physicians  in  the  city;  in  1882,  9;  1899,  24. 

Dr.  Mary  G.  Baker  graduated  in  1862,  and  practiced  homoeopathy  in 
Middleboro  until  1868,  when  she  went  to  Worcester, 

Dr.  Joseph  Birnstill  located  in  Newton  in  1849.  In  1863  Dr.  Edward 
P.  Scales  settled  there.  He  was  born  in  Henniker,  N.  H.,  July  17,  1831,  studied 
with  his  brother.  Dr.  Scales  of  Woburn,  and  in  1857  attended  medical  lectures 
at  Dartmouth.  In  March,  1859,  he  graduated  from  the  Cleveland  Homoe- 
pathic  College  and  began  practice  at  Norwood,  where  he  remained  until  1861. 
He  then  practiced  at  Winchester,  and  located  in  1863  ^^  Newton.  He  fell 
while  leaving  the  library  at  Newton,  and  died  from  the  injury  at  the  Newton 

In  Egremont  Dr.  H.  D.  Chapman  began  the  practice  of  homoeopathy  in 
1846,  remaining  until  1856,  when  he  went  to  Virginia.  He  was  the  pioneer 
of  homoeopathy  in  Berkshire  county.  As  early  as  1840  homoeopathy  was 
planted  in  Pittsfield,  and  found  its  way  within  the  walls  of  the  Berkshire 
Medical  College,  for  many  of  the  students  had  seen  the  good  effects  of  the 
little  doses ;  but  no  regular  homoeopathic  practitioner  settled  in  Pittsfield  un- 
til 1847,  when  Dr.  Van  Vleck,  a  graduate  of  the  College  of  Physicians  and 
Surgeons  of  New  York,  commenced  practice  there.  Dr.  Van  Vleck  remained 
until  1851  and  then  he  went  to  Kinderhook,  N.  Y.  In  1849  Charles  Bailey 
located  in  Pittsfield.  He  was  born  in  East  Medway,  Mass.,  September  2, 
1 82 1,  and  was  educated  at  Brown  University.  He  studied  medicine  with  Dr. 
Nathaniel  Miller,  attended  lectures  at  Mason  Street  College,  Boston,  also  at 
the  Chelsea  Marine  Hospital,  and  in  1843  graduated  at  Berkshire  Medical 
College.  He  began  practice  in  Springfield,  remained  there  four  years,  then 
went  to  Holyoke  for  two  and  a  half  years,  and  afterward  took  a  journey  to 
the  south.  He  stopped  at  Philadelphia  on  the  way  home  to  attend  a  course 
of  lectures  at  the  homoeopathic  college,  and  while  there  became  enthusiastic 
on  homoeopathy.  When  he  went  south  he  had  been  in  poor  health,  and  he 
regained  it  by  homoeopathic  treatment.  He  returned  to  Pittsfield  in  1849- 
50  and  commenced  the  practice  of  homoeopathy.  Dr.  Harvey  Cole,  a  grad- 
uate of  Berkshire  Medical  College,  practiced  from  1850  to  1868,  and  then 
he  went  to  Hartford,  Conn.  Dr.  Lorenzo  Waite,  also  a  Berkshire  graduate, 
located  in  Pittsfield  in   1857. 

In  Attleborough  Dr.  W.  W.  Hebber  was  the  first  settled  homoeopathic 
physician.  He  came  in  1848  and  remained  until  1850.  Dr.  Ira  Barrows  at 
Norton  had,  however,  previously  practiced  in  the  town.  In  1852  Dr.  Edward 
Sanford,  a  graduate  of  Harvard  in  that  year,  settled  in  Attleborough.  In 
1854  Dr.  James  W.  Foster  located  at  North  Attleborough. 

The  first  homoeopathic  physician  in  Methuen  was  Dr.  Stephen  Madison 
Gale,  who  was  practicing  allopathy  there  at  the  time  he  adopted  the  new 


system.  In  1850  he  went  to  Newburyport.  Dr.  Arthur  J.  French  practiceil 
for  a  time  at  A'lethuen.  Dr.  WilHam  H.  Lougee  also  practiced  there  previous 
to  i860. 

Dr.  J.  B.  Dinsmore  introduced  homoeopathy  in  Haverhill  and  later  went 
to  Brooklyn,  N.  Y.,  and  thence  to  San  Francisco.  He  was  succeeded  by 
Dr.  Benjamin  Edwards  Sawyer,  who  was  born  at  Cape  Elizabeth,  Me.,  Aug- 
ust II,  181 1.  He  graduated  at  Bowdoin  Medical  School  in  1837,  and  lo- 
cated at  Boscawen,  N.  H.,  where  he  began  to  practice  allopathy.  In  1845 
he  became  convinced  of  the  truth  of  homoeopathy  and  adopted  it  in  practice. 
At  this  time  he  went  to.  Concord,  then  the  center  of  an  anti-slavery  circle. 
In  1854  he  went  to  Haverhill,  locating  there  permanently.  He  died  in  Octo- 
ber, 1879. 

In  1853  ^^-  ^^^  Eaton  Chase,  a  graduate  of  Wesleyan  University  in 
1850,  of  the  Berkshire  Medical  School  in  1852,  of  the  Homoeopathic  Medical 
College  of  Pennsylvania  and  also  the  Jefferson  Medical  College  in  1853,  lo- 
cated at  Haverhill.     He  was  born  at  Newton,  N.  H.,  June  i,  1831. 

Although'  the  residents  of  Lawrence  had  employed  homoeopathic  treat- 
ment previously,  it  was  not  until  1849  ^^^t  its  first  practitioner,  Dr.  Jerome 
Harris,  settled  there.  In  a  letter  dated  1870,  Dr.  Harris  himself  said:  "I 
graduated  at  Bowdoin  College,  1830,  practiced  allopathy  till  1845,  then 
adopted  homoeopathy  and  have  practiced  it  ever  since  at  Lawrence,  Mass., 
Dover,  N.  H.,  Norwich,  Conn.,  and  am  now  practicing  it  here  at  Woon- 
socket,  R.  I." 

Dr.  Harris  left  Lawrence,  in  1854  to  go  to  Dover  as  successor  to  Dr.  E. 
U.  Jones.  Dr.  A.  W.  Pike,  graduate  of  Harvard  Medical  School,  came  from 
Dover,  N.  H.,  in  1853,  and  died  in  1859.  ^^  1855  Dr.  Charles  Henry  Farns- 
worth,  a  graduate  of  New  York  University  in  1847,  commenced  to  practice 
homoeopathy.  .  He  remained  until  1858  and  then  went  to  East  Cambridge. 
Dr.  Arthur  J.  French,  graduate  of  Vermont  Medical  College  in  1848,  went 
from  Methuen  to  Lawrence  in  1857.  I^i  1861  Dr.  William  Hatch  Lougee 
settled  in  Lawrence.  He  was  born  at  Hanover,  N.  H.,'  February  3,  1832, 
studied  medicine  with  Dr.  Alpheus  Morrill,  of  Concord,  N.  H.,  attended 
Dartmouth  Medical  School  in  1855,  and  graduated  from  the  Homoeopathic 
Medical  College  of  Pennsylvania  in  1857.  He  commenced  practice  in  Methuen 
in  1857,  remaining  there  five  years  and  going  thence  to  Lawrence.  From 
1878  to  1880  he  was  in  Europe,  engaged  in  study  and  travel.  He  died  at 
Lawrence,  November  18,  1897.     Dr.  D.  Humphrey  located  there  in  1861. 

Dr.  J.  R.  Gifford  began  the  practice  of  homoeopathy  in  Lee  in  185 1,  con- 
tinuing until  his  death  in  March,  1866.  Dr.  C.  W.  Stratton  settled  in  Lee 
in  1867.  In  Stockbridge  Dr.  W.  L.  R.  Perrine  commenced  practice  in  1850, 
stayed  two  years  and  then  went  to  Hudson,  N.  Y. 

Dr.  H.  C.  Champlin,  a  graduate  of  Albany  iNIedical  College,  began  the 
practice  of  homoeopathy  in  Otis,  Berkshire  county,  in  1851.  In  Dedham,  al- 
though Dr.  Gregg  had  been  called  into  that  town  before  any  homoeopathic 
physician  was  settled  there,  it  was  in  1853  that  Dr.  Joseph  D.  Paine,  the  first 
one,  located  there  for  practice.  He  remained  ten  years  and  then  went  to 

Dr.  J.  E.  Linnell  located  at  East  Douglass  in  1854.  He  went  the  next 
year  to  Worcester,  and  was  followed  in  East  Douglass  by  Dr.  H.  H.  Darling. 
About   1855   T^''-   Bennett,  of  Uxbridge,  ado])te(l   homoeopathy. 

The  first  hcmcTeopathic  ])hysician  to  settle  in   Micldleliorough   was  Dr.  E. 



C.  Knight,  \vhi)  began  practice  there  about  1853.  and  after  iour  years  went 
to  Illinois.  Dr.  J.  C.  Baker  succeeded  Dr.  Knight  and  practiced  in  Uxbridge 
until  his  death  in  1865.  In  Fitchburg  homceo])athy  had  been  introduced  pre- 
vious to  1855,  but  it  was  not  until  that  year  that  the  first  homoeopathist,  Dr. 
James  Chester  Freeland.  located  there.  He  was  the  son  of  Dr.  J.  C.  Free- 
land,  born  in  Becket,  Mass.,  June  21,  1831.  He  studied  with  his  father,  at- 
tended lectures  at  Pittsficld,  and  graduated  at  Western  Homoeopathic  Medi- 
cal College  of  Cleveland  in  1862.  In  1855  ^''^  went  with  his  father's  family 
to  Fitchburg,  where,  with  the  exception  of  a  year '  with  Dr.  Chamberlain 
in  Keene,  N.  H..  he  practiced  until  his  death,  April  23,  1871; 

Dr.  Daniel  Brainard  W'hittier  was  born  in  Gofifstown,  N.  H.,  October 
21,  1834.  He  studied  medicine  with  his  brother-in-law,  Dr.  W.  B.  Cham- 
berlain of  Keene,  attended  lectures  at  Harvard  Medical  College  in  1859-60, 
and  graduated  at  New  York  Homoeopathic  Medical  College  in  March,  1863. 
In  1 86 1  he  went  to  Fitchburg  to  assist  Dr.  Freeland.  After  graduation  he 
returned  and  practiced  there  until  his  death,  April  16,  1895. 

Dr.  Oliver  Leech  Bradford  settled  in  Fitchburg  in  1877,  having  come 
there  from  Andover.  He  was  a  native  of  Francestown,  N.  H.,  born  No- 
vember 5,  1832.  Dr.  C.  A.  Brooks  graduated  from  the  Homoeopathic  Medi- 
cal College  of  Pennsylvania  in  1857  s"<^  went  to  Clinton.  Dr.  H.  A.  Van 
Deusen  commenced  practicing  homoeopathy  in  Great  Barrington  in  1858. 
Dr.  William  Babbitt,  a  graduate  of  the  University  of  New  York  in  1859, 
began  the  practice  of  homoeopathy  in  Braintree  in  i860,  but  went  to  the 
war  and  was  promoted  surgeon  of  103d  U.  S.  Inf.  After  his  return  he  set- 
tled in  Randolph.  Dr.  John  Howard  Sherman  located  in  Nantucket  in  1857. 
He  was  a  graduate  of  the  Castleton  Medical  College,  Vermont,  in  1857.  tie 
remained  in  Nantucket  four  years,  then  went  to  San  Francisco,  remaining 
four  years,  and  practiced  at  Middleboro,  Mass.,  for  four  and  a  half  years. 
In  May,  1870,  he  settled  in  Lynn. 

Homoeopathic  physicians  in  Massachusetts  previous  to  i860.  The  date 
preceding  the  name  indicates  the  year  the  physician  began  the  practice  of 
homoeopathy.  The  character  '■'  indicates  that  the  practitioner  originally  was 
of  some  other  school ;  the  character  x  indicates  that  the  physician  practiced 
medicine  before  the  date  given. 



Barker,  Lemuel  M. 



Birnstill.  D.  F.  x 



Birnstill,    Joseph 



Bnshnel],  William  x 



Capen,  Robert  * 



Cross,  William   Plumer  * 



Clark,    Luther    * 



Cullis,  Charles 



Cutler,   William   W. 



Dennett,  George  William 



Flagg,  Josiah  Foster 



Fuller,  Milton  * 



Geist,  Christian  F.             * 



Gregg,  Samuel  * 



Gove,  H.  X 



Hale,  Eben 


Hall,  L.  X 

Hernisz,   Stanislaus   x 
Hoffendahl,   Charles   Frederick 
Hoffendahl,  Herman  L.   H. 
Ingalls,  William,  Sr.  * 
Krebs,   Francis   Hugo 
Martin,  Joseph  Lloj'd 
Macfarland,    Lafavette 
Newell,  R.  W.  x' 
Osgood,  David  * 
Palmer,   Frederick   Niles 
Pease,  Giles 
Russell,  George  * 
Sanders,   Orrin   S.   * 
Sandicky,    D.    F. 
Sherman,   John    Howard 



1853  Talbot,  Israel  Tisdale 

1843  Tarbell.  John  Adams  * 

1845  Thayer,  David  * 

1855  Weeks,  Benjamin  x 

1835  Wesselhoeft,   William   * 

1857  Wesselhoeft,   William    Palmer 

1840  Wesselhoeft,  Robert 

1856  Wesselhoeft,    Conrad 

1857  West,  Benjamin  H.  x 
1855  Woodbury,   John    Harvey 


1840  Abbott,  Jehiel   *  Westfield  1839 

1840  Alden,    Samuel    *    Bridgewater  1857 

1850  Adams,   Charles   F.    Waltham  1854 

1857  Allen,  E.  C.  x  South  Hadley  1852 

1853  Angell.  Henry  C.  Lynn.  1855 
1859  Babbitt,    Warren    M.     Randolph  1848 

1846  Baker,  George  *  Chelsea  1857 

1856  Baker,   Joseph  C.     Middleboro  1841 

1848  Bailey,  Charles  *  Pittsfield  i860 

1857  Bailey,  L.  x  Pittsfield  1849 
1845  Barrows,    George     Taunton  1849 

1842  Barrows,  Ira  *  Norton  1840 
i860  Berry,   Milton  *  Andover  1843 

1847  Bell,  Henry  W.  *  x  Nantucket  1832 

1858  Bellows,    Albert   J.     Roxbury  1851 

1844  Birustill,  Joseph     Newton   Center  1846 

1845  Bianchini,  Dr.  Newburyport  1838 
1852  Blaisdell,  John  M.  Lynn  1848 
1857  Blake,  J.  x  Wrentham  1857 
1857  Blanding,  A.  O.  x  Rehoboth  1850 

1859  Bowen,  Eleazer  *  hynn  1856 
1857  Briggs,  D.  H.  x  Abington  1849 
1857  Brooks,  Charles  A.     Clinton  1853 

1852  Brown,  Josiah  *  Lynn  ■  1856 
1857  Brown,  S.  O.  x  Ware  1866 
1840  Bugbee,   Aurin    (Rev.)     Charlton  1848 

1854  Burpee,  John  A.  Maiden  1853 
1854  Cate,   H.  J.    Northampton  1845 

1845  Cate,   Shadrach  M.     Lynn  1855 

1839  Capen,  Robert  *  Plymouth  1857 

1846  Chase,   Hiram   L.     Cambridge  1850 

1853  Chase,  Ira  E.  Haverhill  1842 
1846  Chapman,  H.  D.  Egremont  1839 
....  Chisholm,    W.    R.     Greenfield  1849 

1849  Clark,   Joseph    K.     Worcester  1857 

1854  Clarke,  John  Lewis     Fall   River  1848 

1852  Clarke,  Henry  B.      New  Bedford  1856 

1840  Clarke,  Frances  H.  *  Andover  1854 
1846  Colby,  Isaac  *  Salem  1857 

1850  Collins,  Henry  A.  Springfield  1852 
1850  Cole,    Harvey     Pittsfield 

1853  Cross,  William   P.  *  Nantucket  1S51 

1856  Cushing,  Alvin  M.  Lynn  1853 
1844  Cummings,  James  M.  *  Groton  1857 
1859  Cummings,  E.  P.  x  Newburyport  1845 
1846  De  Gersdorfif,  Ernst  B.  *  Andover 

1857  Darling.  H.  H.  x  Charlton  1858 

1844  Davis,    Rev.    Dr.    Westfield  1857 

1843  Dean,  Amos  Easton  1847 
1853  Dinsmore.  J.  Pitman  Haverhill  1850 
1850  Eastman,  E.  P.  *  Lynn  .... 

1855  Farnswnrlh,  Charles  H.  *  Lawrence  1852 
1857  Fiske,  J.   X   Fall   River  1857 

1845  Fiske,  Isaac     Fall  River  1857 

Floto,  John  Henry     Salem 
Ford,  C.  X  Hyannis 
Foster,  J.  W.     North  Attleborough 
Freeland,    Chester   J.     Fitchburg 
Freeland,  J.  C.     Fitchburg 
French,   A.   J.     Methuen 
Fritchie,  C.  F.  x  Dorchester 
Fuller,  Milton  *  Medford 
Gale,  Josiah  B.  *  Salisbury 
Gale,  Stephen  M.  *  Newburyport 
Gale,  Amory  *'  East  Medway 
Gallup,  William  *  Concord 
Gardiner,  William  A.     Salem 
Geist,   Christian  F.    Lowell 
Gifford,  J.  B.     Lee 
Graves,    Samuel   W.     Springfield 
Gregg,  Samuel  *  Medford 
■  Hannam,  D.  B.  *  Beverly 
Harman,  D.  B.  x  Danvers 
Harris,  Charles  W.  *  Taunton 
Harris,  Handy  x  Taunton 
Harris,  Jerome  *  Lawrence 
Harris,  John  T.     Taunton 
Hatch,  Horace  x  Brookline 
Hayward,  Joseph  W.  *  Taunton 
Hebberd,   W.    W.     Attleborough 
Hedenberg,  James      Medford 
Holt.   Daniel  *  Lowell 
Horton,  Freeman  *  Lynn 
Houatt,  J.  X  Andover 
Howarth,  J 

Ingalls,  William  *  Worcester 
Jackson,   Mercy  B.     Plymouth 
Jackson,  William  F.     Roxbury 
Jenks,  C.  F.  E.  x  Wareham 
Johnson,   Daniel   A.    *   Lynn 
Johnson.  O.  O.  x  Sudbury 
Jones,   Elisha  Utley       Taunton 
King,  A.  X  Palmer 
Knight,      Elam       Clark     *     Middle- 
Lindsay,   Albert      Roxbury 
Linnell,  Jonathan  E.  *  Worcester 
Lougee,   William   Hatch       Lawrence 
Matthes,    Gustavus    F.    *    New    Bed- 
Morrill,    Ezekiel   x 
Morse,  E.  E.  x  Medway  Village 
Neilson,  James   C.     Charlestown 
Nichols.   Lemuel   Bliss     Worcester 
Nute,'  T.  R.     Roxbury 
Paine,  Joseph  P.     Dedham 
Parker,   Daniel   x  Billcrica 
Parker,  Hiram  x  Lowell 



1840  Pease,  Giles     Cambridge  1842 

1857  Penniman,   J.   A.     Brookfield  1840 

1850  Perrine,   W.    L.  R.     Stockbridge  1853 

1857  Perry,  W.  F.  x  Mansfield  1856 

1857  Pierce,  Dr.  x  Chicopee  1847 

1844  Pike,  A.  J.  Lowell  1857 
1857  Porter,  I.  x  Charlton  1847 
1857  Roberts,  J.  x  Northampton  1854 

1853  Roberts,  Osmore  O.  Northampton  1855 
1837  Roche,   Manning      New   Bedford  1837 

1847  Rounds,  Benjamin  M.  *  Norton  1857 
1857  Rosenthal,  Gustavus  M.  x     Worces-  1853 

ter  1855 

1840  Russell,  George  *  Waltham  1857 

1855  Saunders,    Charles   F.      Waltham  1840 

1852  Sanford,  Edward     East  Attleborough  1839 

1857  Sanford,   Enoch  W.     Brookline  1856 

1845  Sawyer,   Benjamin   E.   *   Haverhill  1840 

1848  Scales,  Thomas  S.  Woburn  1857 
1859  Scales,  Edward  P.     Newton  1850 

1844  Schlegel  1839 

1845  Shackford,  Rufus  Lowell  1856 
1857  Shepardson,  N.  x  Adams  1857 

1854  Sisson,  Edward  R.  New  Bedford  1858 
1857  Spencer,  Charles  L.  x  New  Bedford  1852 
1839  Spooner,  John  P.  *  Dorchester  181^7 
1857  Steen,  A.  L.  x  Foxborough  1857 

1855  Stone,   Alfred   B.     Medford 

Swazey,  George  W.  *  Newburyport 
Swan,  Daniel  *  Medford 
Taylor,  Charles  W.    Westfield 
Tomlinson,    Rev.     Plymouth 
Train,  Horace  D.    Roxbury 
Van  Deusen,  H.  A.  x  Egremont 
Van   Vleck,   Dr.     Pittsfield 
Waite,   Lorenzo     Pittsfield 
Wales,  Thomas  B.   x  Waltham 
Walker,    Charles   *    Northampton 
Walker,  Charles,  Jr.  x  Lowell 
Walker,    Charles   H.     Chelsea 
Walter,    Joseph    S.     Gloucester 
Walter,  J.  B.  x  Salem 
Washburn,  Nahum  *  Bridgewater 
Weld,   C.  M.  *  Jamaica  Plain 
West.  Benjamin  H.  x  Neponsit 
Wesselhoeft,  Robert     Cambridge 
Whitney,  J.  x  Princeton 
Wilder,   Daniel     New   Bedford 
Wild,  Charles  *     Brookline 
Wild,  Edward  A.  x  Brookline 
Wilson,  G.  H.  x  Conway 
Willis,  L.  Murray  x  Charlestown 
Wood,   John   Gage     Salem 
Woodbury,   Elwell  x  Medford 
Woodvine,   Denton   G.     Westfield 




By  Thomas  Lindsley  Bradford,  M.  D. 

Occupation  of  New  Jersey  by  Homoeopaths  from  New  York  on  the  North  and  Philadel- 
phia on  the  West — The  First  Practitioners  Converts  from  the  Allopathic  Ranks — 
Dr.  Isaac  Moreau  Ward  the  Pioneer — Early  Society  Organization — Pioneers  rf 
Homoeopathy  in  the  Several  Counties  of  New  Jersey — Reminiscences  of  Prominent 
Early  Practitioners. 

In  the  early  outspreading  of  homoeopathy  from  the  centers  in  which  the 
new  system  first  foimd  an  abiding  place  in  America,  it  is  not  surprising  that 
New  Jersey  caught  the  spirit  of  the  doctrine  before  many  of  the  more  popu- 
lous states  both  of  the  east  and  the  west.  On  the  north  and  east  lay  New 
York  with  its  great  metropolis  separated  from  New  Jersey  only  by  the  Hud- 
son river;  on  the  west  the  great  commonwealth  of  Pennsylvania,  with  the 
metropolitan  city  of' Philadelphia  distant  from  her  borders  only  by  the  width 
of  the  Delaware ;  and  these  great  cities  at  the  time  of  which  we  write  were 
the  chief  centers  of  homoeopathy  in  America  and  perhaps  of  the  world. 
Tradition  has  it  that  the  seed  of  homoeopathy  was  sown  in  fertile  New  Jer- 
sey soil  in  the  year  1838,  and  while  Dr.  Isaac  Moreau  Ward  is  generally  con- 
ceded to  have  been  the  pioneer  of  the  new  school  within  the  bounds  of  the 
state,  lie  is  not  traced  to  the  field  of  practice  there  earlier  than  1839,  but  Her- 
ing  is  credited  with  having  published  "  The  Family  Adviser  "  in  Camden, 
opposite  Philadelphia,  in  1838;  and  if  Hering  did  that  work  in  that  city  at 
the  time  indicated,  the  mference  is  fair  that  he  also  preached  and  practiced 
among  the  Camden  people  the  doctrines  in  which  he  was  so  intensely  inter- 

However  this  may  have  been,  there  is  no  question  that  homoeopathy 
found  lodgement  in  New  Jersey  in  1839  or  1840,  when  Ward  became  its  exem- 
plar in  the  interior  town  of  Bloomficld,  having  acquired  his  understanding  of 
the  new  healing  art  through  the  agency  of  those  old  master  spirits  of  homoe- 
opath)^— Ball,  Gray  and  Hull,  of  New  York  city.  The  germ  soon  grew  into 
active  organism,  and  within  the  next  half  score  of  years  the  work  of  these 
teachers,  with  the  assistance  of  another  equally  interested  coterie  in  Phila- 
delphia, found  results  in  the  achievements  of  more  than  a  dozen  zealous  prac- 
titioners in  the  state.  In  1846  the  strength  of  the  profession  was  such  that 
its  representatives  organized  a  branch  of  the  American  Institute  of  Ilomoe- 
opathy,  and  in  1854  the  New  Jersey  State  Homoeopathic  Medical  Society  was 
brought  into  existence.  These  were  followed  by  district,  county  and  munici- 
pal societies  and  clubs  until  the  state  was  well  provided  with  organizations 
of  the  kind,  each  of  which  has  served  a  useful  purpose  in  advancing  the  wel- 
fare of  the  school  whose  disciples  the  members  have  been.  Statistics  show 
that  in  1857  there  were  forty-six  homoeopathic  physicians  in  the  state;  in. 
1870,  196;  1880,  200;  1899.  347;  and  in   1904,  333. 



The  first  homoeopathic  society  in  New  Jersey  was  the  New  Jersey  Branch 
of  the  American  Institute  of  Homoeopathy,  which  was  organized  at  Mount 
Holly,  July  20,  1846.  On  that  occasion  Dr.  J.  Richardson  Andrews  was 
chairman ;  M.  J.  Rhees,  secretary ;  Drs.  John  A.  Paine  and  J.  C.  Boardman, 
censors.  The  next  meeting  was  held  November  26,  1846,  when  only  Drs. 
Boardman,  Paine  and  Rhees  were  present.  The  constitution  and  by-laws  were 
published  and  promulgated  in  1846,  and  the  society  was  in  existence  in  1850, 
but  was  decadent  and  not  recognized  as  a  legally  organized  body  under  the 
laws  then  in  force.  Under  the  then  existing  statutes  any  person  practicing 
medicine  in  the  state  who  had  not  the  diploma  of  an  allopathic  college,  or  who 
had  not  been  licensed  by  an  authorized  medical  society  was  deemed  to  be 
practicing  unlawfully  and  liable  to  a  fine  of  $25  for  each  prescription,  one- 
half  of  said  fine  to  go  to  the  prosecutor;  but  in  1854  this  obnoxious  and  un- 
just law  was  repealed,  and  thereafter  homoeopathy  had  legal  rights  in  the 

At  a  meeting  held  in  Trenton,  February  13,  1855,  a  state  homoeopathic 
medical  society  was  organized,  with  officers  as  follows :  Dr.  Thomas  Lafon 
of  Newark,  president;  Drs.  William  A.  Durrie  of  Jersey  City,  J.  R.  Andrews 
of  Camden  and  J.  C.  Boardman  of  Trenton,  vice-presidents ;  Dr.  J.  B.  Pether- 
bridge  of  Trenton,  recording  secretary ;  Dr.  J.  J.  Youlin  of  Jersey  City,  pro- 
visional secretary ;  Dr.  J.  B.  Scott  of  New  Brunswick,  corresponding  secre- 
tary ;  Dr.  P.  E.  Vastine  of  Trenton,  treasurer ;  Drs.  J.  D.  Annin,  J.  D.  Moore, 
R.  M.  Wilkinson,  J.  S.  Bassett  and  R.  Titsworth,  censors.  The  society  con- 
tinued to  hold  meetings  until  1858,  after  which  there  is  no  record  of  any 
such,  though  probably  the  members  held  informal  gatherings.  On  February 
4,  1868,  a  reorganization  meeting  was  held  in  Jersey  City,  and  on  April  15 
following  the  old  society  was  revived,  with  Dr.  Youlin  president  and  Dr. 
Tompkins  secretary.  This  society  was  incorporated  February  9,  1870,  under 
the  name  of  New  Jersey  State  Homoeopathic  Medical  Society,  by  which  it 
has  since  been  known.  It  holds  semi-annual  meetings  in  May  and  October 
in  different  places  in  the  state;  membership,  230.  The  society  celebrated  its 
semi-centennial  anniversary  at  Deal  Beach,  June  3-4,  1903. 

The  Western  District  New  Jersey  Homoeopathic  Medical  Society  was 
organized  in  Camden,  May  19,  1869,  at  which  time  also  a  constitution  was 
adopted  and  officers  elected,  as  follows:  Dr.  D.  R.  Gardiner  of  Woodbury, 
president ;  Dr.  R.  M.  Wilkinson  of  Trenton,  vice-president ;  Dr.  Wallace 
McGeorge  of  Hightstown,  secretary;  Dr.  J.  G.  Streets  of  Bridgton,  treasurer; 
Drs.  W.  H.  Maline,  H.  F.  Hunt  and  Isaac  Cooper,  censors.  In  November, 
1869.  the  name  of  the  society  was  changed  to  West  Jersey  Homoeopathic 
Medical  Society,  and  under  that  name  was  incorporated  in  May,  1872.  It 
has  since  maintained  an  active  and  healthful  existence  and  meets  regularly 
in  Camden.     Its  membership  numbers  about  seventy-five  physicians. 

Among  the  other,  homoeopathic  societies  with  which  the  state  is  well  pro- 
vided, for  our  school  of  medicine  always  has  been  strong  in  New  Jersey,  there 
may  be  mentioned  the  Homoeopathic  Medical  Society  of  Camden,  organized 
in  1878;  the  Communipaw  Medical  Society,  organized  in  1886;  the  Eastern 
District  Homoeopathic  Medical  Society,  organized  February  6,  1868;  the 
Essex  County  Homoeopathic  Medical  Society,  organized  in  1885  ;  the  Hahne- 
mann Medical  Club  of  Plainfield,  organized  in   1885  and  dissolved  in   1889; 


the  Hudson  County  Homoeopathic  Medical  Society,  organized  -March  8,  1871 ; 
Hudson  Homoeopathic  Medico-Chirurgical  Society,  December  8,  1886;  Medi- 
cal Club  of  Northern  New  Jersey,  1882 ;  Newark  Homoeopathic  Medical  Un- 
ion, 1871-1885;  Newark,  Union  and  Hudson  Counties  Homoeopathic  Medical 
Society;  New  Jersey  Medical  Club,  March  29,  1869;  Trenton  Club  of  Homoe- 
opathic Physicians,  1888. 

The  West  Jersey  Homoeopathic  Hospital,  which  had.  its  beginning  in 
1892,  was  the  outgrowth  of  the  Camden  Homoeopathic  Hospital  and  Dispen- 
sary Association,  organized  and  incorporated  February  5,  1885,  and  opened 
for  patients  March  2  following.  On  March  22,  1888,  the  institution  was  re- 
moved from  its  original  quarters  to  a  new  location  on  West  and  Stevens 
streets.  This  building  was  purchased  for  $8,000,  and  was  provided  with  pub- 
lic and  private  wards,  operating  room.  etc.  For  a  time  considerable  interest 
was  taken  by  the  profession  in  the  welfare  of  the  hospital,  but  later  on  there 
seemed  to  be  a  decline,  and  in  December,  1890,  the  doors  were  closed,  the 
dispensary,  however,  remaining  in  operation  and  receiving  muncipal  aid.  In 
April,  1 891,  the  building  was  sold,  passing  into  the  ownership  of  the  West 
Jersey  Homoeopathic  Medical  Society,  by  whom  the  hospital  department  was 
re-opened  in  1892.  It  is  a  good  institution,  contains  forty  beds,  and  is  sup- 
ported largely  by  voluntary  contributions. 

The  William  McKinley  Memorial  Hospital  of  Trenton,  one  of  the  most 
worthy  charities  of  that  city,  formerly  imder  strict  homoeopathic  direction 
but  now  open  to  physicians  of  both  schools,  is  the  outgrowth  of  the  still 
older  Trenton  Homoeopathic  Hospital,  the  latter  dating  its  history  from  its 
dedication,  June  6,  1889,  and  its  formal  opening,  November  i  following.  The 
older  institution  and  its  training  school  for  nurses  were  maintained  until 
1902,  and  then  re-incorporated  under  the  name  of  The  William  McKinley 
Memorial  Hospital.  The  hospital  has  seventy-five  beds ;  value  of  property, 

St.  Mary's  Homoeopathic  Hospital  in  Passaic  was  incorporated  in  1895 
and  opened  for  patients  during  the  same  year,  and  then  was  an  allopathic 
institution,  su])ported  by  voluntary  contributions.  Its  medical  supervision 
passed  under  homoeopathic  control  in   1899. 

The  Passaic  Homoeopathic  Hospital  was  opened  October  27,  1897.  The 
first  staff  of  physicians  and  surgeons  was  chosen  from  the  ranks  of  the  allo- 
pathic profession,  but  in  1898  this  regulation  was  modified. 

The  Homoeopathic  Hospital  of  Essex  county,  in  Roseville,  was  incor- 
porated in  1903  by  the  Homoeopathic  Hospital  Association.  It  was  opened 
for  patients,  March  28,  1903. 


Dr.  Isaac  Moreau  Ward  was  the  first  resident  practitioner  of  homoe- 
opathy in  the  state.  He  became  interested  in  the  new  system  in  1839  or  1840. 
He  was  born  in  Bloomfield,  N.  J.,  October  23,  1806,  graduated  from  Yale 
College  in  1825,  studied  medicine  with  Dr.  Hosack  and  graduated  from  Rut- 
ger's  College  in  1829.  He  located  in  Newark  and  soon  established  a  large 
practice.  In  1832  when  the  cholera  appeared  in  New  York  he  was  chosen 
bv  the  state  and  county  societies  to  investigate  the  character  of  the  plague  and 
note  the  comparative  effects  of  different  remedial  agents.  He  saw  homoe- 
opathv  and  allopathy  tried  side  by  side  in  the  Park  Hospital,  and  the  superior 
advantages   of  homoeopathy   there   demonstrated.     Then   he   met   Dr.    Alonzo 


S.  Ball  of  New  York  at  a  religious  meeting  in  Newark,  and  invited  him 
to  dinner,  and  the  conversation  turning  on  homoeopathy,  he  learned  that  Ball 
had  adopted  its  practice  and  obtained  from  him  a  few  remedies  with,  which 
to  experiment  in  certain  cases.  Without  mentioning  to  his  patients  that  he 
had  made  any  change  in  his  school  of  medicine,  his  success  was  so  great  with 
the  homoeopathic  remedies  that  he  adopted  them  and  began  the  practice  of 
homceopathy.  In  1841  he  was  induced  to  go  to  Albany,  N.  Y.,  by  Drs.  Gray, 
Hull  and  Ball.  He  practiced  there  until  1849,  when  on  account  of  his  health 
he  retired  to  a  home  near  Newark,  giving  his  time  to  horticulture.  After 
several  years  he  again  began  practice.  From  1853  to  i860  he  held  chairs 
in  the  Homoeopathic  IMedical  College  of  Pennsylvania.     In    i860  he  became 

(icni-ge   W.   Richards,    M.    D. 

one  of  the  founders  of  the  New  York  Homoeopathic  Medical  College,  and 
for  a  time  was  its  dean  and  professor  of  obstetrics.  He  then  retired  to  his 
country  home  at  Lyons  farm,  where  he  practiced  only  among  friends  and 
neighbors  until  his  death,  which  occurred  March  24,  1895. 

Another  of  the  early  practitioners  of  Newark  was  Dr.  Jonathan  Dicken- 
son Annin.  He  was  born  at  Liberty  Corner,  N.  J.,  November  26,  1806.  He 
attended  lectures  at  the  College  of  Physicians  and  Surgeons  in  New  York, 
but  the  date  of  his  graduation  is  not  known.  He  commenced  practice  at  Irv- 
ington,  N.  J.,  and  afterward  removed  to  Newark.  In  1840  he  married  Eleanor 
Mead.  Some  time  after  1840  he  began  to  question  the  superiority  of  the 
allopathic  practice,  and  after  experimenting  began  to  regularly  practice  homoe- 
opathy.    He  became  a  member  of  the  American  Institute  of  Homoeopathy  in 


1846.  The  last  few  years  of  his  life  were  marked  by  extreme  weakness  and 
debility.    He  died  at  the  Sheldon  house,  Ocean  Grove,  September  26,  1883. 

Dr.  Thomas  Lafon  was  practicing  homoeopathy  in  Newark  in  1847.  He 
was  born  in  Chesterfield  county,  Va.,  in  1802.  In  1805  he  entered  the  medi- 
cal department  of  Transylvania  University,  graduating  therefrom.  Two 
years  later  he  became  interested  in  the  American  Board  of  Foreign  Missions, 
and  volunteered  to  go  as  medical  missionary  to  the  Sandwich  islands.  For 
seven  years  he  labored  there  both  as  doctor  and  spiritual  teacher.  At  the 
end  of  that  time  the  ill  health  of  his  wife,  and  the  condition  of  his  eyes,  com- 
pelled his  return  to  the  United  States.  After  a  few  months  of  rest  he  at- 
tended a  course  of  lectures  in  the  Philadelphia  Medical  College.  In  1846  he 
opened  an  office  in  Paterson,  N.  J.,  and  while  there  began  to  investigate  the 
claims  of  homoeopathy.  He  soon  became  satisfied  *  of  its  truth  and  openly 
avowed  and  Dr.  Lafon  introduced  homoeopathy  into  Passaic 
county.  In  1847  ^""^  removed  to  Newark  where,  despite  most  bitter  opposi- 
tion by  the  allopathic  society,  he  built  up  a  large  practice.  Suddenly,  while 
at  the  bedside  of  a  patient,  he  was  stricken  with  apoplexy  and  died  on  March 
20,  1876.  In  1857  Drs.  J.  D.  Annin,  T.  Lafon,  I.  M.  Ward,  C.  H.  Liebold 
and  J.  B.  Scott  were  practicing  in  Newark.  In  1875  there  were  29  homoe- 
opathy practitioners  there;  in  1880,  25;  in  1899,  33. 

Dr.  George  W.  Richards  opened  an  office  in  Orange  about  i860.  Dr. 
E.  Caspari  was  in  practice  there  as  early  as  1857.  Dr.  Richards  graduated 
from  the  College  of  Physicians  and  Surgeons  of  New  York  in  1853,  spent 
some  time  abroad,  and  on  his  return  located  in  New  York  city.  After  a  few 
years  he  went  to  Newark,  where  he  became  a  partner  with  Dr.  Lafon  and 
opened  an  office  in  Orange,  establishing  the  first  homoeopathic  dispensary  in 
the  state.  A  year  later  the  partnership  v.'as  dissolved  and  he  went  to  Orange 
to  live.    He  died  May  2,  1893. 

Homoeopathy  was  introduced  into  Burlington  county  in  1840  by  Dr.  R. 
S.  Middleton,  who  located  at  Burlington  city.  He  remained  there  until  1855 
when  he  went  to  Philadelphia.  He  joined  the  American  Institute  of  Homce- 
pathy  in  1847.  ^^-  Humphrey  went  from  Philadelphia  to  Burlington  after 
he  had  retired  from  practice  and  he  exercised  an  influence  favorable  to  homoe- 
opathy. He  afterward  went  to  Beverly,  where  he  died.  In  1857  Drs.  John 
D.  Moore  and  Edward  M.  Smith  were  in  practice  in  Burlington.  Dr.  Moore 
was  born  in  Philadelphia,  March  7,  1802.  He  studied  medicine  with  Dr. 
James  McClintock,  attended  a  course  of  lectures  at  *the  Jefferson  Medical 
College,  and  two  courses  at  the  Pennsylvania  College,  where  he  graduated 
in  1847.  ^"  1849  l''c  became  interested  in  homoeopathy.  He  practiced  for 
several  years  in  Newtown,  Pa.,  but  about  1853  located  in  Burlington,  where 
he  died  September  20,  1867.  One  who  knew  him  said  he  was  a  man  who 
would  weigh  upwards  of  two  hundred.  The  boys  called  him  "Powwow 
Moore  "  on  account  of  his  devotion  to  homoeopathy.  When  he  was  taken 
with  his  last  illness  Dr.  Gant,  an  allopathic  physician,  called  and  asked 
his  wife  if  he  might  see  him.  Dr.  Moore  sent  word  that  the  doctor  could  visit 
him  as  a  friend  but  not  as  a  physician.  Dr.  Gant  said  he  had  come  as  a 
physician  and  urged  to  be  allowed  to  prescribe  for  him,  saying  that  he  would 
die  if  he  continued  to  take  homoeopathic  medicine.  Dr.  Moore  would  not 
see  him  and  Dr.  Gant  afterward  said  that  he  died  because  he  would  not  give 
up  homoeopathy. 

Dr.  Alexander  Kirkpatrick  afterward  practiced  in   Burlington.     In   1875 


Drs.  Charles  R.  Cloud  and  Alexander  Kirkpatrick  wer6  in  that  city,  and  from 
1880  to  1899  Drs.  J.  P.  Shreve  and  Eugene  F.  Rink  practiced  there. 

Dr.  Morgan  John  Rhees  introduced  homoeopathy  into  Mount  Holly  in 
1846.  He  was  born  in  Philadelphia,  July  15,  1824..  His  parents  had  become 
converted  to  homoeopathy  about  1834  under  the  treatment  of  Dr.  George  H. 
Bute.  Young  Rhees,  in  deference  to  his  mother's  wishes,  decided  to  become 
a  physician,  and  during  the  winter  of  1842-43  studied  the  German  language. 
In  April,  1843,  he  went  to  Nazareth,  the  home  of  Bute,  and  entered  his  of- 
fice as  a  student  of  homoeopathy.  He  read  the  works  of  Hahnemann  in  the 
German  during  the  summer,  in  the  fall  he  entered  Jefferson  Medical  College 
of  Philadelphia,  where  he  graduated  in  1846.  In  April  he  began  the  prac- 
tice of  homoeopathy  in  Mount  Holly.  In  June  of  the  same  year  he  went  to 
the  meeting  of  the  American  Institute  of  Homoeopathy  in  Philadelphia,  be- 
coming a  member.  On  his  return  home  he  issued  invitations  to  the  homoeopathic 
physicians  in  New  Jersey,  and  as  a  result  the  New  Jersey  branch  of  the  insti- 
tute was  formed.  Drs.  Middleton  of  Burlington,  Andrews  of  Camden  and 
Boardman  of  Trenton  met  in  Dr.  Rhees'  office  and  adopted  a  constitution 
and  by-laws  and  elected  officers.  Dr.  Rhees  was  chosen  secretary,  and  also 
delegate  to  the  1847  meeting  of  the  institute.  In  1849,  although  he  had  built 
up  a  large  practice  in  Mount  Holly,  he  was  seized  with  the  gold  fever  and 
went  to  California,  via  Cape  Horn.  After  a  varied  experience  of  six  years 
he  returned  to  Mount  Holly,  and  in  October,  1855,  resumed  professional 
work.  In  April,  1868,  he  sold  his  practice  and  retired  to  a  farm  where  in 
sixteen  months  he  lost  his  property  and  w^as  again  compelled  to  return  to  his 
profession.  In  November,  1869,  he  went  to  Hollidaysburg,  Pa.  During  his 
residence  in  California,  he  practiced  medicine  at  times  and  was  physician  to 
a  homoeopathic  hospital.  In  1853  he  married  Charlotte  L.  Head,  formerly 
of  Boston,  Mass.  He  also  became  a  member  of  the  central  bureau  of  the 
institute.  In  1873  ^e  went  to  Newtonville,  Mass.,  and  five  years  later  re- 
moved to  Wheeling,  West  Va.,  where  he  died,  March  26,  1899. 

Another  pioneer  w^as  Dr.  Walter  Ward,  who  settled  in  Mount  Holly  in 
1849.  He  was  born  in  Keene,  N.  H.,  January  7,  1816.  He  was  educated  at 
Ipswich  Academy,  and  began  the  study  of  medicine  with  Dr.  William  Gal- 
lup of  that  place.  He  also  spent  a  year  in  the  office  of  Drs.  Smith  and  Batch- 
eller  of  Massachusetts.  He  attended  medical  lectures  at  Woodstock,  Vt.,  and 
then  at  Jefferson  Medical  College  of  Philadelphia,  where  he  graduated  in 
1840.  Having  heard  much  of  the  new  system  of  homoeopathy  and  having 
witnessed  some  remarkable  cures,  he  decided  to  investigate  it  for  himself. 
He  therefore  placed  himself  under  the  guidance  of  Dr.  Jeanes  of  Philadelphia, 
and  was  soon  led  to  adopt  the  new  system.  He  joined  the  institute  in  1846. 
While  Dr.  Ward  was  located  in  Philadelphia  he  became  professor  of  physiol- 
ogy at  the  first  session  of  the  newly  established  Homoeopathic  Medical  Col- 
lege of  Pennsylvania,  and  signed  the  diplomas  of  the  first  class.  He  mar- 
ried Sarah  Groves  of  Philadelphia.  He  remained  in  Mount  Holly  until  his 
death.  March  29,   1888. 

Drs.  Rhees  and  Ward  were  the  only  homoeopathic  practitioners  in  Mount 
Holly  until  i860.  Drs.  E.  K.  Bancroft  and  Walter  Ward  were  there  from 
1875  to  1880.  Dr.  Bancroft  was  a  graduate  of  the  Homoeopathic  Medical 
College  of  Pennsylvania  in  1865.  In  1886  Drs.  Samuel  Caley  and  Willett 
W.  Whitehead,  and  in  1899  Drs.  John  W.  Branin,  Samuel  Carey,  Oscar  L. 



Grumbrecht,  W.  W.  \\'hitehead  and  George  U.  Van  Derveer  were  in  practice 
in  Mt.  Holly. 

Dr.  Ross  M.  Wilkinson  located  at  Bordentown  about  1856.  He  became 
a  member  of  the  institute  in  1853.  Dr.  David  E.  Gardiner  located  at  Borden- 
town about  1859.  He  was  the  grandson  of  Dr.  William  Gardiner  and  the 
nephew  of  Dr.  Richard  Gardiner,  with  the  latter  of  whom  he  studied  medi- 
cine. He  graduated  from  the  Homoeopathic  Medical  College  of  Pennsyl- 
vania in  1857,  ^^'^^^  settled  in  Manayunk,  removing  in  1858  to  Bordentown, 
where  he  practiced  twenty-one  years.  He  then  returned  to  Philadelphia, 
where  he  remained  until  his  death,  July  10,  1890.  Dr.  Rufus  Sargent  com- 
menced the  practice  of  homoeopathy  in  Bordentown  in  1852,  remained  there 

Daniel  R.  Gardiner,  M.  D. 

until  1857  and  then  went  to  Philadelphia.  Dr.  Levi  D.  Tebo  graduated  from 
the  Hahnemann  Medical  College  of  Philadelphia  in  1873,  and  settled  at  Bor- 
dentown. In  1886  he  was  the  only  homoeopathist  there.  Dr.  Edward  E. 
French  settled  there  in  1888,  having  graduated  in  1887  from  Hahnemann 
Medical   College   of   Philadelphia. 

Dr.  Daniel  R.  Gardiner  located  at  Moorcstown  about  1855.  He  was 
born  in  Pottsville,  Pa.,  October  21,  1828,  and  completed  an  academic  course 
in  Hamilton  College,  New  York  state ;  commenced  the  study  of  medicine  in 
1846;  attended  two  courses  at  Jefferson  Medical  College,  and  graduated  at 
Homoeopathic  Medical  College  of  Pennsylvania  in  1849.  He  practiced  for 
some  time  in  Philadelphia,  removing  thence  to  Moorestown  in  1855,  where 
he  was  the  pioneer  of  homoeopathy.  After  a  few  years  he  went  to  Smyrna, 
Del.,  where  again  he  introduced  homoeopathy.     From  there  he  went  to  Wood- 

HISTORY  OF  HOMQ'IOi'ATiiY  •       247 

bury  in  1S62.  In  1871,  on  account  of  failing  health,  he  sold  his  practice  to 
Dr.  Wallace  McGeorge,  and  in  November  went  to  Pottsville,  Pa.  In  1875 
he  returned  to  Woodbury  and  associated  with  Dr.  McGeorge.  Dr.  Gardiner 
died  at  Woodbury,  June  30,   1889. 

Dr.  George  Bolton  L.  Clay  took  Dr.  Gardiner's  place  at  Moorestown  in 
1858.  He  was  a  graduate  in  1853  of  the  Homoeopathic  Medical  College  of 
Pennsylvania,  but  previously  practiced  in  Manayunk,  Pa.  He  remained  in 
Moorestown  until  his  death  in  1898.  Dr.  Pusey  Wilson,  a  native  of  Dela- 
ware and  a  graduate  of  the  Homoeopathic  Medical  College  of  Pennsylvania 
in  1862,  located  in  Moorestown  previous  to  1866,  and  practiced  there  until 
his  death,  ]\Iay  20,  1900.     Dr.  Alfred  Matson  also  practiced  at  Moorestown. 

Bowman   H.    Shivers,    M.    D. 

Dr.  Bowman  Henry  Shivers  settled  in  Marlton  in  1858.  He  was  born 
at  Haddonfield,  July  6,  1836.  He  studied  allopathic  medicine  for  two  years 
when,  becoming  convinced  of  the  truth  of  homoeopathy,  he  commenced  its 
study  with  Dr.  Julius  Holterholf,  in  Marlton.  After  attending  four  courses 
at  the  Pennsylvania  Medical  University,  he  graduated  in  April,  1858.  He 
then  went  to  Marlton,  taking  the  practice  of  Dr.  Holterholf,  who  removed 
to  Morristown.  In  1862  ill  health  caused  him  to  remove  to  Philadelphia,  but 
in  a  few  months  be  resumed  practice  in  Marlton,  where  he  remained  until 
August,  1864,  when  he  went  to  Haddonfield.  Dr.  E.  V.  Sharp  also  prac- 
ticed at  ]\Iarlton. 

In  1870  Dr.  Thomas  Peacock  settled  in  Medford,  but  in  a  year  or  two 
went  to  Philadelphia  where  he  has  since  practiced.  He  is  a  graduate  of  the 
Homoeopathic  College  of  Pennsylvania,  class  of  1868.     Dr.  Wilson  succeeded 


him  in  Medford,  and  Dr.  George  U.  Van  Derveer  located  there  about  1874, 
after  graduating  from  Hahnemann  Medical  College  of  Philadelphia  in   1873. 

Dr.  Coy  practiced  in  Pemberton,  and  Drs.  J.  G.  L.  Whitehead  and  Joseph 
A.  Moke  at  Crosswicks.  Dr.  James  V.  Roberts  and  Dr.  Joseph  J.  Curry  are 
at  Beverly ;  Dr.  N.  T.  Chaffee  at  Chesterfield ;  Dr.  Geo.  W.  H.  and  Dr.  Laura 
A.  Calver  at  Columbus,  and  Dr.  Harry  K.  Weller  at  Delancq  Dr.  White- 
head wasa  Philadelphian.     He  died  at  Crosswicks,  June  30,  1901. 

In  1875  there  were  but  14  homoeopathists  in  Burlington  county;  in  1899, 

In  Passaic  county  homoeopathy  gained  a  foothold  before  1840  through 
the  visits  of  physicians  from  New  York.  After  1840  Dr.  Stephen  R.  Kirby 
of  New  York  established  a  regular  practice  in  this  county,  giving  to  it  a  cer- 
tain part  of  his  time.  The  first  resident  physician  was  Dr.  Thomas  Lafon, 
who  was  for  a  time  in  Paterson.  In  1845  Dr.  Joseph  B.  Petherbridge  lo- 
cated at  Paterson.  His  name  appears  in  the  list  of  members  for  1848  as  si  ill 
,  at  Paterson.  In  1850  his  letters  to  the  institute  from  the  New  Jersey  branch 
are  dated  from  Trenton,  in  which  city  he  took  up  his  residence  in  1851. 

In  1848  Dr.  R.  G.  Belt,  froni  Woonsocket,  R.  I.,  located  in  Paterson  and 
remained  there  until  1852,  when  he  went  to  Milford,  Mass.  In  1854  his 
address  was  Woonsocket.  He  was  succeeded  in  Paterson  by  Dr.  John  S. 
Bassett,  who  remained  until  1861,  when  he  went  to  New  York.  Since  1861 
Drs.  E.  Nott,  McPherson,  Porter  S.  Kinne,  Theodore  Y.  Kinne  and  David 
Neer  have  practiced  there.  In  1857  there  was  but  one  homoeopathic  physi- 
cian in  Paterson ;  in  1899  there  were  eleven. 

In  1875  Dr.  Jacob  R.  Gedney  was  at  Little  Falls,  and  Drs.  John  Not- 
tingham and  Norton  C.  Ricardo  at  Passaic.  In  1899  there  were  at  Passaic 
Drs.  Charles  A.  Church,  Edwin  De  Baun,  Alfred  C.  Pedrick  and  Norton 
C.  Ricardo. 

Camden  county  was  visited  by  the  homoeopathic  physicians  of  Philadel- 
phia as  early  as  1838.  The  first  resident  physician,  however,  was  Dr.  John 
R.  Andrews,  who  began  practice  there  in  1841.  He  was  an  allopathic  grad- 
uate, and  was  well  supported  by  his  friends,  but  after  two  years  he  went  to 
Wilmington,  Delaware.  He  remained  there  a  short  time  and  was  induced 
by  his  patrons  in  Camden  to  return.  His  practice  grew  rapidly  and  he  con- 
tmued  there  until  his  death,  February  19,  1864,  at  the  age  of  forty-six  years. 
He  joined  the  institute  in  1846. 

Dr.  Henry  Francis  Hunt  succeeded  Dr.  Andrews.  He  was  born  in 
Cranston,  R.  I.,  March  28,  1838.  He  commenced  the  study  of  medicine  with 
Dr.  Howell,  an  allopathic  physician  at  Aurora,  Ills.,  where  he  (Hunt)  was 
engaged  in  teaching.  Fie  remained  there  two  years,  then  returned  east  and 
took  two  courses  of  lectures  at  Bellevue  Hospital  Medical  College,  New 
York.  While  he  was  with  Dr.  Howell  he  had  seen  in  a  severe  epidemic  of 
diphtheria  the  successful  results  of  homoeopathic  treatment,  and  he  resolved 
to  investigate  its  methods.  He  entered  the  office  of  Dr.  Okie  in  Providence, 
and  attended  two  courses  of  lectures  at  the  Homoeopathic  Medical  College 
of  Pennsylvania,  where  he  graduated  in  1864.  Dr.  ITunt  at  once  took  the 
place  in  Camden  made  vacant  by  the  death  of  Dr.  Andrews.  He  was  an 
influential  practitioner  there  until  liis  death,  which  occurred  while  he  was 
visiting  Providence,  October  3,  1895.     He  joined  the  institute  in  1867. 

In  1857  Drs.  J.  R.  Andrews,  S.  Carels  and  G.  S.  F.  Pfeiffer  were  prac- 
ticing homoeopathy  in  Camden.     In   1875  Drs.   Purnell   W.   Andrews,  James 


H.  Austin,  Thomas  R.  BlackwcMDd,  J.  K.  Bryant,  Samuel  Cards,  C.  J.  Cooper, 
Wm.  H.  Crow,  Henry  F.  Hunt,  Melbourne  F.  Middleton,  Geo.  S.  F.  Pfeitter, 
Silas  H.  Quint  and  H.  K.  Stewart  were  in  practice  there. 

Dr.  Samuel  Carels  was  a  graduate  of  Jefferson  Medical  College  of 
Philadelphia  in  1838,  and  of  the  Homoeopathic  Medical  College  of  Pennsyl- 
vania in  1855.  The  name  Carles  is  given  in  Smith's  "  Homoeopathic  Direct- 
ory "  (1857)  and  in  Godfrey's  "History  of  the  Medical  Profession  in  Cam- 
den County,"  but  in  the  catalogue  of  graduates  of  Jefiferson  Medical  College 
and  also  in  that  of  the  Homceopathic  Medical  College,  the  name  is  Carels. 

Dr.  George  S.  F.  Pfeiffer  was  a  native  of  Wurms,  Germany,  born  in 
1806,  and  came  to  America  in  1833.  While  a  student  at  Strasburg  he  en- 
tered the  Holland  navy  as  medical  cadet.  In  1825  while  cruising  off  the 
coast  of  Algiers,  he  with  a  number  of  shipmates  made  an  inland  trip  and  was 
captured  by  Bedouins,  and  retained  a  prisoner  until  1830,  when  the  French 
captured  Algiers.  He  then  entered  the  French  army,  remaining  six  months, 
when  he  was  permitted  to  return  to  Germany  to  complete  his  medical  studies. 
In  1833  he  came  to  America,  and  in  1854  located  in  Camden.  In  1856  he 
graduated  from  the  Homoeopathic  Medical  College  of  Pennsylvania  and  soon 
afterward  accepted  the  chair  of  theory  and  practice  in  Penn  Medical  Uni- 
versity of  Philadelphia,  which  he  retained  until  1864,  when  he  became  as- 
sistant surgeon  of  the  i86th  regiment,  Pennsylvania  volunteers.  He  was 
mustered  out  of  service  in  1865  and  returned  to  Camden.  He  was  con- 
versant with  eight  languages.     He  died  in   November,    1883. 

Dr.  Thomas  R.  Blackwood  was  born  in  Moorestown,  July  30,  1835. 
He  graduated  from  Homoeopathic  Medical  College  of  Pennsylvania  in  1870, 
practiced  for  one  summer  in  Atlantic  City,  and  then  located  in  Camden,  con- 
tinuing there  until  his  death,  July  30,   1895. 

Dr.  John  Hayden  Austin  was  born  in  Trenton,  July  24,  1842,  gradu- 
ated from  the  University  of  Pennsylvania  in  1864,  and  served  as  assistant 
surgeon  in  U.  S.  navy  under  Farragut.  While  in  Philadelphia  in  the  sum- 
mer of  1865,  ^^^  became  an  interested  witness  of  the  success  of  the  homoe- 
opathic treatment  of  typhoid  fever.  Entering  practice  soon  after  in  New 
Jersey,  he  sought  every  means  to  practically  test  the  truth  of  the  system 
until  he  was  compelled  to  adopt  it  as  the  true  method  of  practice.  In  1868 
he  located  in  Camden. 

Dr.  B.  W.  Blackwood,  of  Haddonfield,  an  allopathic  physician,  em- 
braced homoeopathy  in  1855  and  practiced  it  until  his  death  in  1866.  Dr.  B. 
H.  Shivers  located  in  Haddonfield  in   1864. 

In  Berlin  Drs.  S.  Shivers  and  S.  H.  Johnston  were  in  practice  in  i87'5, 
and  Dr.  Richard  Gardiner,  Jr.,  at  Gloucester.  Drs.  Wm.  L.  Delap  and 
Seaver  C.  Ross  were  at  Gloucester  in  1899,  and  Dr.  Edgar  B.  Sharp  was  then 
at  Berlin.  Dr.  Joseph  Shreve  settled  in  Berlin  in  1866  and  afterward  lo- 
cated at  Haddonfield.     He  also  practiced  at  Burlington. 

The  pioneer  of  homoeopathy  in  Mercer  county  was  Dr.  Joseph  Canfield 
Boardman,  who  introduced  it  into  Trenton  in  1845.  Dr.  Boardman  was  born 
in  Wethersfield,  Conn.,  May  4,  1813.  He  graduated  at  Westfield  Academy, 
Westfield,  Mass.,  and  afterward  devoted  several  years  to  teaching  in  Penn- 
sylvania. He  studied  medicine  with  Dr.  Neff  at  Lancaster,  attended  lec- 
tures at  the  Pennsylvania  Medical  College,  and  later  at  the  University  of 
Pennsylvania,  where  he  graduated  in  1844.  The  next  year  he  located  in 
Trenton.     He  was  one  of  the  organizers  of  the  American  Institute  of  Homoe- 



opathy  in  1844,  ^^^  was  active  at  the  second  meeting  in  New  York,  in  1845. 
It  is  said  that  he  was  in  practice  in  New  York  when  the  institute  was 
founded,  which  was  previous  to  his  advent  in  Trenton.  He  remained  in 
that  city  with  the  exception  of  short  intervals  of  practice  in  Brooklyn,  Balti- 
more and  New  York,  until  his  death,  July  26,  1896. 

Dr.  Charles  Gottleib  Raue,  after  graduating  from  the  Philadelphia  Col- 
lege of  Medicine  in  1852,  commenced  practice  in  Trenton,  'where  he  remained 
until  1858.  Dr.  Boardman  was  ill  at  the  time  and  unable  to  practice  and 
Dr.  Raue  attended  to  his  business  and  also  that  of  another  doctor.  In  1857 
Drs.  Boardman,  Raue  and  Vastine  were  located  there.  Peter  E.  Vastine,  of 
Baltimore,   went  to  Trenton   in    1851,   joining  the   institute  the   same   year. 

Jos.   C.   Boardman,   M.   D. 

He  was  a  graduate  of  Jefferson  Medical  College  in  1838,  and  originally  was 
an  allopathic  practitioner.  In  1875  there  were  located  at  Trenton  Drs.  Allen, 
Boardman,  Cooper,  Grover,  Compton,  Wilkinson  and  Worthington.  Dr. 
Samuel  E.  Allen  was  a  graduate  of  the  Homoeopathic  Medical  College  of 
Pennsylvania  in  1869,  and  joined  the  institute  in  1871.  He  located  at  Tren- 
ton after  graduation.  Cornelius  B.  Compton  graduated  from  the  same  col- 
lege in  1854;  Isaac  Cooper  graduated  from  the  same  college  in  1868  and 
went  to  Mullica  Hill,  going  in  1870  to  Frenchtown,  Hunterdon  county,  and 
a  little  later  to  Trenton,  where  he  still  remains.  Ross  M.  Wilkinson  gradu- 
ated from  the  old  Philadelphia  college  in  1853,  and  located  in  Bordentown. 
The  date  of  his  advent  in  Trenton  is  not  known.  Anthony  H.  Worthington 
graduated  from  the  same  institution  in  i860.  George  Thompson  was  in 
Trenton  in  1880.  He  graduated  from  Hahnemann  Medical  College  of  Phila- 
delphia in  1877.  I"  1857  there  were  three  homcicopathic  practitioners  in 
Trenton;  in  1875,  seven;  in  1880,  seven;  in  1899,  sixteen. 


In  1875  Drs.  Joseph  J.  Currie  and  Joseph  P.  Johnson  were  located  at 
Hightstown.  Dr.  Currie  was  born  at  Carpenter's  Landing,  Gloucester 
county,  September  10,  1836;  studied  with  Dr.  Gardner  at  Woodbury;  gradu- 
ated at  Philadelphia  in  1866;  settled  at  Glassboro,  Gloucester  county,  and 
remained  there  six  months.  He  then  went  to  Flemington,  Hunterdon  county, 
where  he  practiced  five  years.  He  next  located  at  Hightstown.  In  1880  he 
was  practicing  in  Columbus,  Burlington  county,  and  later  located  in  Beverly, 
where  he  is  still  in  practice.  Dr.  Joseph  Price  Johnson  was  born  in  Chester 
county,  Pa.,  January  25,  1840;  took  his  degree  in  medicine  in  Philadelphia 
in  1867 ;  began  practice  in  Lancaster  county ;  removed  to  Philadelphia,  and 
thence  in  1870  to  Hightstown. 

In  1875  Dr.  D.  W.  Sexton  was  located  at  Princeton,  Dr.  J.  A.  Miller  at 
Hopewell,  and  Dr.  Joseph  J.  Whittington  at  Windsor. 

Dr.  Owen  Beverly  Cause  practiced  at  Trenton  from  the  time  of  his 
graduation  in  1857  until  1862,  when  he  located  in  Philadelphia.  Drs.'  Jo- 
sephus  Gunning,  J.  B.  Petherbridge,  Record,  and  E.  H.  Trego  also  practiced 
in  Trenton.    Dr.  E.  Bentley  Hall  was  for  a  time  located  at  Hightstown. 

Hudson  county,  extending  from  Bergen  Point  to  the  palisades,  and 
directly  opposite  New  York  city,  w^as  occupied  by  a  homceopathic  physician 
in  1847,  ^v■hen  Dr.  William  A.  Durrie  located  at  Jersey  City.  He  was  born 
in  New  Haven,  Conn.,  in  1822 ;  was  educated  at  Yale,  graduating  from  the 
academic  department  in  1843,  ^"d  from  the  medical  school  in  1846.  He 
commenced  the  practice  of  allopathy  in  New  Haven,  but  his  attention  having 
been  called  to  homoeopathy  he  went  to  New  York  and  placed  himself  under 
the  guidance  of  Gray  and  Hull.  He  qualified  as  a  homoeopathic  practitioner 
and  settled  in  Jersey  City  in  1847. 

Early  in  1848  Dr.  John  Juvenal  Youlin  located  in  Jersey  City.  He  was 
born  in  Rupert,  Bennington  county,  Vt.,  December  31,  1821.  He  was  edu- 
cated at  Auburn,  X.  Y.,  studied  medicine  under  Dr.  Augustus  Willard,  at- 
tended lectures  at  Geneva  College,  and  became  a  student  of  Dr.  Alanson 
Briggs,  professor  of  surgery  in  the  Geneva  school.  He  entered  the  medical 
department  of  the  Cniversity  of  New  York  in  1846,  but  certain  investigations 
into  homoeopathy  prevented  him  from  graduating.  At  that  time  he  was  a 
bitter  opponent  of  homoeopathy.  In  his  preceptor's  library  were  various 
homoeopathic  books' and  in  them  he  sought  statements  with  which  to  ridicule 
their  authors.  He  procured  some  of  the  medicines  described  and  carefully 
studying  the  symptoms  administered  them  in  cases  of  prisoners  under  his 
charge.  (Dr.  Briggs  was  physician  to  the  Auburn  state  prison.)  The  good 
results  surprised  him.  Then  he  was  seized  with  typhoid  fever  and  in  this 
emergency  was  persuaded  to  allow  a  homoeopathic  physician  to  be  called  and 
his  health  was  restored.  This  recovery,  following  close  upon  the  experi- 
ments he  had  previously  made,  led  him  gradually  to  a  belief  in  the  truth  of 
the  doctrines  of  Hahnemann.  He  went  to  Jersey  City  in  1848  and  began 
practice.  He  graduated  from  the  Western  College  of  Homoeopathic  Medi- 
cine m  1854.  He  made  his  home  in  Jersey  City  until  his  death,  October  30, 
1881.  Dr.  Youlin  was  a  member  of  many  societies,  and  joined  the  institute 
in  1858.    He  started  a  homoeopathic  dispensary  for  the  poor  in  Jersey  City. 

Drs.  Youlin  and  Durrie  were  alone  in  Jersey  City  until  1857.  Dr.  J.  R. 
Petherbridge  practiced  there  until  the  beginning  of  the  war,  when  he  entered 
the  army.     He  died  shortly  after  its  close. 

In  1875  the  following  physicians  were  located  in  Jersey  City :     Drs.  Wm. 


H.  Abercrdmbie,  Eleazer  Bowen,  Horace  Bowen,  George  B.  Cornell,  William 

A.  Durrie,  James  Harkness,  Alexander  H.  Laidlaw,  C.  Holmes  McNeil,  Dan- 
iel McNeil.  William  H.  Newell,  Frank  Nichols,  E.  W.  Pyle,  G.  D.  Salstonstall, 
L.  Scott,  Charles  S.  Shelton,  George  N.  Tibbies  and  John  Juvenal  Youlin. 

Dr.  Daniel  McNeil  was  a  surgeon  in  the  army  during  the  rebellion,  but 
had  previously  practiced  in  Jersey  City.  His  son.  Dr.  C.  -  Holmes  McNeil, 
took  the  place  made  vacant  by  his  father's  death.   He  died  December  i8,  1898. 

Dr.  Eleazer  Bowen  located  in  Jersey  City  in  1864.  He  was  born  .at 
Rehoboth,  Mass.,  in  October,  1829.  He  studied  medicine  with  Dr.  Usher 
Parsons  in  Providence,  and  graduated  at  the  Pittsfield  Medical  College  in 
1853.  After  practicing  six  years  in  Barnstable,  Mass.,  he  was  led  to  investi- 
gate homoeopathy.  He  went  to  New  York  to  study  under  its  practitioners, 
returned  to  Massachusetts  in  1859  ^"^  settled  in  Lynn,  where  he  remained 
until  1864  when  he  went  to  Jersey  City. 

Dr.  George  Boardman  Cornell,  a  graduate  of  the  New  York  University 
in  1864,  practiced  allopathy  until  1869,  when  he  investigated  and  adopted 

Dr.  William  Henry  Newell  was  born  in  New  York,  February  19,  1837, 
and  graduated  from  the  University  of  Pennsylvania  in  1859.  He  passed  the 
next  few  vears  in  travel  and  arrived  in  Baltimore  the  day  after  "the  riot" 
in  1861.  He  served  through  the  war  as  a  confederate  surgeon  and  after  his 
discharge  located  in  Jersey  City.  After  an  examination  of  the  claims  of 
homoeopathy  he  began  practice  under  its  principles. 

Dr.  Oscar  F.  Lund,  previously  an  allopathic  practitioner,  began  the  prac- 
tice of  homoeopathy  in  Jersey  City  about  1870.     He  died  in  1875. 

In  1857  there  were  two  homoeopathists  in  Jersey  City;  in  1875,  17;  in 
1880.  20;  in  1899,  31;  and  in  1904,  25. 

In  Monmouth  county  Dr.  W.  S.  Kimball  was  the  first  homoeopathic 
physician.  He  located  at  Eatontown  in  1854,  and  for  many  years  was  the 
only  homoeopathic  physician  at  the  Long  Branch  hotels.     In   i860  Dr.   Ellis 

B.  Hall  practiced  at  Freehold.     Dr.  C.  C.  Currie  also  practiced  there. 

In  1864  Dr.  W.  A.  Bevin  located  at  Freeport.  Dr.  G.  F,  Marsden  set- 
tled at  Red  Bank  in  1870.  In  1875  Dr.  H.  H.  Pemberton  was  at  Long  Branch, 
Dr.  L.  Bushnell  at  Keyport  and^Dr.  W.  H.  Burnett  at  Freehold.'  In  1880 
Drs.  Ernest  P.  and  G.  Macomber  were  at  Kevport  and  G.  F.  Marsden  and 
Alfred  J.  Trafiford  at  Red  Bank. 

In  Gloucester  county  Dr.  Ellis  Bentley  Hall,  a  graduate  in  1849  of  the 
first  session  of  the  Homoeopathic  Medical  College  of  Pennsylvania,  and  who 
had  been  practicing  since  that  time  at  Bridgeton,  located  at  Woodbury  in 
1855.  He  was  the  first  qualified  homoeopathic  physician  in  the  county,  and 
left  Woodbury  in  1857.  Later  on  he  practiced  in  Hightstown,  Camden,  Free- 
hold and  Beverly,  and  died  in  Beverly  in  187c;. 

Dr.  E.  J.  Record  succeeded  Dr.  Hall  at  Woodbury,  he  remained  there  a 
short  time,  and  afterward  went  into  mercantile  pursuits.  Dr.  Thomas  Shearer, 
a  graduate  of  18^8  of  the  Homoeopathic  Medical  College  of  Pennsvlvania, 
settled  in  Woodbm-v,  and  removed  thence  to  Baltimore.  Dr.  William  A. 
Gardiner  was  located  there  a  short  time  about  t86i.  He  removed  to  Phil- 
adelphia and  died  there  April  20.  1863. 

Dr.  Daniel  R.  Gardiner,  brother  of  William  A.  Gardiner,  located  in 
Woodburv  in  1862  and  in  1871  removed  to  Pottsville.  Pa.  In  T875  he  re- 
turned to  Wnn<1bur\-  and  remained  there  tmtil  his  death,  June  30.  1889. 


Dr.  Wallace  McGeorge,  who  bought  out  Dr.  Gardiner,  was  born  in 
Bath,  England,  January  31,  1843.  He  came  to  America  in  1850,  and  was 
educated  in  the  public  schools  of  New  York.  He  then  learned  the  printing 
business,  and  during  the  early  years  of  the  war  was  an  earnest  union  man. 
In  1864  he  applied  for  appointment  as  hospital  steward,  and  was  advised  by 
the  board  of  examination  to  attend  medical  lectures  and  then  apply  for  a 
medical  cadetship  in  the  regular  army.  After  the  war  he  obtained  a  position 
in  charge  of  a  printing  establishment  in  Philadelphia,  still  continuing  his 
medical  studies.  In  1866  he  became  a  student  of  Dr.  J.  H.  P.  Frost.  The 
same  year  he  urged  Dr.  Malcolm  Macfarlan  to  resign  from  the  regular  army 
and  come  to  Philadelphia.  He  did  so  and  was  elected  professor  of  surgery 
in  the  Homoeopathic  Medical  College  of  Pennsylvania.  Mr.  McGeorge  then 
became  his  student.  He  graduated  from  the  college  in  1868.  He  first  located 
at  Hightstown,  N.  J.,  remaining  there  two  years  and  then  went  to  Crescent, 
Saratoga  county,  N.  Y.,  being  the  first  homoeopathic  physician  there.  In 
January,  1871,  he  became  partner  with  Dr.  Daniel  R.  Gardiner  in  Woodbury, 
where  he  remained  until  1893,  when  he  removed  to  Camden,  his  present 

Dr.  Charles  Newton,  a  graduate  in  1867  of  the  Homoeopathic  Medical 
College  of  Pennsylvania,  located  in  Woodbury  in  1869  and  in  1870  went  to 
Sharpstown,  Salem  county.  In  November,  1872,  Rev.  William  M.  White- 
head, who  had  just  graduated  from  the  Hahnemann  Medical  College  of  Phila- 
delphia, settled  in  Woodbury.  He  was  pastor  of  the  Baptist  church,  and 
united  the  duties  of  that  office  with  those  of  a  physician.  He  died  in  Jan- 
uary, 1874. 

Dr.  Alexander  Kirkpatrick  a  graduate  of  the  Homoeopathic  Medical  Col- 
lege of  Pennsylvania  in  1861,  practiced  first  in  Swedesboro  and  afterward 
settled  in  Burlington.  Dr.  John  F.  Musgrave  took  Dr.  Kirkpatrick's  place 
in  Swedesboro. 

Dr.  Isaac  Cooper  located  in  Mullica  Hill  in  1868,  remaining  until  1870. 
Dr.  Jacob  Izard  graduated  from  the  Hahnemann  Medical  College  of  Phila- 
delphia in  1870,  and  settled  in  Glassboro,  where  he  still  remains.  In  1886 
Dr.  Howard  Izard  also  located  there.  In  1875,  Dr.  Albert  T.  Beckett  located 
at  Mullica  Hill.  Dr.  Samuel  E.  Newton  located  at  Paulsboro  in  1873,  be- 
ing the  first  homoeopathic  physician  in  that  place. 

Dr.  Samuel  Arthur  Jones  introduced  homoeopathy  into  Bergen  county 
in  i860.  He  located  in  Englewood  in  that  year  and  remained  there  until 
1875,  when  he  took  the  chair  of  homoeopathic  materia  medica  in  the  Univer- 
sity of  Michigan.  Dr.  H.  M.  Banks  succeeded  Dr.  Jones  at  Englewood.  In 
1880  Drs.  D.  M.  Baldwin  and  H.  M.  Banks  were  in  practice  there,  and  Dr. 
George  B.  Best  afterward  located  there.  In  1875  Dr.  H.  H.  HolHster  was 
located  at  Rutherford  Park.  Dr.  Addison  P.  Macomber  located  at  Hacken- 
sack  in  1867.  He  was  a  graduate  of  the  University  of  New  York  in  1853, 
but  had  become  converted  to  homoeopathy.  He  joined  the  institute  in  1867, 
at  which  time  he  was  located  at  Maiden,  Mass.  He  went  from  there  to 
Hackensack.  Dr.  George  M.  Ockford  was  born  in  England,  March  29, 
1845,  si^d  was  brought  when  a  child  to  northern  New  York.  He  learned 
the  printing  trade  and  became  a  journalist.  He  began  the  study  of  medicine 
under  Dr.  A.  P.  Macomber,  at  Maiden,  Mass.,  and  graduated  from  the 
Cleveland  Hospital  College  in  1872.  He  then  went  to  Hackensack,  where 
his  preceptor  was   in  practice.     He  has  practiced  at  Hackensack,    Burling- 



ton,  Vt.,  Vincennes,  Ind.,  and  Lexington,  Ky.  In  1891  he  located  in  Ridge- 
wood,  N.  J. 

Dr.  William  R.  Sheppard  graduated  from  the  Homoeopathic  Medical 
College  of  Pennsylvania  in  1861,  and  located  at  Cape  May,  Cape  May  county, 
being  the  first  homoeopathic  physician  there.  Drs.  W.  F:  Hedstrom  and  W. 
R.  Sheppard  were  practicing  at  Cape  May  from  1875  to  1880,  Dr.  E.  H. 
Phillips  was  practicing  there  in  1899. 

Homoeopathy  was  introduced  in  Cumberland  county  by  Dr.  E.  Bentley 
Hall  about  1849.  Smith's  directory  for  1857  gives  one  homoeopathic  physi- 
cian in  Cumberland  countv,  Dr.  Moore,  at  Bridgeton.  In  1875  Drs.  A.  W. 
Bartlett,  L.  W.  Brown,  E.  B.  Griswold,  W.  T."^  Sherman,  E.  R.  Tuller  and 

Samuel   A.   Jones,    M.    D. 

M.  B.  Tuller  were  located  at  Vineland ;  L.  J.  Bumstead,  T.  Walter  Gardiner, 
Thomas  Sturdevant,  J.  W.  Thompson,  at  Millville ;  Charles  T.  Hill,  at  Divid- 
ing Creek;  M.  E.  Hunter,  at  Commercial;  Joseph   Moore,  at  Bridgeton. 

Dr.  L.  W.  Brown  was  born  in  Lorain  county,  Ohio,  February  2,  1844, 
and  graduated  at  the  New  York  Homoeopathic  College  in  1865.  He  then 
returned  to  Cleveland,  but  about  1869  he  located  at  Vineland. 

In  a  personal  letter  written  in  1870  Dr.  Sturdevant  says:  "My  full  name 
is  Thomas  Sturdevant,  graduated  from  Penn  Medical  University,  i860,  at- 
tended lectures  at  Homoeopathic  Medical  College  of  Pennsylvania.  I  have 
practiced  homoeopathy  exclusively  five  years.  I  practiced  allopathy  five  years 
in  Old  Southwark,  Philadelphia,  first  ward,  for  four  years ;  was  the  out-of- 
door  physician  for  that  district  for  three  years.  I  removed  from  there  to 
Greenwich,  Cumberland  county,  N.  J.,  stayed  there  twenty-two  months,  but 


climate  did  not  agree,  and  removed  from  there  to  Millville  and  have  been 
here  nearly  four  years.  I  have  had  an  uphill  road  of  it.  Some  three  homoe- 
opathic physicians  had  been  here  previous  to  my  coming  but  the  old  '  regu- 
lars '  succeeded  in  running  them  oiY  in  a  year  or  so." 

Dr.  Charles  W.  jMulford  introduced  homoeopathy  into  Hunterdon  county 
in  1854.  In  1875  Dr.  J.  B.  J.  Bard  was  at  Flemington;  John  Newton  Lowe 
at  Milford,  and  John  E.  Stiles  at  Lambertville. 

Dr.  Henry  D.  Robinson  was  the  pioneer  homoeopath  in  Middlesex  county; 
having  located  in  New  Brunswick  about  1849.  He  was  of  French  parentage, 
but  was  born  in  England,  educated  in  Paris,  and  came  to  this  country  in  1829. 
For  a  number  of  years  he  lived  in  New  York,  but  in    1849    went    to    New 

Theodore  Y.  Kinne,  M.  D. 

Brunswick,  where  he  remained  until  his  death,  November  22,  1876,  aged 
seventy-eight  years. 

In  the  1857  directory,  Drs.  C.  Blumenthal  and  H,  D.  Robinson  are  men- 
tioned as  living  in  New  Brunswick,  and  T.  Vernon  at  Perth  Amboy.  In 
1875  there  were  at  New  Brunswick.  Drs.  John  G.  Greenbank,  Samuel  Long, 
J.  L.  Mulford,  H.  D.  Robinson  and  Giro  S.  Verdi. 

Dr.  Stephen  Fairchild  introduced  homoeopathy  into  Morris  county  in 
1841.  In  1857  Dr.  W.  De  H.  Ouinby  was  at  Alorristown ;  Drs.  R.  B.  W. 
Fairchild  and  S.  W.  Fairchild  at  Parsipanny ;  Drs.  J.  and  W.  I.  Jackson  at 
Rockaway.  In  1875  Mrs.  Woodrufif  practiced  at  Boonton,  and  Drs.  Macom- 
ber  and  Ubellacker  at  Morristown. 

In   Salem  county   Dr.   L.   G.   Yim\  was   the   homoeopathic    pioneer.      In 


1857  Dr.  J.  B.  Stretch  was  in  Salem,  and  Drs.  P.  Coates  and  C.  Preston  in 
Woodstown.  Dr.  Preston  had  also  practiced  in  Sculltown.  Dr.  Stretch  was 
a  native  of  Salem  county,  born  Augtist  27,  1825,  graduated  at  the  Homoe- 
opathic Medical  College  of  Pennsylvania  in  1853,  and  .located  at  Salem, 
where  he  lived  until  his  death  on  March  7,  1865.  Dr.  Preston  remained  but 
a  short  time  in  Woodstown,  removing  thence  to  Pennsylvania.  In  1875  ^^' 
Aquilia  B.  Lippincott  was  at  Salem ;  Dr  Charles  Newton  at  Sharpstown ;  P. 
G.  Souder  at  Woodstown,  and  A.  W.  Zane  at  Pennsgrove.  Miles  W.  Wal- 
lens  located  at  Woodstown  in  1863,  and  in  April,  1870,  went  to  Somerville. 

Dr.  Quinby  introduced  the  system  into  Somerset  county  in  1846.  In 
1857  Dr.  T.  W.  Edwards  was  in  Raritan.  In  1875  Drs.  Henry  Crater  and 
P.  H.  Mason  were  in  Somerville. 

Dr,  Joseph  Hasbrouck  was  the  pioneer  homoeopath  in  Sussex  county, 
about  1870. 

In  Union  county  Dr.  Titsworth  was  the  first  homoeopathic  physician  to 
open  an  office.  Dr.  Randolph  Titsworth  located  at  Plainfield  in  1853.  He 
was  a  graduate  of  the  Homoeopathic  Medical  College  of  Pennsylvania  in 
1853.  He  died  March  18,  1890.  In  1857  Drs.  J.  Green  and  J.  A.  Roesch  were 
at  Elizabeth;  S.  Cook  at  Rahway.  In  1875  there  were  18  homoeopathic  phy- 
sicians in  Union  county.  In  1875  Dr.  W.  P.  Sharkey  was  in  practice  at  Phil- 

About  1874  Dr.  Obed  S.  Crosby  began  practice  in  Atlantic  City.  In 
1880  Drs.  O.  S.  Crosby,  R.  A.  Martin  and  J.  H.  Warrington  were  in  prac- 
tice there.  In  1886  Drs.  Alfred  W.  Bailey,  George  W.  Crosby,  Obed  H. 
Crosby,  Henry  K.  Stuart  and  Maurice  D.  Youngman  were  located  there.  In 
1899  the  physicians  there  Avere  Drs.  Alfred  W.  Bailey,  Lorenzo  D.  Bailey, 
Theodore  J.  Bieling,  Walter  A.  Corson,  George  W.  Crosby,  Howard  J. 
Evans,  John  R.  Fleming,  Mary  Miller,  Milton  L.  Munson,  Walter  C.  Sooy 
and  Maurice  D.  Youngman.  In  1904  there  were  fifteen  physicians  of  the 
homoeopathic  school  in  Atlantic  City. 

Homoeopathic  physicians  in  New  Jersey  previous  to  i860.  The  date 
preceding  the  name  indicates  the  year  the  physician  began  the  practice  of 
homoeopathy.  The  character  *  indicates  that  the  practitioner  originally  was 
of  some  other  school ;  the  character  x  indicates  that  the  physician  practiced 
medicine  before  the  date  given. 

1845  Annin,  Jonathan  D.  *  Newark  1857  Coates,  P.  x  Woodstown 

1845  Andrews,  John  R.   *   Camden  1853  Clay,  George  B.  L.     Moorestown 

1851  Armour,    Thomas     Allowaystown  1869  Cornell,  George  B.  *  Jersey  City 

1865  Austin,  John  H.  *  Camden  1847  Durrie,  William  A.  x  Jersey  City 

1857  Bassett,  John  S.  *  x  Paterson  1857  Edwards,  T.  W.  x  Raritan^ 

1845  Boardman,    Joseph    C.    Trenton  1842  Fairchild,  Stephen  *  Parsippany 
1857  Blumenthal,    Charles   x    New   Bruns-       1857  Fairchild,  R.  B.  W.     Parsippany 

wick  18.32     Geist,  C.  F.     Egg  Harbor  City 

1853  Blackwood,  Benjamin  W.  *  Haddon-       1857     Green,  Jonas  x  Elizabeth  City 

field  1853     Greenbank,  John  G.     New  Brunswick 

1856  Bryant,    J.    Kemper     Camden  1843     Gardiner,  Wm.  A.     Woodbury 

1846  Belt,  R.  G.  X  *  Paterson  1849    Gardiner,    Daniel   R.     Moorestown 

1854  Compton,    Cornelius    C.  1857     Gardiner,   David  E.     Bordentown 

1857  Crittenden,  J.  x  Morristown  1857  Cause,  Owen  Beverly       Trenton 
1857  Crittenden,  W.  H.  x                                   Grover.  Lewis  P.     Trenton 

1855  Carels,  Samuel  *  Camden  1857  Hand,  W.  R.  x  Kingwood 
1835  Caspari,    Edward     Orange  1849  Hall,  Ellis  Bentley    Woodbury 
1857  Cook,  S.  X  Rahway  1835  Humphrey,  Gideon  *  Burlington 



1857  Jackson,  J.  x  Rockaway  1843 

1857  Jackson,  W    I.  x  Rockaway  1846 

i860  Jones,   Samuel   Arthur     Englewood  1857 

1853  Miller,    Alexander   C.     Gloucester  1850 

1859  McPherson,  William  H.  1849 

1853  Musgrave,  John  F.     Swedesboro 

1854  Kimball,  W.  S.  Eatontown  1846 
i860  Kirkpatrick,  Alexander  Swedesboro  1858 
1846  Lafon,  Thomas  *  Newark  1852 
185s  Liebold,  Carl  T.  *  Newark  1846 

1850  Leaming,     Jonathan     *     Cape     May  1857 

Court  House  1858 

1840  Middleton.   R.    S.     Burlington  1858 

1849  Moore,  John  D.  *  Burlington  1857 

1857  Moore,  Joseph  x  Bridgeton  1857 

1851  Mulford,  Joseph  L.     Middletown  1853 

1854  Mulford,  Charles  W.  Hunterdon  Co.  1857 
1865  McNeil,  Daniel  *  West  Hoboken  1850 
1859  Newell,  William  H.  Jersey  City  1848 
1857  Orton,  Dr.  x  Madison  1841 
1845  Petherbridge,  J.  B.  Paterson  1838 
1856  Pfeiffer.  George  S.  F.  *  Camden  1857 
1856  Pease,  I.  H.  x  Irvington  ♦  1853 
1853  Preston,  Coates    Woodstown  1854 

1855  Pretch,    C.     Trenton 

Paine,  John  A.  *  Newark 
Quinby,  W.  de  H.  x  Morristown 
Roesch,  J.  A.  x  Elizabeth  City 
Raue,  Charles  G.     Trenton 
Robinson,  Henry  D.   *  New   Bruns- 
Rhees,   Morgan  J.     Mount   Holly 
Richards,  George  W.  *  Newark 
Sargent.    Rufus     Bordentown 
Smith,  Edward  M.  x  Burlington 
Sheppard,  S.  W.  x  Bloomfield 
Shearer,   Thomas     Woodbury 
Shivers,   Bowman  H.     Marlton 
Scott,  J.  B.  x  Newark 
Stretch,  J.  B.  x  Salem 
Titsworth,  Randolph      Plainfield 
Vernon,  T.  x  Perth  Amboy 
Vastine,  P.  E.  x  Trenton 
Vinal,  L.  G.  x  Salem 
Ward,  Walter  *  Mount  Holly 
Ward,  Isaac  Moreau  *  Newark 
Warner,  S.  C.  x  Cooperstown 
Wilkinson,  Ross  M.     Bordentown 
Youlin,  John  J.   *  Jersey   City 




"By  Thomas  Lindsley  Bradford,  M.  D. 

Sowing  the  Seed  of  Homoeopathy  in  the  Old  Green  Mountain  State— Baird,  the  Inde- 
pendent, Self-educated,  and  Successful  Practitioner,  the  Pioneer — Brief  Allusion 
to  State,  District  and  County  Societies — How  and  by  Whom  Homoeopathy  was 
Introduced  in  the  Counties  of  Verm.ont. 

Homoeopathy  in  Vermont  was  planted  in  much  the  same  manner  as  state- 
hood itself  in  that  jurisdiction,  and  was  an  independent  action  on  the  part 
of  its  pioneer,  David  H.  Baird,  who  is  remembered  as  a  man  of  good  sound 
comm.on  sense,  with  an  excellent  understanding  of  medicines  and  their  use 
in  general,  but  who  was  not  a  graduate  of  any  school  of  medicine.  Whether 
Dr.  Baird  employed  other  methods  in  the  healing  art  before  beginning  prac- 
tice according  to  the  law  of  similars  does  not  appear,  but  it  is  known  that 
he  administered  the  little  homoeopathic  doses  in  Coventry  and  Troy  in  Or- 
leans county  as  early  as  about  the  year  1840,  and  thus  became  the  pioneer 
of  the  profession  in  the  historic  Green  Mountain  state. 

But  Dr.  Baird  was  not  long  the  sole  exemplar  of  homoeopathy  in  Ver- 
mont, and  within  the  next  twenty  years  following  his  advent  into  the  ranks 
of  the  profession  there  were  about  thirty-five  practitioners  in  that  field ;  and 
even  before  that  period  was  passed,  and  as  early  as  1854,  the  homoeopathic 
physicians  of  the  state  gathered  together  their  numbers  and  organized  the 
Green  Mountain  Homoeopathic  Medical  Association,  which  has  continued 
its  existence  to  the  present  day  and  since  1858  has  been  known  as  the  Ver- 
mont State  Homoeopathic  Medical  Society. 

In  1 85 1  the  Caledonia  County  Homoeopathic  Medical  Society  was  organ- 
ized, and  three  years  afterward  united  with  the  parent  body.  The  subse- 
quent kindred  organizations  have  been  the  Connecticut  and  Passumpsic  Val- 
ley Homoeopathic  Medical  Society,  about  1866,  and  the  Champlain  Valley 
Homoeopathic  Medical  Society,  organized  in   1874. 

Homoeopathic  medical  statistics  show  that  the  number  of  physicians  of 
that  school  in  the  state  in  1857  was  31;  1875,  63;  1880,  83;  1899,  67;  and 
in  1904,  54.  This  noticeable  decrease  in  numbers  during  recent  years  in  no 
sense  indicates  an  unhealthful  condition  of  affairs  in  the  profession,  and  is 
due  to  exactly  the  same  causes  which  have  contributed  to  the  loss  of  popula- 
tion in  the  state  in  general.  In  Vermont  today  homoeopathy  is  as  firmly 
rooted  in  the  soil  as  at  any  previous  time  in  its  history,  and  among  the  exem- 
plars there  are  found  some  of  the  best  practitioners  who  have  ever  honored 
any  profession  with  their  achievements. 


Vermont  has  not  figured  conspicuously  as  the  home  of  numerous  homoe- 
opathic societies,  but  such  as  have  been  given  life  have  been  noted  for  vigor 
and   longevity,   qualities   which   are   characteristic   of   all   elements   of   life   in 


the  healthful  regions  of  the  Green  Mountain  state.  In  1854  eight  homoe- 
opathic physicians  comprising  nearly  all  of  that  school  then  in  the  state,  met 
in  Montpelier  on  the  22d-  of  February  and  organized  the  Green  Mountain 
Homoeopathic  Association.  Its  first  officers  were  Dr.  Beniah  Sanborn  of  St. 
Johnsbury,  president;  Dr.  Cephas  Taylor  of  Hardwick,  vice-president;  Dr. 
C.  B.  Darling  of  Lyndon,  secretary;  Dr.  Joshua  Stone  of  St.  Johnsbury, 
treasurer.  The  society  held  annual  meetings  in  St.  Johnsbury.  At  a  meet- 
ing held  October  21,  1858,  the  name  was  changed  to  Vermont  Homoeopathic 
Medical  Society,  and  was  so  incorporated  in  the  same  year.  The  first  officers 
of  the  new  society  were  Dr.  Thomas  Bigelow  of  Burlington,  president;  Dr. 
C.  B.  Currier  of  South  Troy,  corresponding  secretary;  Dr.  G.  E.  Sparhawk 
of  Rochester,  recording  secretary;  IDr.  T.  C.  Taplin  of  Montpelier,  treas- 
urer; Dr.  C.  W.  Scott  of  Irasburg,  auditor.  This  society  still  maintains  an 
active  existence  and  holds  semi-annual  meetings  in  Montpelier.  Its  trans- 
actions were  published  in  1891. 

The  Caledonia  County  Homoeopathic  Medical  Society  was  organized  in 
1 85 1,  chiefly  through  the  efforts  of  Dr.  Beniah  Sanborn.  The  Connecticut 
and  Passumpsic  Valley  Homoeopathic  Medical  Society  was  organized  in  1866. 
The  Champlain  Valley  Homoeopathic  Medical  Society  was  organized  at  Mid- 
dlebury,  May  5,  1874. 


Dr.  Baird's  pioneer  efforts  in  Orleans  county  have  been  referred  to  in  an" 
earlier  paragraph.  His  successor  in  that  locality  was  Dr.  Levi  C.  Moore,  who 
practiced  in  North  Troy  many  years,  and  was  there  as  late  as  1882.  Dr.  Willard 
W.  Jenness  began  practice  in  Derby  about  1850,  and  removed  thence  to 
Chicopee  in  Massachusetts. 

In  1852  Dr.  Hiram  C.  Orcutt,  a  Dartmouth  graduate,  began  practice  in 
Troy,  remaining  there  until  1865,  when  he  settled  in  Derby.  Dr.  George 
Starr  Kelsea,  from  Lisbon,  New  Hampshire,  and  a  graduate  in  1867  o^  ^^^ 
Cleveland  Homoeopathic  Medical  College,  located  in  Derby,  but  two  years 
later  settled  in  Newport,  where  he  died  September  26,  1884.  In  1854  Dr. 
Chester  A\'alter  Scott,  a  graduate  in  1854  of  the  old  Homoeopathic  Medical 
College  of  Pennsylvania,  began  practice  in  Irasburg.  and  in  1865  removed 
to  Caledonia  county.  At  one  time  he  practiced  in  Hardwick.  Drs.  C.  B. 
Darling  and  I.  R.  Taylor  also  practiced  in  Irasburg  at  an  early  day. 

Dr.  Charles  B.  Parkhurst,  a  graduate  in  1866  of  the  New  York  Homoe- 
opathic Medical  College,  located  in  Irasburg  and  remained  there  until  about 
1870,  when  he  removed  to  Owego,  New  York,  and  from  thence  two  years 
later  to  Chicago,  and  won  fame  in  that  great  city ;  but  failing  health  com- 
pelled him  to  go  farther  west,  and  in  1874  he  removed  to  Colorado  Springs, 
where  he  died  January   16,  1877. 

In  1875  Drs.  Frederick  M.  Perry  and  Anson  M.  Ruggles  were  in  prac- 
tice in  Barton ;  F.  L.  Snell  at  Barton  Landing ;  Oscar  A.  Bemis  at  Crafts- 
bury;  Ezra  W.  Clark  at  Derby;  John  W.  McDuffie  and  John  H.  Peck  at 
Derby  Centre ;  Edward  D.  L.  Parker  at  Derby  Line :  George  Rowell  at  Iras- 
burg; George  S.  Kelsea  at  Newport,  and  Levi  C.  Moore  at  North  Troy. 

Washington  county  in  Vermont  was  the  second  to  receive  a  homoeopathic 
practitioner,  and  Dr.  T.  C'.  Taplin  was  its  pioneer.  He  had  previously  prac- 
ticed  dentistry,  but  having  became  acquainted  with  Dr.  Baird,  he  soon  was 
interested  in  homoeopathy  and  took  up  its  study  and  subsequent  practice,  in 



Danville,  Caledonia  county :   but   he   soon   removed   to   Montpelier.   where   he 
died  in  1864. 

The  next  homoeopath  in  Orleans  county  was  Dr.  Gershom  Xelson  Brig- 
ham,  who  began  practice  in  Waitsfield  in  1850.  He  was  born  in  \"ermont  in 
1830,  studied  medicine  with  Dr.  Joslyn  in  Waitsfield,  afterward  with  Drs. 
Thayer  and  Palmer,  and  completed  his  medical  education  in  the  Vermont 
Medical  College  in  Castleton,  where  he  graduated  in  1845.  He  settled  in 
Warren,  and  while  practicing  there  was  led  to  investigate  homoeopathy.  He 
matriculated  at  the  College  of  Physicians  and  Surgeons  in  New  York  in  1849. 
He  learned  of  the  experiments  of  Teste  in  St.  Marguerite's  Hospital,  Paris, 
and  of  the  success  of  Dr.  Gray  and  the  other  homoeopathic  physicians  in  New 

G.  N.  Brigham,  Al.  D. 

York,  and  in  1850  he  too  began  the  practice  of  homoeopathy,  at  Waitsfield. 
He  was  one  of  six  who  founded  the  Vermont  State  Homoeopathic  Medical 
Society.  In  1855  he  removed  to  Montpelier  and  was  for  a  time  associated 
with  Dr.  Taplin.  In  1875  he  removed  to  Grand  Rapids,  Mich.,  but  he  died 
at  Roger's  Park,  Chicago,  June  21,  1886.  Drs.  H.  C.  Brigham  and  Willard 
I.  Brigham  are  sons  of  this  pioneer  of  homceopathy  in  Vermont. 

In  1875  there  were  the  following  homoeopathic  physicians  in  Washing- 
ton county:  Chas.  H.  Chamberlain,  Barre ;  John  O.  A.  Packer,  Marshfield; 
Gershom  N.  Brigham,  H.  C.  Brigham,  Montpelier ;  James  Haylitt,  More- 
town  ;  James  M.  Van  Deusen.  Waitsfield ;  Merrill  W.  Hill,  Waterbury.  In 
1870  Dr.  J.  Dorr  was  practicing  in  Cabot;  George  Colton  at  Barre;  A.  George 


at  Calais;  E.  J.  Foster  at  Montpelier;  S.  H.  Colburn  and  ^I.  F.  Styles  at 
Northfield;  Dr.  L.  C.  Moore  and  George  B.  Rowell  at  Troy.  In  i860  Dr. 
L.  H.  Thomas,  a  graduate  of  Castleton  Medical  College,  began  to  practice 
at  Waterbury.  In  1868  Dr.  George  Colton  graduated  from  the  New  York 
Homoeopathic  Medical  College  and  located  at  Waterbury. 

Dr.  Charles  H.  Chamberlain  graduated  from  the  Homoeopathic  Medical 
College  of  Pennsylvania  in  1863  ^nd  settled  at  Barre.  He  built  up  a  large 
practice,  and  remained  there  until  his  death,  February  2,  1881.  Dr.  H.  E. 
Parker  took  his  place. 

Dr.  James  M.  Van  Deusen  graduated  from  Castleton  Medical  College  in 
1849,  s"^  went  from  there  to  Warren.  He  became  dissatisfied  with  the  old 
school  and  adopted  homceopathy  and  began  its  practice  at  Warren.  In  July, 
1867,  he  removed  to  Waitsfield. 

In  1880  there  were  at  Lower  Cabot,  Dr.  John  Lance ;  Dr.  W.  B.  Mayo 
at  Northfield,  a  graduate  New  York  Homoeopathic  INIedical  College,  1877; 
Dr.  I.  H.  Fiske,  Roxbury :  Dr.  R.  W.  Lance,  South  Woodbury ;  Alerrill  W. 
Hill  and  C.  S.  Hoag,  Waterbury. 

In  1899  Dr.  Elroy  B.  Whittake